Gujarat Board GSEB Textbook Solutions Class 9 Social Science Chapter 14 India: Location Geological Structure and Physiography-II Textbook Questions and Answers, Additional Important Questions, Notes Pdf.
India: Location Geological Structure and Physiography-II Class 9 GSEB Solutions Social Science Chapter 14
Gujarat Board Class 9 Social Science India: Location Geological Structure and Physiography-II Textbook Questions and Answers
1. Write a short answer for the following questions.
Which passes are located in the Himalayan system?
Jelep La, Nathu La, Shipki La.
What is Regolith?
- Soil is the result of denudation of rocks. The rock surface is eroded due to factors like temperature, rain, snow, air, vegetation and insects in result it turns into powdery form. Thus it forms the land layer.
- In this land layer there are gravels, smaller stones, pebbles, soil particles etc., which are known as ‘Regolith’. It contains only mineral contents.
- The biotic matter, air and water are mixed with it. Finally, soil is formed out of this mixture.
Go through these Social Science Chapter 14 India: Location Geological Structure and Physiography 2 GSEB Class 9 Notes to score well in your exam.
Which are the major types of rocks? Which are they?
Various types of rocks are formed due to different processes. Rocks can be divided into three main categories on the basis of their formation. These are:
- Igneous rocks
- Stratified Rocks
- Metamorphic Rocks.
State the soil formation process.
- Soil is the result of denudation of rocks.
- The rock surface is eroded due to factors like temperature, rain, snow, air, vegetation and insects and it turns into powdery form. Thus, it forms the land layer.
- In this land layer, there are gravels, smaller stones, pebbles, soil particles etc. which are known as ‘Regolith’.
- It contains only mineral contents. Then the biotic matter, air and water are mixed with it. Finally, soil is formed out of it.
- The process of soil formation is a long term process.
2. Explain the following terms:
- Deposition: The moving factors of the earth like river, wind, rain etc. leave the material at any place brought by them due slow down in their pace. That is called deposition.
- Bangar: Soil containing older alluvium in the upper valley region of a river is called Bangar soil.
- Mineral: The matter which is formed due to natural organic or inorganic process having specific chemical composition is called mineral.
- Rock: A composite matter made up of one or more minerals is called rock.
- Soil: The thin layer formed of the organic and inorganic matter on the surface of the earth is called soil.
3. Write to the point answers of the following questions:
Archipelagos of India
- There are a few archipelagos in India, Andaman Nicobar and Lakshadweep are major archipelagos among them.
- There are many smaller islands in Lakshadweep and these are located at some distance of Kerala coast. These islands have a shape of horse-shoe. Such coral islands are called ‘Atolls’.
- Among other archipelagos are included in Andaman and Nicobar islands situated in Bay of Bengal.
- The number of islands are more in Andaman and Nicobar archipelagoes located in Bay of Bengal.
- They are very far from Indian coast. There are a few mountain ranges, some of which are formed due to the volcanic activity.
- These islands are spread over 350 km and have a strategic importance.
- The only active volcano in India is Barren in Andaman and Nicobar archipelago.
- Narkondam, a dormant volcano, which is very near to it.
State the types of soils of India and give detailed information.
The thin layer formed of the organic and inorganic matter on the surface of the earth. It is called soil. It is the result of denudation of rocks. The soil of India is classified into six types:
- Alluvial soil
- Black soil or Regur soil
- Red soil
- Laterite soil
- Mountain soil
- Desert soil.
Hence, due to diversity of climate and physiography, there are different types of soils found in the country.
Classify the minerals.
(a) Metallic Minerals: Precious metallic minerals: Platinum, Gold and Silver, etc.
- Light metallic minerals: Magnesium, Bauxite, Titanium, etc.
- Minerals of general use: Iron, Copper, Lead, Zinc, Tin, Nickel, etc.
- Minerals used in mixed form or as an alloy: Chromium, Manganese, Tungsten, Vanadium etc.
(b) Non-Metallic Minerals: Limestone, Chalk, Asbestos, Mica, Fluorspar, Gypsum, Sulphur, Diamond, etc.
(c) Minerals used as energy resources: Coal, Mineral oil and Natural gas, Uranium, Thorium, etc.
