Gujarat Board GSEB Textbook Solutions Class 10 Social Science Chapter 12 India: Minerals and Energy Resources Textbook Questions and Answers, Additional Important Questions, Notes Pdf.
India: Minerals and Energy Resources Class 10 GSEB Solutions Social Science Chapter 12
Gujarat Board Class 10 Social Science India: Minerals and Energy Resources Textbook Questions and Answers
I. Answer the following questions in detail.
Give a detail information about mineral oil.
Mineral oil or petroleum is found in the strata of stratified rocks which contain limestone, shale, etc. Mineral oil was formed when large quantities of animals and vegetation got buried under the earth containing sedimentary rocks and remained there for thousands of years.
Go through these Social Science Chapter 12 India: Minerals and Energy Resources Class 10 GSEB Notes to score well in your exam.
The heat and pressure of the interior portion of the earth converted the buried matter into viscous liquid containing hydrocarbons i.e., mineral oil. When tectonic movement took place in the earth, it pushed this liquid to the higher strata of earth. Some part of liquid also got pushed towards the seafloor.
State the remedies to preserve the minerals.
Remedies for preserving minerals:
- Use of proper technology: Wastage of minerals can be reduced by making use of proper and advanced technology for extracting minerals.
- Recycling: The scrap of minerals like iron, copper, aluminum and tin should be recycled and reused.
- Alternate use of minerals: Alternatives should be found out for minerals which exist in less quantity. For example, making use of solar energy instead of electricity, aluminum instead of copper, CNG instead of petro, etc.
- Use of Non-conventional means: The use of non-conventional sources like water, solar, wind, biogas, etc. should be increased.
- Sustainability: Attempts should be made to maintain the purity of the environment so that the coming generations can have a clean environment. Attempts should be made for pollution-free environment.
- Proper planning: Once the mineral reserves are properly estimated, planning should be done for utilizing them effectively and efficiently. This step is very important to preserve and enhance the minerals.
Write about electricity in brief.
Electricity was invented during the industrial revolution. Electricity is used for industrial purpose and that for domestic purposes. At industrial level, it is used to run the industries, machines, transportation, etc. At domestic level it is used for running various household gadgets like fans, televisions, radios, washing machines, refrigerators, tube lights, etc.
There are mainly three forms of electricity. They are:
- Thermal electricity,
- Hydroelectricity and
- Nuclear electricity.
Coal, mineral oil, natural gas, etc are conventional sources of producing electricity. Electricity produced through flowing water or rivers and dams is an example of hydroelectricity whereas electricity produced through atomic minerals is an example of nuclear electricity. Minerals are scarce in comparison to their usage. Hence, it is extremely important to switch to non-conventional sources of energy like solar energy, wind energy, tidal energy and geothermal energy to produce power.
II. Answer the following questions pointwise.
State the uses of limestone.
Limestone is a sedimentary rock which mainly consists of calcium carbonate.
- Limestone is largely used in producing – cement.
- It is also used for melting iron, in chemical industry, in making soda ash, soap, colours and chemicals, building construction, paper and for refining sugar.
- Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat and Tamil Nadu produce about 70% of India’s limestone.
- Chhattisgarh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Himachal Pradesh are other states producing limestone.
- Jamnagar, Kachchh, Amreli and Kheda districts are major limestone producing regions of Gujarat.
- Limestone is also produced in Banaskantha, Mahesana, Sabarkantha, Vadodara Panchmahal, Bharuch, Narmada, Surat, Bhavnagar and Rajkot.
- The rocks found in Jamnagar district contain about 97% lime.
State about Mica.
India ranks first in the world mica production. It is fire resistant and a bad conductor of electricity. So, it is used in making electrical goods such a electric motors, dynamo, radio, telephone, cars, steamers, etc. Producing regions: Bihar, Jharkhand, Andhra Pradesh and Rajasthan sire major producers of mica in India. Mica is also found in Karnataka, West Bengal and Tamil Nadu. India is a large producer of a type of mica called muscovite mica.
Mention the utility of Copper.
Copper is used since primitive times. In fact, it was the first metal to be used by man. Copper has quite good mixing property which makes it a very important metal. When copper is mixed with tin it becomes bell metal. Similarly when copper is mixed with zinc it becomes brass.
