Our Revision Notes for GSEB Class 10 Social Science Notes Chapter 12 India: Minerals and Energy Resources summarises the key points of a chapter and useful resource to prepare effectively for the upcoming board exams.
India: Minerals and Energy Resources Class 10 GSEB Notes Social Science Chapter 12
India: Minerals and Energy Resources Class 10 GSEB Notes
→ Mineral is natural resource.
→ The human evolution process is divided into various ages, such as stone age, bronze age, iron age and modem age i.e. atomic age.
→ Minerals are considered to be the backbone of economic development of any nation.
→ The matter which is formed due to inorganic process and has a certain chemical composition is called a mineral.
→ The solid, liquid, or gaseous matter, which is formed due to abiotic process within the rocks in the interior of the earth, has a certain chemical composition and homogeneous constitution and specific atomic structure is called mineral.
→ Iron, manganese, gold, silver, etc. are solid minerals. Mercury, petroleum etc. are liquid minerals and natural gas are included as gaseous minerals.
→ Iron is considered to be the base of industrial development of modem world. It is used widely in the making of small pins to large machines, cars, trucks, ships, railway, bridges, buildings and weapons.
→ Iron is found in impure condition so it is mixed with cock and lime and heated in large furnaces for refining. The pure iron thus obtained is known as Pig iron.
There are four types of iron ore found in India:
- Limonite and
→ Manganese is an important mineral for iron and steel industry. It is mainly used to make steel from iron.
→ It is also used are in chemical industry as bleaching powder, insecticides, dry battery cells and tiles.
→ It is also useful in leather industry, glass industry, matchbox industry, photography, china clay utensils and coloured bricks. Steel is used in the machines to break rocks and also in grinding machines.
→ Copper is used since primitive times. This was the first mineral used by man. It is more important because of its mixing property. It is mostly used in the making of electric equipment, telephone, radio, television, refrigerator and air conditioners. It is good conductor of electricity. It is also used in insecticides, explosive, coloured glass, coins and in printing.
→ Bauxite is an aluminium ore. It was found for the first time at Les Baux in 1921 in France. Ailuminium is obtained from bauxite. It is useful due to its special properties. It is very light in Weight, strong, durable, good conductor of electricity, rust-free and easily ductile. It is widely used in the making of domestic utensils, electrical gadgets, coloures and in ship-building.
→ India ranks first in the world in mica production. It is fire resistant and a bad conductor of electricity, so it is used in making electrical goods, such as electric motors, dynamo, radio, telephone, cars, steamers, etc.
→ The lead ore is called galena. It is soft and heavy in weight. It is used to make alloys, electric . wires, colour, weapons, glass, rubber and storage battery.
→ Limestone is used in large quantity in the production of cement. Besides that it is also used for iron melting, chemical industry, soda ash, soap, colour-chemicals, building construction, paper and in sugar refining.
→ Energy resources hold an important place in the economic development of any nation. These minerals include coal, mineral oil, natural gas and atomic minerals.
→ Energy resources can be classified in different ways, such as conventional and non-conventional energy resources, commercial and non-commercial energy resources.
→ The period before about 25 crore years ago was known as carboniferous period. During this time, the gradual combustion of trees took place and it led to-the formation of coal.
→ Usage of coal increased with the invention of steam engine. Some by products are available from coal like coal-tar, ammonia gas, benzoyl and crude oil. It is available from stratified rocks.
→ On the basis of carbon, coal can be divided in to four types
- Anthracite coal
- Bituminous coal
- Lignite coal and
- Peat coal.
→ Mineral oil is found in the stratified rocks strata containing limestone, shale, etc.
→ In ancient times, animals and vegetation, were buried in the interior of the earth and were converted into hydro-carbons. It was in almost liquid form. Some of them went towards the seafloor while some strata came up from the interior.
→ In 1866, first oil well was dug in Assam to find out oil. After this success, other minerals reserves were found out in India.
