GSEB Solutions Class 9 Social Science Chapter 3 Movement Towards a New World

Gujarat Board GSEB Textbook Solutions Class 9 Social Science Chapter 3 Movement Towards a New World Textbook Questions and Answers, Additional Important Questions, Notes Pdf.

Movement Towards a New World Class 9 GSEB Solutions Social Science Chapter 3

Gujarat Board Class 9 Social Science Movement Towards a New WorldTextbook Questions and Answers

1. Answer the following Questions Pointwise:

Question 1.
Which circumstances caused the Great Depression (1923-32)?

  1. When the First World War came to an end the heads of most of the European nations had the belief that post-war problems come to an end. But it proved wrong.
  2. Suddenly a large number of shares began to be sold in the ‘wall street’ stock market. This shook the stock market heavily.
  3. This event is called the “Wall Street Crisis”
  4. This crisis shook the whole world and shattered the economy of various nations.
  5. It gave birth to the Great Global Depression of 1923-32.

Go through these Social Science Chapter 3 Movement Towards a New World GSEB Class 9 Notes to score well in your exam.

GSEB Solutions Class 9 Social Science Chapter 3 Movement Towards a New World

Question 2.
Discuss the factors responsible that caused the World War II?
The factors responsible for World War II were as under:

Fierce Nationalism:

  1. After the First World War, fierce nationalism developed in Germany, Japan and Italy.
  2. Germans could not forget the injustice done to them through the Treaty of Versailles.
  3. Adolf Hitler captured some provinces of Austria and Czechoslovakia, following his Nazi philosophy that Germans must get all those provinces where German were staying.
  4. Italy could not forget that it was ignored in the Treaty of Versailles.
  5. Under the leadership of the Fascist Party, Mussolini started fierce nationalism and adopted imperialist policies.
  6. Japan too gave into imperialism.
  7. Thus, world peace was in danger.


  • After the First World War, France always afraid of Germany.
  • It entered into treaty with Belgium, Poland, Romania, and Czechoslovakia.
  • Italy signed treaty with Czechoslovakia, Yogoslavia, Romania, Hungary, Greece, Turkey and Austria.
  • Russia signed treaty with Germany, Turkey, Lithuania and Iran.
  • Italy formed the “Rome-Berlin-Tokyo” Axis Group with support of Germany and Japan.
  • England and France formed another group with democratic values.
  • Germany signed a non-aggression treaty with Russia.
  • Thus, a whole atmosphere of fear spread in the whole world.
  • This factor too paved a way for Second World War.


  1. After the First World War, on one side the countries were making efforts to maintain peace whereas, on the other side they were competing for expansion and increasing army, airforce and naval strength.
  2. European nations were competing for ammunition.
  3. War weapons better than the other were being manufactured.
  4. Nations like Russia and Germany made military training compulsory for all.
  5. In the East, Japan increased its military force.
  6. Finally, when even England and France also tried to equip themselves with war weapons, the signal for World War II became quite clear.

Failure of the League of Nations:

  1. The League of Nations was formed after the First World War to establish and maintain world peace.
  2. The League could not become a supreme organization to control the world and with sovereignty over other, nations of the world.
  3. It also did not have its own army to make the nations follow its principles.
  4. Nations who were members of the League were neither interested in taking their problems to the League nor they were ready to accept judgment passed by it.
  5. Many nations left the League of Nations.
  6. Initially, Russia and Germany broke their ties with it.
  7. Later, Italy captured Abyssinia, Japan attacked Manchuria and Germany captured some provinces of Czechoslovakia.
  8. This way all these three nations namely Italy, Japan and Germany broke the principles of League and hence left it.
  9. The League could do nothing to stop these power-hungry countries and so the League of Nations failed.

Treaty of Versailles:

  1. Treaty of Versailles was formed after the First World War.
  2. Germany was found responsible for war and had to pay 6.5 billion pound as wrar fine.
  3. Its Ruhr province was taken away.
  4. Rhine river had to open for international sea route.
  5. This unfair and humiliating treaty was forcible imposed on Germany.
  6. The German dictator Adolf Hitler called the Treaty of Versailles as ‘a piece of- paper’ and announced to reject it.