Uses: Copper is good conductor of electricity. So, it is used in making electric wires, telephone, radio, television, etc. It is also used in making coils of refrigerators and air conditioner. Copper is also used in insecticides, explosive, colored glass, coins and in printing.
Producing states: Copper is produced mainly by Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan. Copper is also found in Sikkim and Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand.
Write about the classification of minerals.
With respect to their use, minerals can be classified as metallic minerals, non-metallic minerals and minerals used as energy resources.
The classification of minerals can be understood from the following chart:
III. Answer the following questions in brief.
Modem age is known as mineral age. Why?
Requirements of primitive man were limited. He worked only to sustain his life. Man conquered the heights of evolution and technological development. Minerals play a very large role in the human progress. In stone age, man used stones for hunting but now he is traveling into space. The use of minerals has tremendously increased after the industrial revolution.
With time new inventions and developments keep on taking place in all the fields. Every day there is some or the other product coming up in the world. All these inventions and discoveries result in producing products to cater the demand. We use a lot of gadgets, vehicles, services, etc. compared to the past. All these involve use of minerals. Hence, we pan say that modem age is mineral age.
Why there is an increase in the usage of non-conventional energy today?
Coal and mineral oil are conventional but non-renewable sources of energy. This means they are available in limited quantity and will exhaust one day. To overcome this problem, the world started means to conserve them and find out alternative sources of energy. As a result man started making use of alternate sources such as wind energy, solar energy biogas, tidal energy and geothermal energy.
All these are renewable energy resources or say inexhaustible energy resources. Many countries have already started making use of these energy resources. US, Russia, France, Canada, Australia, Netherlands and Japan are advancing in this field effectively. In 1981, India formed ‘Commission for Additional Sources of Energy (CASE) for identifying and using renewable sources of energy. In Gujarat, Gujarat Energy Development Agency (GEDA) is working in this direction.
State the major places where iron is available.
Iron producing states: Karnataka produces maximum amount of iron ore in India. Iron is also obtained from Odisha, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh and Andhra Pradesh in good quantity. Iron ore is also found in Goa, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Kerala, Uttar Pradesh and Assam.
Which states in India produces manganese?
Odisha, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh and Goa are major manganese producing states. Manganese is also obtained from Andhra Pradesh, Jharkhand, Rajasthan and Gujarat.
IV. Select the correct option for the following questions and write answer:
A school in Palampur wants to show a bio-gas plant to its students of class 10th. Which nearest place will it select?
Some officers from Government of India want to visit Gujarat to survey the possibility of using the geothermal energy in future in Gujarat. Which place they should avoid?
Match the correct pairs and find the answer:
(a) (a – 1), (b – 3), (c – 2), (d – 4)
(b) (a – 3), (a – 4), (c – 1), (d – 2)
(c) (a – 2), (a – 2), (c – 4), (d – 3)
(d) (a – 4), (b – 1), (c – 3), (d – 2)
(b) (a – 3), (a – 4), (c – 1), (d – 2)
Gujarat Board Class 10 Social Science India: Minerals and Energy Resources Additional Important Questions and Answers
I. Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs)
Various stages of human development are shown below. Select the correct arrangement.
(1) Copper age
(2) Iron age
(3) Stone age
(4) Bronze agev
(5) Atomic age
(a) 3, 1, 4, 2, 5
(b) 3, 4, 2, 1, 5
(c) 3, 5, 2, 4, 1
(d) 4, 2, 5, 3, 1 2.
(a) 3, 1, 4, 2, 5
Which of the following is not included in the minerals obtained from metamorphic rocks?
Which of the following are non-metallic minerals?
(a) Mica, Gypsum, Sulphur, Diamond
(b) Coal, Uranium, Thorium, Mineral oil
(c) Chromium, Manganese, Tungsten
(d) Magnesium, Bauxite, Titanium.
(a) Mica, Gypsum, Sulphur, Diamond
Which of the following pairs is not correct?
(a) Non-metallic mineral: Asbestos
(b) Metallic mineral: Natural gas
(c) Light metallic mineral: Bauxite
(d) Precious metallic mineral: Platinum
(b) Metallic mineral: Natural gas
Precious metallic minerals: Gold, Silver, Non-metallic minerals: ………………
(a) Chromium, Tungsten
(b) Magnesium, Titanium
(c) Fluorspar, Limestone
(d) Zinc, Nickel
(c) Fluorspar, Limestone
Minerals and their states are shown below. What can be at the place of question mark?