4. Select the correct options of the following questions and write answers.
Patkai Hills : Arunachal Pradesh : Lushai
Who from the following speaks the incorrect statement? Find out:
A. Kashish: Gold, silver, platinum are precious minerals
B. Kinni: Bauxite, titanium and magnesium are light metallic minerals
C. Dhruvi: Tungston, manganese, and chromium etc. are non-metallic minerals.
D. Nidhi: Lead, copper and iron etc, are minerals taken in common use.
C. Dhruvi: Tungston, manganese, and chromium etc. are non-metallic minerals.
Join correct matches:
A. 1 – B, 2 – C, 3 – A
B. 1 – A, 2 – C, 3 – B
C. 1 – C, 2 – B, 3 – A
D. 1 – B, 2 – A, 3 – C
A. 1 – B, 2 – C, 3 – A
Which of the following statement is true?
A. Western Ghats have more height in north region.
B. Western Ghats are called Nilgiri in Karnataka.
C. Western Ghats are spread north-south in unbroken form along the Arabian Sea coast.
D. Western Ghats are called as Sahyadri on the border of Kerala and Tamil Nadu.
C. Western Ghats are spread north-south in unbroken form along the Arabian Sea coast.
Which plateau is situated between Aravalli and Vindhyachal?
A. Chhota Nagpur
Gujarat Board Class 9 Social Science India: Location Geological Structure and Physiography-II Additional Important Questions and Answers
I. Answer the following questions.
What is physiography? Into how many physiography region can India be divided?
The various landforms of the earth such as mountains, plateaus,- plains islands, etc. are called physiography. On the basis of physiography. India can be divided into the following physiographic regions.
- Northern Mountainous Region
- Great Northern Plains
- Peninsular Plateau
- Coastal Plain
Give a brief idea about Northern Mountainous Region.
Northern Mountainous Region:
- The mountain range extending from North India to east India is called the northern mountain range of India,
- This is an important natural region of India. It is known as the Himalayan mountain system spread over 2400 km is west-east direction in the north.
- The Himalayan Mountain Range is also known as Himalayan Mountain System.
- The mountain range is in arc shape and its width ranges between 240 km to 320 kilometres.
- Himalaya is not a single mountain but is a chain of many mountain ranges.
- Himalayas starts from Afghanistan, moves eastwards and reach Myanmar via Pakistan, India, Nepal and Bhutan. It has more span in Tibet.
- Pamir Knot lies at the junction of Himalayas, Tian Shan and other mountains.
- Himalayas are spread from Sindhu River in the west to Brahmaputra in the east. They form a very important natural vegetation of India.
- These mountainous regions experience very heavy rainfall and so dense forests have developed here. Hence, roads and railways have not developed much in these regions.
Write a detailed note on Northern Himalayas:
Northern Himalayas: The Himalayan Mountain Range is divided into three distinct parallel ranges.
(i) Greater Himalayas (Inner Himalayas):
- The northernmost range is known as the Greater or Inner Himalayas or the Himadri.
- Greater Himalayas contain more than 40 peaks which exceed height of 7000 metres.
- Most famous among them is world’s highest peak, Mt. Everest (8848 meters).
- Mt. Everest is on Nepal-China Border. It is known as Sagarmatha in Nepal and in Tibet known as Chomolungma.
- Mt. Godwin Austin or K2 (8611 m) is the highest peak of India.
- Greater Himalayas, also contain some high mountain passes namely Jelep La, Nathu La, Shipki La, etc.
- Mansarovar, a sacred holy place is located in this range in Tibet-China.
(ii) Central Himalayas (Lesser (Himalayas)
- The Central Himalayas which is the second range of Himalayas lie to the south of the Greater Himalayas.
- It is also called Lesser Himalayas or Himachal and is spread at the width of 80 to 100 km.
- This range includes mountain ranges like Pir Panjal, Mahabharata, Nagtiba, etc.
- Many famous hill stations such as Dalhousie, Dharamshala, Shimla, Mussoorie, Ranikhet, Almora, Nainital, Darjeeling, etc! lie in this range.
- Beautiful natural valleys of Kullu, Kangada and Kashmir are also present in this region.
(iii) Shiwalik Range (Outer Himalayas):
- Shiwalik or Outer Himalayas is the third mountain range of the Himalayas and it lies to the south of the Central Himalayas.
- Most of this range falls within India. It is above 10 to 15 km wide and has an average height of 1000 metres.