Imperialistic ambition of Adolf Hitler:

  • Hitler laid the foundation of the Second World War.
  • He had a fierce nationalist and militarist nature.
  • He wished unity, stability and prosperity of Germany at any cost.
  • The first victim of his imperialism was Austria.
  • Along with German army, he entered Austria on 12th March 1939.
  • Thus, Hitler expanded Germany and led to the creation of a Grand German nation.

German attack on Poland-an immediate cause:

  1. The above-mentioned causes had made the whole world to sit on a heap on ammunitions.
  2. A small spark could blow up the whole world.
  3. This spark was German attack on the peaceful Poland on 1st September 1939.
  4. Thus, the world was Second broke out.
  5. This war spread in the entire world.

GSEB Solutions Class 9 Social Science Chapter 3 Movement Towards a New World

Question 3.
Write the effects of the World War II.
Second World War caused horrible destruction the world:

  1. All the nations involved incurred huge expenses.
  2. America had spent 350 million dollars and other nations had more than one thousand billion dollars.
  3. Property worth the same amount was destroyed.
  4. England lost its property worth 2000 crore and Germany unimaginable.
  5. These nations had given prime importance to the production of arms and ammunition, that too at the cost of other basic necessities.
  6. As a result, there arose a dire scarcity of things for basic needs.
  7. Production reduced, inflation increased and people struggled for livelihood. Several industries were also destroyed.
  8. People were ruined economically.
  9. This led to economic depression in the world.
  10. The world economy and politics changed greatly.

Communism in China:

  1. Many nations of the world were impressed by the way Russia had made a fast progress with its communist measures with the Bolshevik Revolution.
  2. China, was also impressed Japan had become weak after the Second World War.
  3. Under these circumstances, its control over China had receded.
  4. Taking advantage of this, Mao-Tse-Tung established communist rule in 1949.

The Beginning of Cold War – long term effects:

  1. After the World War II, the world again got divided into two groups.
  2. One group was led by superpower America and another by Russia.
  3. During the war, both these nations were friends.
  4. After the war differences of opinion between them went on increasing.
  5. Thus, the democratic America and the communist Russia became mutually opposite groups.
  6. Other small nations of the world joined these groups according to their convenience.
  7. These situations created the atmosphere of Cold War.

2. Answer the following Questions in briefly:

Question 1.
Why was the United Nations establish?
At the end of the First World War, the League of Nations was formed in order to establish world peace.

  • But the League of Nation was failed.
  • At the end of the Second World War, on 24th October 1945, the United Nations was established with the purpose of peace, security and co-existence in the world.

Question 2.
Explain what the Economic and Social Council, as an organ of the UN, means?
This Council is also called “ECOSOC”. The General Assembly appoints of its retiring members for 3 years. This Council tries to raise the standard of living of the nations of the world without any bias of religion, caste, region. This Council and its sub-councils work all over the world.

  1. The Economic and Social Council is the principal body for coordination, policy review, policy dialogue and recommendations on economic, social and environmental issues, as well as implementation of internationally agreed development goals.
  2. It serves as the central mechanism for activities of the UN system and its specialised agencies in the economic, social and environmental fields, supervising subsidiary and expert bodies.
  3. It has 54 Members, elected by the General Assembly for overlapping three-year terms. It is the United Nations central platform for reflection, debate, and innovative thinking on sustainable development.

GSEB Solutions Class 9 Social Science Chapter 3 Movement Towards a New World

Question 3.
Write short noes:

  1. The General Assembly of the UN.
  2. The Security Council of the UN.

1. The General Assembly of the UN is the biggest organ of the United Nations:

  1. It included the representatives of all members nations.
  2. Every nation can send maximum five representatives to this, but during election, only one vote of each country is counted.
  3. It can discuss, advice, suggest or recommend on any matter related to international relations.
  4. It accepts the budget presented by the Secretary-General every year and allocational relations allocates the expenses.
  5. It attempts to find solutions to the economic problems of the national human rights, disarmament or other international matters.
  6. Decisions are taken by 2/3 majority in general matters.