(1) Iron – Karnataka
(2) Manganese – Odisha
(3) Copper – Jharkhand
(c) Himachal Pradesh
Which of the following statements is correct for Bauxite?
(a) Bauxite was found at Les Baux for the first time in 1921 in France,
(b) Bauxite is very light in weight, strong, durable, good conductor of electricity, rust-free and easily ductile.
(c) It is used in making utensils.
(d) All of the above
(d) All of the above
Identify main manganese producing states.
(a) Odisha, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Goa
(b) Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Andhra Pradesh
(c) Odisha , Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra, Jharkhand, Gujarat
(d) Bihar, Jharkhand, Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan, Karnataka
(a) Odisha, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Goa
Identify me: Who am I?
(1) I am known as fire resistant and a bad conductor of electricity.
(2) I am used in making of aeroplane,
What is the similarity among copper, bauxite and lead?
(a) All are light metallic minerals.
(b) All are heavy metallic minerals.
(c) All are exported by India.
(d) All are used to make electric wires.
(d) All are used to make electric wires.
II. Very Short Answer Type Questions
What has played a large role in the human progress?
Mineral resources have played a large role in the human progress.
In how many divisions in the human evolution process divided?
The human evolution process is divided into following division:
- Stone age
- Bronze age
- Iron age
- Atomic age
By which other name is modem age known as?
The modern age is also known as atomic age.
What is considered to be the backbone of economic development of any nation?
Minerals are considered to be the backbone of economic development of any nation.
Give the examples of solid, liquid and gaseous minerals.
- Solid minerals: Iron, manganese, silver, etc.
- Liquid minerals: Mercury, petroleum, etc.
Gaseous minerals: Natural gas.
On which things if the availability of type of minerals in the interior of the earth depend upon?
The type of minerals that is available from the interior of the earth depends on how the crust of the earth originated.
Mention the uses of iron.
Iron is used in making from a small pin to massive machines, motorcars, trucks, ships, railway, bridges, buildings and weapons.
How is cast iron obtained?
By removing carbon from pig iron, we get cast iron.
Mention the types of iron ore found in India.
Mention the main use of manganese.
Manganese is mainly used in making steel from iron.
Which characteristics do the rails and rods have when manganese is mixed with steel?
When manganese is mixed with steel, the rails and rods become more flexible and strong.
How are bell metal and brass made?
When tin is mixed with copper, we get bell metal. When zinc is mixed with copper, we get brass.
Which is the largest mica producing country in the world?
India is the largest mica producing country in the world.
Mention the characteristics and uses of mica.
Mica is fire resistance and bad conductor of electricity. So it is used in making of Electric motors, Dynamo, Radio, Telephone, Motorcars, Aeroplanes etc.
Which type of mica is found in India in large quantity?
Muscovite type of mica is found in India in large quantity.
What is the ore of lead called?
Lead is called Galena
Mention the characteristics of lead.
The lead is soft and heavy is weight.
Mention the lime content in the rocks found in Jamnagar district.
The rocks in Jamnagar district contains about 97% lime content.
What keeps the industries and the economy throbbing?
Energy resources keep the industries and the economy throbbing.
Which minerals are energy resources?
Coal, mineral oil, natural gas and atomic minerals are energy resources.
Give examples of non-conventional energy resources.
Hydroenergy, wind energy, solar energy, bio-gas, geothermal energy and tidal energy are non-conventional energy resources.
Due to which invention, the use of coal increased?
Due to the invention of steam engine, the use of coal increased.
Which by-products are obtained from coal?
By products like coal-tar, ammonia gas, benzoyl and crude oil are obtained from coal.
From which type of rocks do we get coal?
We got coal from stratified rocks.
From which type of rocks mineral oil is found?
Mineral oil is found from stratified/sedimentary rocks containing limestone, shale etc.
When and where was the first oil-well was dug in India?
The first oil well was dug in Assam in 1866 AD.
Where is the world’s largest oil refinery located?
The world’s largest oil refinery is located in Jamnagar in Gujarat (Reliance).
Which organization was established for the development of non-conventional energy resources? When?
Commission for Additional Sources of Energy (CASE) was established in 1981 AD for the development of non-conventional energy resources in India.
Which organization of Gujarat is working for the development of non- conventional energy resources?