- At many places, between Central and the Outer Himalayas, peculiar valley formations have taken place in this range which are covered by gravel stones and thick sediments.
- Locally these valley are known as ‘Dun’. Hence, places around these valleys are named as ‘Dehradun’, ‘Patlidun’, ‘Kothridun’, etc.
Write a brief note on Eastern Himalayas:
- They lie between Nepal in the west and Myanmar in the east.
- Ranges situated in the eastern part of Himalayas have lesser height.
- Some of them are more famous as hills rather than mountain range. They are spread as small ranges.
- Among them, Patkai Hills are situated in Arunachal Pradesh, Naga Hills in Nagaland, and Lushai (Mizo) Hills in Mizoram.
- These hills are located near the eastern border of India. They extend till Arakan Yoma range of Myanmar.
- Garo, Khasi and Jaintia are some of the famous hills in Meghalaya.
Write a short note on Northern Plain.
- The plain located between northern mountainous region and the southern peninsula is called northern plain.
- This plain informed due to the alluvial deposits brought by Himalayan rivers such as Satluj, Ganga and Brahmaputra.
- At some places, the layers of the alluvium are about 50 meters thick.
- Since these plains occupy a very large area in north India, there are also known as vast plains of Northern India.
- The plain is about 2400 km long and is considered as one of the largest river plains of the world.
- The plain is almost a level land i.e., Flat land. None of its part is higher than 180 metres from sea-level.
- The Satluj plain lies to the west of Delhi while the Ganga plain is in the east.
- Major cities such as Delhi, Kolkata, Kanpur, Lucknow, Allahabad, Varanasi, Patna, etc. are situated in this plain.
What does ‘DOAB’ and ‘PUNJAB’ mean?
- The word ‘DO’ means two ‘AB’ means water, ‘PUNJ’ means five.
- So, a region between two rivers is called ‘DOAB’.
- Similarly, the region or plain formed by the water of five rivers is called ‘PUNJAB’. This is how Punjab State got its name.
- Satluj, Jhelum, Chenab,Ravi and Beas are the five rivers that drain in Punjab.
Give an account of Peninsular plateau.
- Peninsular Plateau is the oldest landmass of India.
- It lies to the south of the Plains of North.
- Its shape is of an inverted triangle.
- It is surrounded by sea from three sides. Hence, it is called a Peninsular plateau.
- Most of the part of this plateau lies in southern India. Hence, it is also called ‘ Southern Plateau ’.
- Average height of this plateau is about 600 to 900 metres.
- The northern part of this plateau has north-eastern slope which is evident from the flow of Chambal, Son and Damodar rivers.
- The southern part slopes towards south-east.
Write a short note on Malwa Plateau.
- It is a plateau region in north-central India and one of the parts of Peninsular Plateau. The plateau is also called central upland.
- Aravalli range is situated in the north-west part of Malwa Plateau.
- Aravalli is one of the oldest ranges in the world. It is a folded mountain.
- Mt. Abu is a famous hill station of Aravalli range. It is very beautiful and pleasant.
- Guru Shikhar, the highest peak (1722 meters) of Aravalli range is located in Mt. Abu.
Northern part of Malwa Plateau:
- Vindhyachal range lies to the east and south of Malwa Plateau.
- Rivers Chambal and Betwa emerge from Vindhyachal, flow northwards and meet river Yamuna.
- River Son flows northwards and meets river Ganga.
- Looking to the flow of these rivers we can say that the northern part of Malwa Plateau slopes towards north.
Western part of Malwa Plateau:
- Besides this, rivers Luni and Banas also originate in the Aravalli range in north-west.
- These rivers vanish in the Rann of Kachchh whereas Sabarmati and Mahi rivers meet the Gulf of Khambhat.
- From the flow of these rivers, it can be ascertained that the western part of Malwa Plateau slopes towards south-west.
North-eastern part of Malwa Plateau:
- The north-eastern part of this Malwa Plateau is known as Bundelkhand.
- Rajmahal Hills, Shillong Plateau and Ranchi Plateau are a part of Chhota Nagpur Plateau near Bundelkhand.
Give a detailed idea about Deccan Plateau.
- It spreads from Satpuda, Mahadev and Maikal ranges in north up to the southern tip of the peninsular India. It is one of the parts of Peninsular Plateau.