→ The oil fields of India are divided into five zones
- Bombay High
- Eastern Coast
→ In India, the refineries are located at Guwahati, Barauni, Koy$ili, Kochi, Chennai, Mathura, Kolkata and Haldia. The largest oil refinery of the world is located at Jamnagar in Gujarat.
→ Natural gas is associated with mineral oil, which is separated from it. It is cheaper and considered to be a non-pollutant source of energy.
→ US, Russia, France, Canada, Australia, Netherlands and Japan are advancing in this field effectively. In 1981, a Commission for Additional Sources of Energy was established in India. Gujarat Energy Development Agency is works in this direction.
→ Sun is considered to be the main source of energy on the earth. Gujarat state gets maximum solar energy in India.
→ Gujarat Energy Development Agency (GEDA) has established a solar cold storage near Chhani Vadodara with a capacity of 10 tonnes. Today, solar panels are fixed to provide street lights in those villages without electricity, for irrigation to the farms and for television.
→ A solar energy plant has been installed at Madhopur near Bhuj in Gujarat for desalination of saline ocean water. Today use of equipment working on solar energy is on increase in the country today.
→ Winds are formed due to the high bnd low pressure pockets formed in the atmosphere. In India, wind energy is obtained through the windmills at the sea coasts and in open space. India has become the fifth country in the world to produce energy through wind.
→ Bio-Gas is an inflammable gas. Useless agriculture materials, molasses, other vegetation, dung and human excreta are used to produce bio-gas. The methane gas is released after these material get decomposed.
→ Solar energy and bio-gas can change the traditional trends of villages of India. Villages can be cleaner and the scarcity of their domestic energy can be removed. .
→ Geothermal energy from the interior of the earth comes to the surface of the earth in the form of geysers or hot springs.
→ Due to heat, these are transformed into vapour. This exerts upward pressure on the ground water which releases energy. By using this energy, the geothermal energy is obtained.
→ The process of tides and ebbs continues constantly in all oceans on the earth’s surface due to the gravitational force exerted by the moon. Man utilized this power of water in generating electricity. Tidal waters have more powers.
→ In 1910, France started this project to electricity with the help of tides and ebbs. In India, this project has been started in the Gulf of Katchchh and the Gulf of Khambat.
→ Mineral are essential for the existence and development of human beings. Hence, it is necessary to the efficient and well planned use of minerals is the preservation of minerals.
→ Remedies for mineral preservation are give below:
- Use of proper technology
- Alternate option should be found out for those minerals which are found in less quantity.
- The nonconventional sources should be used increasingly.
- Attempts should be made for pollution-free environment.
- After the reserves of the minerals is calculated, it can be used for a long period by planning it properly.
India: Minerals and Energy Resources Class 10 GSEB Notes Important Terms
• Mineral : The matter which is formed due to inorganic process and has a certain chemical composition is called a mineral.
• Iron ore: The impurity of lime, Magnesium, Phosphorus, Silica and Copper found in Iron is called Iron ore.
• Pig iron: Iron is found in impure condition so it is mixed with coke and lime and heated in large furnaces for refining. The pure iron thus obtained is known as pig iron.
• Bauxite: The ore of aluminium is known as bauxite.
• Natural Gas: Natural gas is associated with mineral oil. It is separated from it. It is cheaper and considered to be a non-pollutant source of energy.
• Energy: The capacity of substance or an object doing any work is called energy.
• Thermal: The electricity produced by coal, diesel and natural gas is called thermal energy.
• Atomic energy: The energy that is created by splitting apart the nuclei of atoms. It is the source of nuclear power, which uses sustained nuclear fission to generate heat and electricity.
• Wind energy: Winds are formed due to the high and low pressure pockets formed in the atmosphere wind energy is obtained through the wind mills. It is called wind energy.
• Geothermal energy: The thermal energy from the Earth comes to the surface in the form of vapour, that exerts pressure and by controlling this vapour, the energy obtained is called Geothermal energy.
• Mineral preservation: The efficient and well planned use of minerals is the preservation of minerals.