Gujarat Energy Development Agency (GEDA) is working for the development of non-conventional energy resources in Gujarat.
What is considered to be the main source of energy on the earth?
Sun is considered to be the main sources of energy on the earth.
Which state gets maximum solar energy in India?
Gujarat gets maximum solar energy in India.
Where has GEDA established a solar cold storage with a capacity of 10 tonnes?
GEDA has established a solar cold storage with a capacity of 10 tonnes near Chhani (Vadodara).
Where has a solar energy plant been installed for desalination of saline ocean water?
A solar energy plant has been installed at Madhopur near Bhuj in Gujarat. This plant converts saline ocean water into drinking water.
At what rank India is in the world to produce energy through wind energy?
India is the fifth country in the world to produce energy through wind energy.
Where are wind farms located in Gujarat?
In Gujarat, wind farms are located at Lamba village near Jamnagar, Sea- coast near Mandavi in Kutch.
Where do we find wind mills in Gujarat to generate electricity?
We find wind mills to generate electricity in Gujarat at Devbhoomi Drawika, Jamnagar, Rajkot, Porbandar etc, districts.
Which two energy resources can change the traditional lifestyle of villages of India?
Solar energy and Bio-gas can change the traditional lifestyle of villages of India.
Name the states which rank first and second in the production of biogas in India.
Uttar Pradesh ranks first and Gujarat ranks second in the production of biogas in India.
Where has the largest bio-gas plant been installed which runs on collective basis?
The largest biogas plant has been installed at Methan near Siddhpur in Gujarat which runs on collective basis.
Which country started the project to generate electricity with the help of tides and ebbs? When?
France started the project to generate electricity with the help of tides and ebbs in 1910 AD.
III. Short Answer Type Questions
Iron is one of the most important minerals of the world. Give reason.
Iron is the base mineral or say base metal for industrial development of modern world. It is one of the highest used minerals in the world. It is used in making things as small as small pins to gigantic machines, cars, trucks, ships, railway, bridges, buildings and weapons. Iron is cheap, strong as well as durable and is available in almost all the countries. Moreover, it can easily get mixed with other minerals to produce new minerals. Owing to its abundant availability, extremely wide use and ease of getting mixed with other minerals it is considered as one of the most important mineral.
Write the short notes on copper.
Copper is used since primitive times. In fact it was the first metal to be used by man. It has quite good mixing property which makes it a very important metal. When copper is mixed with tin it becomes bell metal. Similarly, when copper is mixed with zinc is become brass.
Uses: Copper is good conductor of electricity. So, it is used in making electric wires, telephones, radio, television, etc. It is also used in making coils of refrigerator and air conditioners. It is also used in insecticides, explosive, colored glass, coins and in printing.
Producing states: Copper is produced mainly by Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan. It is also found in Sikkim and Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand.
Write a short note on lead.
Lead is obtained from its ore called galena. It is soft but heavy in weight. It is used to make alloys, electric wires, colour, weapons, glass, rubber and storage battery. India produces lead in quite a large quantity. Even then, India is unable to meet our demands. Hence, India imports lead.
Producing regions: Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu are major producers of lead. Lead is also found in West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Odisha, Maharashtra, Meghalaya and Sikkim.
How can we classify energy resources?
Energy resources can be classified as conventional (commercial) and non- conventional (non-commercial) energy resources.
Conventional energy: Coal, mineral oil, natural gas and atomic mineral are considered as conventional or non-renewable or even commercial energy resources. Electricity is generated through these resources. Peat coal, firewood, dung, etc. are also non-commercial energy resources. Non-conventional energy: Hydro-energy, wind energy, solar energy, bio-gas, geothermal energy and tidal energy are non-conventional or renewable or non-commercial energy resources.
How was coal formed? State the uses of coal.
Before crores of years, earth was covered with thick vegetation. The tectonic movements in the earth buried the vegetation in the interior of the earth. Over thousands of years due to the heat and pressure in the interior portion of the earth, the trees containing carbon contents and some animals underwent gradual combustion.
This transformed the vegetation into coal. It is used to run trains and steamers. It is also used to produce electricity in thermal power plants and as source of fuel for cooking. It is used to produce coal-tar, ammonia gas, benzoyl and crude oil.
How is mineral oil (petroleum) formed?