- The north-western parts of the plateau are composed of lava deposits.
- The Western Ghats from the western boundary of Deccan Plateau, while the Eastern Ghats from its eastern boundary.
- The Western Ghats run north-south along the Arabian Sea Coast. It has several local names.
- Western Ghats is known as ‘Sahyadri’ in Maharashtra and Karnataka. It is known as ‘Nilgiri’ in Tamil Nadu.
- On the border of Kerala and Tamil Nadu, it is known as Annamalai and in further south, it is known as Cardamum Hills.
- The southern portion of Weatem Ghats is loftier.
- The average height of Deccan Plateau range between 900 to 1000 metres. At few places the height is even more.
- A few isolate hills having more than 900 metres of height forms the eastern boundary of this plateau. These hills together are called ‘Eastern Ghats’.
- Except rivers Narmada and Tapi which flow westwards and meet Arabian Sea, most of the rivers of Deccan Plateau flow eastwards and meet Bay of Bengal.
- From this, it is evident that Eastern Ghats have a gentle slope towards south-east.
Write a short note on Coastal Plains of India.
Coastal Plain (Plains along the Sea Coast):
The Peninsular Plateau is surrounded by coastal plains from Kachchh in the west to Odisha in the east. These coastal plains are divided into
- West coast plain and
- East coast plain.
West Coast Plain:
- The west coast plain is spread from Gujarat in the west to Kerala in south.
- The entire plain is in the form of a narrow belt except in Gujarat.
- This plain is very undulating.
- In north, it is known as Konkan Coast, while it is known as Malabar Coast from Goa to the southern end of the plain.
- Most of the rivers of the West Coast Plain have formed creeks and estuaries at their mouths.
- Many natural harbours (ports) such as Mumbai, Marmagao, etc. are situated on this coast.
- Also, backwaters have developed along the southern coast of Kerala. These are known as ‘Kayak in local language.
East Coast Plain:
- East coast plain is much broader than the west coast plain.
- Large amount of alluvial deposit is found in the deltas of river Kaveri, Krishna, Godavari and Mahanadi.
- The northern part of this plain is known as Northern Circle.
- The southern part of East Coast Plain which covers Tamil Nadu coast is known Coromandel Coast.
Write a brief note on Igneous rocks.
- The interior of the earth is extremely hot. So, the matter is the interior is in a semi-liquid state, which is called as ‘magma or lava’.
- When this magma cools and solidifies it crystallizes and turns into igneous rocks.
- Since these rocks are formed due to the effect of heat, they are called Igneous (Agneya) or fire rocks.
- During the formation of earth crust, igneous rocks are first to be formed. Hence, they are called Primary Rocks.
- Igneous rocks are found at many places in Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Southern peninsula.
- Igneous rocks are the most solid of all rocks
- Granite is a well known example of plutonic rock Basalt is also this type of rock.
Types of Igneous Rocks:
Write a brief note on Stratified Rocks.
Stratified (Sedimentary) Rocks:
- After disintegration, sand, mud and pebbles get laid down in layers. Over time, these layers are squashed under more and more layers.
- Over a period of time igneous rocks get disintegrated due to the collective effect of water and other forces. These rocks get laid as layers.
- Over time, these layers are squashed under more and more layers and water.
- The upper layered rocks exert pressure on the layers of old layers of rocks below them. Eventually, rocks are formed with different layers.
- These rocks are called ‘Sedimentary Rocks’ or ‘Stratified Rocks’.
- Examples of stratified rocks are gypsum, limestone and coal.
- Coal and gypsum are obtained from Bihar and Jharkhand.
Types of stratified rocks:
Write a brief note on Metamorphic Rocks.
- In certain specific conditions, the form, composition and other characteristics of rocks get totally changed.
- Due to the combined effect of two factors i. e., high temperature and pressure of rock state, the igneous and sedimentary rocks change into a totally new form.
- This way, the newly formed rocks are known as metamorphic rocks.
- Marble and quartzite are best example of Metamorphic Rocks.
Types of Metamorphic Rocks
Black Soil is favourable for growing cotton. Give reason.
- Black soil is formed out of metamorphic rocks.
- It has the ability to hold moisture for a long time.
- In the rainy season, black soil becomes sticky and wet.
- While in summer, the upper layer of black soil becomes dry.