2. The Security Council of the UN is the most important organ of the United Nations:

  1. It has 15 members, i.e., five permanent and ten non-permanent. The five permanent members are: America, Britain, France, Russia and China.
  2. The security council has a presidency, which rotates, and changes, every month.
  3. This Council enjoys tremendous powers in order to maintain international peace and security.
  4. It solves the problems and disputes of the nations peacefully through negotiations and mediations.
  5. When any one permanent members does not vote in support of some important international matter, it cannot take a decision on that.
  6. This power of the five permanent members is called ‘Veto’ or ‘Right do deny’.

4. Answer in one sentence:

Question 1.
Which treaty was responsible for the World War II?
Treaty of Versailles was responsible for the World War II.

Question 2.
Who was the German dictator?
Adolf Hitler was the German dictator.

Question 3.
Name the Italian dictator.
Mussolini was the Italian dictator.

Question 4.
Give the immediate reason of the World War II.
German attacked on the peaceful Poland was the immediate reason of the World War II.

Question 5.
Where is the UN headquarter situated?
The headquarter of UN was situated in New York.

Question 6.
What is Cold War?
Situation, where the world got divided into two groups due to their ideology like Democratic-led by America and Communists led by Russia and there existed war like enmity, is known as Cold War.

GSEB Solutions Class 9 Social Science Chapter 3 Movement Towards a New World

Question 5.
Choose the correct option from those given below:

Question 1.
Who started Nazism in Germany?
A. Hitler
B. Mussolini
C. Lenin
D. None of them
A. Hitler

Question 2.
Who takes care of improving the health of the people of the world?

Question 3.
Choose the correct option from those given below.
A. Fascism began in Germany.
B. Mussolini was the German leader.
C. The symbol of the Nazi Party was “a bundle of stick and axe”.
D. Mussolini Established Fascism in Italy.
D. Mussolini Established Fascism in Italy.

Gujarat Board Class 9 Social Science Movement Towards a New World Additional Important Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions:

Question 1.
Which different groupism were formed in the World after the First World War?

  1. After the First World War, France always afraid of Germany,
  2. It entered into treaty with Belgium, Poland, Romania and Czechoslovakia.
  3. Italy signed treaty with Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Romania, Hungary, Greece, j Turkey and Austria.
  4. Russia signed treaty with Germany, Turkey, Lithuania and Iran.
  5. Italy formed the “Rome-Berlin-Tokyo” Axis Group with support of Germany and Japan.
  6. England and France formed another group with democratic values.
  7. Germany signed a non-aggression treaty j with Russia.

GSEB Solutions Class 9 Social Science Chapter 3 Movement Towards a New World

Question 2.
Which are the main organs of the UN?
The United Nations includes six organs:

  1. General Assembly
  2. Security Council
  3. Economic and Social Council
  4. Trusteeship Council
  5. International Court of Justice
  6. Secretariat

Question 3.
Explain the results of the Great Depression (1919-1932).
Effect of the Global Depression are as follows:

  1. Most of the nations of the world were affected due to the Great Depression.
  2. Even a superpower like Great Britain had to sacrifice its policy of keeping gold reserve against its currency.
  3. The policy, in turn, affected other nations of the world and international trade and industry.
  4. Prosperous nations like America also had to impose strict measures.
  5. Global trade was reduced to half.
  6. This ruined economies widespread unemployment, economically and politically frustrated nations wanted immediate recovery which became one of the reasons for World War II.

Question 4.
Why did the people lose confidence in democracy after the First World War?
After the First World War, people became economically poor. The immediate governments in power were unsuccessful in improving this condition. Thus, people lost trust in democracy.

Question 5.
Write a note on Fascism in Italy.
Fascism in Italy:

  1. At the end of the First World War, Italy incurred a massive expenditure of 12 billion dollars and lost 6 lakh soldiers.
  2. In spite of the huge loss and contribution that Italy gave in the war, the other winning nations took over the territories of their choice and ignored Italy.
  3. As a result, Italy got angry and frustrated.
  4. Italians felt very hurt and their nationalistic feelings were haken. They held their government responsible for not getting anything at the end of the war inspite of losing so much money and soldiers, Hence, they became eager to take revenge about this national humiliation.
  5. In order to free Italy from such a desperate situation, Benito Mussolini established the Fascist Party in Italy.
  6. He adopted ‘a bundle of sticks and axe’ which was in fact a symbol of supremacy of the Roman Emperors as the symbol of his party.
  7. The word ‘Fascism’ has evolved from Italian word ‘facege’ which means absolute control of the state on everything.
  8. Mussolini followed the principle of ‘One party, One leader’.
  9. He gave military training to his party volunteers. The volunteers wore black uniform. ‘
  10. After coming to power, Mussolini capture Rhodes and Dodecanese islands from Turkey.
  11. He also won Albania, Abyssinia and Fume port in 1924.
  12. After these victories, Mussolini broke all the ties with the League of Nations.
  13. It then signed a combined treaty with Germany and Tokyo. This treaty was a military alliance between the three countries and it was called Tripartite Pact or say ‘Roma-Berlin-Tokyo’Axis.

GSEB Solutions Class 9 Social Science Chapter 3 Movement Towards a New World

Question 6.
Write a note on Nazism in Germany.
Nazism in Germany:

  1. Germany had lost the First World War. So, it was economically ruined.
  2. To add to it, the Paris Peace Process forced Germany to sign the Treaty of Versailles. This ruined Germany further.
  3. Germans were extremely angry with this unjust treaty.
  4. In 1919, Adolf Hitler joined the National Socialist German Workers’ Party. This party came to be known as the Nazi Party.
  5. The philosophy of Nazi Party focused on nationalism and socialism.
  6. When German President Hindenbum died, Hitler assumed the pos.t and established his dictatorial rule.
  7. He adopted very severe and aggressive policies and led Germans towards narrow nationalism.
  8. German considered Hitler as their ‘Fuhrer’ (i.e. Saviour).
  9. Nazi soldiers wore blue military uniform and tied a red strip on their shoulders. They also wore a symbol of ‘Swastika’.
  10. Hitler was highly authoritative and militarist.
  11. He aimed at making Germany as a superpower in the world.
  12. Hitler made policies to massacre Jews, Gypsies and mentally challenged people on the name of purifying German race.
  13. The Nazi party killed several lacs European Jews by the end of the Second World War.
  14. This event in history is known as the ‘Holocaust’ (genocide).
  15. Hitler’s policies of expansion and militarism against neighbnouring countries and the policy of killing certain groups led to the Second World War and became and important reason for the same.

Question 7.
Write a note on Militarism in Japan.
Militarism in Japan:

  1. Japan had fought against Germany in the First World War.
  2. At the end of War, according to the Treaty of Versailles (1919), Japan got the benefit of the provinces of China.
  3. On the other hand, England and France distributed many regions of Germany between them.
  4. Japan was quite unhappy with this division.
  5. In a meeting held in 1921 -22 in Washington, Japan was forced to agree to have only 35% of naval force as compared to that of the English and American forces.
  6. Japan also had to vacate the islands of Sakhalin and Siberia.
  7. Japan was also not admitted as a permanent member of the League of Nations.
  8. The Japanese youth got too angry with these unjust divisions and decisions.
  9. At the same time, elections took place in Japan. The parties supporting militarism got the majority and hence came in power.
  10. The military nationalism of Japan adopted the policy of imperialism and expansion and the western countries could not stop them.
  11. Japan captured Manchuria- (in China) and established Manchukuo government in 1932.
  12. Japan also captured Korea, Mongolia, Shantung and some provinces of China.
  13. It also improved its relation with Germany and Italy.
  14. After Emperor Meiji, Emperor Hirohito also continued these Japanese activities in 1936.
  15. By 1933, Japan broke all its ties with the League of Nations.
  16. Japan’s policy of expansion and impenalism and its act of breaking all ties with League of Nations showed that Japan was ready for a war.

Question 8.
Write the events of the Second World War.
The Second World War started with German invasion of Poland on 1st September, 1939.

  1. On one side was the group Allied Nations lead by England and France.
  2. On the other side was the group of Axis Nations comprising of Germany. Italy and Japan.
  3. Some other factors with war-driven mentality had entered into this.
  4. Japan attacked the American Navy at Pearl Harbour.
  5. As a result, America gave up on its neutral stand and retaliated.
  6. It joined these Allied Nations, thus making it stronger.
  7. When the war was going on in full swing, America dropped Atombombs on the two Japanese cities, Horoshima and Nagasaki.
  8. As a result, one lakh twenty-four thousand Japanese citizens lost their lives and there was absolute destruction.
  9. Japan surrendered on 11th August, 1945 and World War II came to an end.