Mineral oil or petroleum is found in the strate of stratified rocks which contain limestone, shale, etc. Mineral oil was formed when large quantities of animals and vegetation got buried under the earth containing sedimentary rocks and remained there for thousands of years. The heat and pressure of the interior portion of the earth converted the buried matter into viscous liquid containing hydrocarbons i.e., mineral oil. When tectonic movement took place in the earth, it pushed this liquid to the higher strata of earth. Some part of liquid also got pushed towards the sea floor.
When was oil first found in India and in Gujarat? Today„ how are the oil zones divided?
The first oil well of India was dug in 1766 in Assam. In Gujarat, oil was first found at Lunej in Kheda district in 1958. The oil fields of India from where oil is extracted are divided into five zones. They are:
- Bombay High
- Eastern Coast and
- Oil fields of Rajasthan.
Write a short note on natural gas.
Natural gas is obtained from mineral oil. It is cheaper form of energy. Moreover, it does not cause pollution. It is compressed as CNG i.e., Compressed Natural Gas and used as domestic fuel and to run vehicles like cars. It is found in Khambhat basin, Kaveri basin and Jaisalmer (Rajasthan). Ankleshwar of Gujarat is considered to be the largest natural gas reserve.
Write a short note on solar energy.
Solar energy: Sun is the main source of energy on the earth. It is visible during most of the days of the year. The biosphere on the earth exists due to solar energy. Man has learnt to tap solar energy and use it in various forms. India has also progressed well in solar energy technology. India makes use of solar cookers for cooking, solar heater for heating the water and solar panels to generate electricity.
Solar energy in Gujarat: Gujarat Energy Development Agency (GEDA) has established a solar cold storage near Chhani (Vadodara) having capacity of 10 tonnes. A solar energy plant has been installed at Madhopur near Bhuj in Gujarat for desalination of saline ocean water. India including Gujarat makes use of solar panels to run street lights in villages that do not have electricity. The solar panels are also used to irrigate the farms and for running television.
Write a short note on wind energy.
The sun warms the different parts of earth differently. This creates low pressure at some places and high at others. Wind is formed due to this pressure difference. India makes use of wind to run the wind mills and produce energy. India has installed several wind mills at the sea coasts and in open spaces. Today, India has become fifth country in the world to produce energy through wind. Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Odisha, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh and Kerala produce wind energy.
In Gujarat, wind energy is produced through wind farms at Lambha village near Jamnagar and at the sea coast near Mahdvi in Kachchh. Electricity is generated at the windmills located at Devbhumi Dwarka, Jamnagar, Rajkot and Porbandar.
Write a short note on geothermal energy.
The heat (thermal) energy generated and stored naturally in the interior of earth is called geothermal energy. This energy comes to the surface of the earth in the form of geysers or hot springs. The heat in the interior of the earth heats the water stored in the earth. Vapour rises from this hot water and exerts upwards pressure on the groundwater.
The vapour is then released out of the earth in the form of steam. This is called geothermal energy. In Gujarat, hot water springs are located at Lasundra, Unai, Tuva and at Tulsishyam. There are possibilities of getting geothermal energy from them.
Write in brief about tidal energy.
Gravitational force exerted by the sun and the moon causes tides and ebbs in the oceAnswer: The force of tides and ebbs can be utilize to produce tidal energy. A turbine is connected to generate electricity from these tides. In 1910, France was the first country to get electricity with the help of tides and ebbs. India has a huge coastline and so India has a good potential to generate tidal energy. Gujarat has started a project in the Gulf of Kachchh and the Gulf of Khambhat to produce tidal energy.
What is preservation of minerals? Why is it needed?
Minerals are the base for the existence and development of human use of minerals. Today, every nation wants to increase its export as a part of economic development. For this it keeps on extracting more and more minerals from the earth to produce goods and then export them to earn foreign exchange. If this is not stopped or planned well, our mineral resources will soon end.