- This soil is very sticky and fertile.
- Such soil is favourable for growing cotton.
- That is why it has become famous as Black cotton soil.
Northern Plains are densely populated. Give reason.
- The soil of northern plains contains a lot of alluvium and so it is quite fertile.
- The climate in this region is suitable for agriculture.
- Also, water is available here in sufficient quantity.
- Due to these reasons, agriculture has developed well in the northern plains.
- Hence, more and more people prefer to settle in northern plains.
Western Ghats are compact while Eastern Ghats are scattered. Give reason.
- The slope of rivers flows in south India towards east.
- Hence, the rivers flow from west to east through the Eastern Ghats and meet the Bay of Bengal.
- This flow of rivers has led to the breaking of the Eastern Ghats.
- No such rivers flow through Western Ghats.
- Hence, the Western Ghats are compact and continuous range while Eastern Ghats are scattered.
The physiography of India is quite diverse. Give reason.
- India is a large country with varied physiography.
- In the north there are huge Himalayan mountain ranges, many of which are snow-clad.
- The southern part of India is a peninsula.
- India has a very long coastline. This coastal belt is used for fishing, tourism, waterway, etc.
- There are dense forests in several parts of India.
- Northern fertile plains are called ‘Storehouse of Grains’ whereas southern plateau is rich in mineral resources.
- Rajasthan and parts of Gujarat form the desert of India.
- Owing to a variety of relief features found in India, it can be said that the physiography of India is quite diversified.
India’s rich physiography works as a strong pillar of Indian economy. Give reason.
- India has a very rich and varied physiography.
- Several types of trees found in Himalayas. They used for preparing medicines and cosmetics.
- The long coastline of peninsular India is used for fishing, tourism and as a waterway.
- Many states of India are rich in mineral resources. These minerals are used in several industries.
- Important minerals such as gold, silver, magnesium, iron, copper etc. are found in abundance in India.
- Due to extremely fertile plains of north, they are called ‘Storehouse of grains’.
- Owing to these reasons we can say that India’s rich physiography works as a strong pillar of Indian economy.
How many types of soils are found in India? Describe them.
Soils are classified into six types in India. They are:
1. Alluvial soil
- This soil can be divided into two parts:
- Khadar, and
- The soil formed due to the fresh alluvial deposit is known as Khadar soil. As this soil is formed due to the river floods. It is found mostly nearby the river. Generally, such soil is sandy.
- Soil containing old alluvium in the upper valley region of a river is called Bangar soil. It is sticky and has dark colour. Alluvial soil is seen in many parts of the country.
- Their fertility is also different at different places. Generally, such soil is very fertile.
It is found in Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, etc.
2. Black soil
- This soil is found mostly in Maharashtra, western Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Telangana.
- Black soil is the gift of peninsular plateau. This soil is very sticky and fertile.
- It can contain humidity for a prolonged time.
- It is formed from the metamorphic rocks and is very useful for cotton cultivation. That is why it has become famous as Black Cotton soil.
- It is also known as regur soil.
3. Red Soil
- Such soil is found in regions of igneous and metamorphic rocks. Its red colour is due to its ferrous and other humus contents.
- The soil is porous and fertile. Such soil is seen in Goa, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Odisha and Jharkhand.
4. Laterite Soil
- This soil develops as a result of excessive erosion by rain.
- Due to heavy rain, the humus contents from the topsoil descend into the lower strata which is called leaching. As the soil contains less humus, it is less fertile.
- The red sandstones contain iron and aluminium.
- The erosion of these rock results into its red colour.
- Such soil is found in mountainous region of Deccan, Karnataka, Kerala, Odisha and some parts of North-East.
5. Mountain soils
- Humus content is more due to the forests, although it differs from place to place.
- Such soil on Shivalik Range is less fertile and less developed.
- The soil is sandy and porous and does not contain humus.
- Such soil is found in the mountainous region of the country, such as in Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh, eastern hill range, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh and Jammu and Kashmir states.
6. Desert soils
- Such soil is found in the arid and semi-arid regions of Gujarat, Rajasthan, Punjab and Haryana.
- The soil here is more alkaline and has less humus contents.
- Agriculture has been made possible in such soil only through irrigation.
II. Match the following:
III. Map-based Question
Identify the major soil types shown in the given map and write their names.