GSEB Solutions Class 9 Social Science Chapter 3 Movement Towards a New World

Question 9.
How was the United Nations formed?

  1. America’s efforts to establish United Nations had already begun from the time it joined the Second World War.
  2. The American President Roosevelt made four important announcements regarding freedom while giving his message to the American Congress, with the intention of human freedom, peace and security, Viz;
    • Freedom of speech
    • Freedom of worship
    • Freedom from want
    • Freedom from fear.
  3. President Roosevelt and the British Prime Minister Churchill prepared an eight-point agreement while they were on a ship in the Atlantic Ocean. So, it is known as Atlantic Agreement.
  4. The Agreement included matters like maintaining freedom and sovereignty of every nation, peace, security, social and economic welfare and disarmament.
  5. Then the foreign ministers of Britain, America, Russia (Soviet Union) and China met in Moscow, for world peace, which came to be known as Moscow Declaration.
  6. In November 1943, three superpowers held a conference in Tehran.
  7. The representatives of 50 nations prepared the agreement for the United Nations at Washington on September, 1944.
  8. On 24th October 1945, the 51 member nations declared the establishment of United Nations.
  9. India is also a part of it.
  10. Since then, 24th October is celebrated as United Nations Day all over the world.
  11. Presently, 193 nations are members of the United Nations and two observer states.

Question 10.
Write a note on Trusteeship Council.

  1. The Trusteeship Council Was established in 1945 by UN Charter td supervise the administration of it 11 Trust Territories.
  2. It also ensures that governments responsible for their administration look adequate steps to prepare them for the achievement of the charter goals.
  3. The Trusteeship Council examines and discusses the reports from the administering authority on political, economic, social and educational advancement of the peoples of Trust Territories.
  4. In 1994, the security council terminated the trusteeship council, but by amending its rules of procedure, it will now meet as and where occasion may require.

Question 11.
Write a note on the court of Justice.
The Court of Justice:

  1. Its headquarter is in the city of the Hague, Netherland.
  2. There are 15 judges in it, who are appointed for 9 years.
  3. It solves disputes between nations, give verdict on international disputes presented before it and gives legal advice.

Question 12.
Write a note on Secretariat.

  1. The office of the Secretary-General of the UN is called the Secretariat.
  2. The General Assembly appoints the Secretary-General for five years.
  3. Secretaries, administrators, assistants, translators and experts are also appointed to help the Secretary-General.
  4. The Secretariat is situated in New York.
  5. The United Nations has constantly been making efforts to establish world peace, world unity and to achieve the dream of universal brotherhood.

Question 13.
The world got divided into power groups after the Second World War. Explain the statement.

  1. After the Second World War, the countries of the world mainly had two kinds of ideologies, the Democratic and the Communist.
  2. America and Russia were the only two most powerful countries after the Second World War.
  3. America followed democracy while Russia followed communism.
  4. Countries that felt safe with America and democracy as a better form of governance joined America i.e., the Democratic group, similarly many others joined.
  5.  Thus, the world got divided into two power groups namely the Democratic and the Communist.

Question 14.
Write the difference between the Fascism and Nazism.
Difference between the Fascism and Nazism:

  • It existed in Italy.
  • Benito Mussolini was the head of it.
  • Its symbol was ‘a bundle of stick and axe’.
  • Fascists wore black uniform.


  • It existed in Germany.
  • Adolf Hitler was the head of it.
  • Its symbol was Swastik.
  • Nazis wore blue military uniform and tied a red strip on their shoulder.

GSEB Solutions Class 9 Social Science Chapter 3 Movement Towards a New World

Question 15.
Mussolini established the Fascist party in Italy a large number of workers rendered unemployed, strike’s and lockout.

  1. Italy was discontented after the First World War. Promises made by the allies were not fulfilled. They ignored Italy.
  2. There was acute shortage of essential commodities, steep rise in the prices,
  3. Mussolini promised to restore past glory of Italy.
  4. With a view to secure power and fulfill his promises to the people. Mussolini established the Fascist party in Italy.

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