State difference between commercial and non-commercial energy resource.
|Commercial energy resource||Non-commercial Energy resource|
|1. When an energy resource is used for commercial purposes such as in industries or transportation, it is called commercial.||When an energy resource is used for domestic purposes such as in gas for cooking food, burning wood for heating water, etc. then it is called non-commercial.|
|2. Commercial energy is costlier.||This energy is comparatively cheaper.|
|3. It causes more pollution.||It either does not cause pollution or cause very less pollution.|
|Example: Coal, petroleum natural gas are of example.||Example: Cow-dung, charcoal, agriculture waste, etc.|
State difference between conventional and non-conventional energy resource.
|Conventional source of energy||Non-commercial sources of energy|
|The sources of energy which once exhausted cannot be produced again are called conventional sources of energy.||The sources of energy which can be produced and are not inexhaustible are called non-conventional sources of conventional sources of energy.|
|These sources cause pollution.||These sources do not cause pollution.|
|These sources are exhaustible.||These sources are inexhaustible.|
|Coal, mineral oil, natural gas are examples of conventional sources of energy.||Solar energy, wind energy, hydroelectricity etc. are examples of non- conventional sources of energy.|
State difference between natural gas and biogas.
|Natural gas is a naturally occurring gas containing hydrocarbons.||Biogas is obtained from plant and animal waste, dead animals, dried leave etc.|
|It is available in large quantities.||It is available in smaller quantities.|
|It is used as a source of power and energy in urban areas.||It is mainly used in rural areas as a! source of energy for cooking food.|
|CNG and LPG are its two main types.||It does not has any sub-type.|
IV. Long Answer Type Questions
What is a mineral? Write a brief note on minerals.
The matter formed due to inorganic process and which contains a specific chemical composition is called a mineral. Minerals can be also defined as the solid, liquid or gaseous matter which is formed due to specific abiotic process within the rocks in the interior of the earth, has a certain chemical composition, homogeneous constitution and specific atomic structure. Thus, minerals are formed due to abiotic processes which took place in the interior of the earth since the infinite time. It exists in all the three physical forms i.e, solid, liquid and gaseous.
For example, iron, manganese, gold, silver, etc. are solid minerals. Mercury, petroleum, etc. are liquid minerals whereas natural gas is a gaseous mineral. From usage point of view, minerals can be classified as metallic minerals, non-metallic minerals and energy resource minerals. The type of mineral that can be found in the earth depends on how the crust of the earth originated. For example, metallic minerals like iron, copper, zinc, gold, silver, etc. are found in igneous rocks. Minerals used in producing energy and minerals such as diamonds are found in metamorphic rocks.
Write a note on iron. State is uses.
Iron is the base mineral or say base metal for industrial development of modem world. It is one of the highest used mineral in the world. It is used in making things as small as pins to gigantic machines, cars, trucks, ships railway, bridges, buildings and weapons. Iron is cheap, strong as well as durable and is available in almost all the countries.
One of the fine properties of iron is that it can mix with other minerals easily and give new useful minerals. For example, it easily gets mixed with carbon to produce steel. Owing to its abundant availability, extremely wide use and ease of getting mixed with other minerals, it is considered as an important mineral. Iron is found in impure on form on the earth. So, it is mixed with coke and lime and heated in large furnaces for refining. The pure iron thus obtained is known as pig iron. Four types of iron ore found in India, They are:
- Limonite and
Iron producing states: Karnataka produces maximum amount of iron ore in India. It is also obtained from Odisha, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh and Andhra Pradesh in good quantity. Its ore is also found in Goa, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Kerala, Uttar Pradesh and Assam. Iron is one of the highest used mineral in the world. It is used in the making things as small as small pins to gigantic machines, cars, trucks, ships, railway, bridges, buildings and weapons. It is also used to make steel, manganese steel, etc.
Write a note on manganese.
Manganese is an important mineral for iron and steel industry.
Uses: It is mainly used to make steel from iron. Manganese is also used in chemical industry for making bleaching powder, insecticides, cells of dry battery and tiles. It is also useful in leather industry, glass industry, matchbox industry, photography, china-clay utensils and colored bricks. Manganese is mixed with iron rails to make them more flexible and strong. Manganese-steel is very strong steel which is used in machines to break rocks and also in grinding machines.
Producing states: Odisha, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh and Goa are major manganese producing states. Manganese is also obtained from Andhra Pradesh, Jharkhand, Rajasthan and Gujarat.
Write a note on bauxite.
The ore from which aluminum is obtained is called bauxite. It is extract from earth and is purified to obtain aluminum. It was first found at Les Baux in 1921 in France and so it got the name Bauxite.
Properties and uses: Bauxite is very light in weight yet very strong and durable. It is a good conductor of electricity is rust-free and is easily ductile. These properties make it a very useful metal. It is widely used in the manufacturing household utensils, electrical wires and gadgets, colour and in shipbuilding.
Producing regions: Bauxite is obtained from Odisha, Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra, Jharkhand and Gujarat. It is found in the Deccan Traps which is a geological structure in the Deccan Plateau. It is found in abundance in Ranchi, Jharkhand. In Gujarat it is found in Jamnagar, Bhavnagar, Junagadh, Amreli, Surat and Sabarkantha districts.
Sustainable use of energy is the only way to a bright future.
With time new inventions and developments keep on taking place in all the fields. This demands extraction and use of minerals: The world has become a global village. Every nation wants to grow it economy. So, the nations keep researching about the new products, manufacture them and export to earn foreign exchange. All these processes also put a very high stress on extraction of minerals.
Minerals and energy resources are available in limited quantity whereas we are increasing their use day by day. The future generations will not be able to use the mineral resources and the future of the world may be dark. Moreover, excessive use of these resources has polluted the environment to a very large extent and has deteriorated its quality. Hence, it is highly desirable to make sustainable use of energy to save the future of coming generations.
Write a short note on coal as an energy resource.
Coal: Man has been using coal as an energy resource since ancient times.
Formation: Before crores of years, earth was covered with thick vegetation. The tectonic movements of the earth buried the vegetation in the interior of the earth. Over thousands of years due to the heat and pressure of the interior portion of the earth, the trees containing carbon contents and some animals underwent gradual combustion. This transformed the vegetation into coal.
This period existed before 25 crore years and it was known as carboniferous period. Coal was formed during this period. Coal is found in regions of stratified rocks. On the basis of carbon content, coal can be divided into four types. They are:
- Anthracite coal
- Bituminous coal
- Lignite coal and
- Peat coal.
Uses: Use of coal increased tremendously after the invention of steam engine and after the industrial revolution. Means of transportation like railway and steamer increased and were now easy to use. With the invention of electricity, coal tar ammonia gas benzoyl and crude oil are my product of coal.
Coal reserve in India: Jharkhand, Odisha, West Bengal, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh and Jammu- Kashmir are major coal-producing regions of India. It is also produced in Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Assam and Gujarat. In Gujarat, coalfields are located in Kachchh, Bharuch, Mehsana, Bhavnagar and Surat. Lignite coal is found in these regions.
What is biogas? How is it formed? State few important locations that produce biogas in India as well as Gujarat.
The gas produced by decomposition of agriculture waste, molasses (remains of sugarcane), other vegetation, dung and human excreta is called biogas. It mainly contains methane, methane is an inflammable gas which is primarily used for cooking. After extracting biogas, the material that remains behind in the biogas pit is used as an excellent natural fertilizer. We can keep our villages clean by producing biogas and also obtain natural fertilizer. In India, Uttar Pradesh stands first in biogas production, Gujarat ranks second.
The largest biogas plant of Gujarat has been installed at Methan village near Siddhpur in Patan district. This plant runs with co-operation of villagers. Other bio-gas plants in operation are located at Rudratal of Daskroi taluka of Ahmedabad and at Dantiwada in Banaskantha districts. People have also started setting up plants that are operated individually or collectively.
V. Fill in the blanks
1. Modem age is also called ………………
2. US and Russia have become superpowers due to proper use of ………………..
3. The metal formation is due to the result of continuous …………….. process.
4. Iron, copper, gold, silver etc. are obtained from ………………. rocks.
5. The minerals used for energy resources are obtained from ……………….. rocks.
1. Atomic age,
VI. Write the following statements are true or false.
1. Natural gas is considered to be the pollution-free source of energy.
2. Bauxite is an ore of metal uranium.
3. Natural gas is associated with mineral oil.
4. Mica is considered to be the good conductor of electricity.
5. Hot water springs are located at Unai in Gujarat.
VII. Match the following
Which state produces maximum iron in India?
By what name modem age is known?
Which energy resource is known as a non-renewable energy resource?
By which invention usage of coal increased?
VIII. Identify me
1. Usage of coal is increasing by my invention.
2. The biosphere on the earth throbs due to me.
3. I provides heat energy on the surface of the Earth,
4. I keep the industries of the nation and the economy throbbing.
5. I am considered as main source of energy on the Earth,
1. Steam engine
2. Solar energy
4. Minerals of energy resource