GSEB Solutions Class 10 Social Science Chapter 14 Transportation, Communication and Trade

   

Gujarat Board GSEB Textbook Solutions Class 10 Social Science Chapter 14 Transportation, Communication and Trade Textbook Questions and Answers, Additional Important Questions, Notes Pdf.

Transportation, Communication and Trade Class 10 GSEB Solutions Social Science Chapter 14

Gujarat Board Class 10 Social Science Transportation, Communication and Trade Textbook Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions in detail.

Question 1.
Write a short note on national highways.
Answer:
The highways that connect one state with other is called national highways. For example, National Highway No.8 (NH 8) connects Gujarat with Mumbai. Highways are extremely important for economic development of the nation. They are also a very safe means of transport. It is the central government who builds and takes care of the national highways.

National highways inter-connect state capitals, large industrial and commercial cities and major ports. These roads also connect India with neighboring countries like Myanmar, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan and China.

Go through these Social Science Chapter 14 Transportation, Communication and Trade Class 10 GSEB Notes to score well in your exam.

National Highway No.7 is the longest highway of the country. It extends from Varanasi in, Uttar Pradesh to Kanniyakumari iri Tamil Nadu. The Golden Quadrilateral is a national highways network which connects all the four metro cities of India namely Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata. National Highways No. 27, 41, 47, 141, 147, etc. pass through Gujarat.

These numbers were changed by the Government of India in 2011. The length of national highways in the union territories namely Chandigarh, Puducherry and Delhi and state of Goa is more as compared to their population.

Next comes the states of Mizoram, Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Manipur, etc. The total length of national highways is less in states like Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Maharashtra and Gujarat where there is more population.

GSEB Solutions Class 10 Social Science Chapter 14 Transportation, Communication and Trade

Question 2.
Mention the steps to stop traffic problems.
Answer:
Steps for maintaining road behavior, safety and solve the problem of traffic:

  1. Students who do not have driving license should not drive. This will decrease some vehicles from the road. Do not overtake unless, it is absolutely necessary.
  2. Two-wheelers like bicycles, scooters, etc. should be driven only on the left side of the road. They should not be driven on wrong sides.
  3. Do not talk on cell phones (mobiles) while driving. If possible, show the sides, stop the vehicle on the left side of the road and then talk.
  4. Vehicles such as ambulance and fire brigade should be given the priority to pass.
  5. Do not create noise by unnecessary honking.
  6. Follow traffic signals and do not jump them. Walk down to nearby places or use a cycle.
  7. At night, use the light in dipper mode. Use high beam only when it is absolutely necessary.

Question 3.
Which are the main National Waterways of India?
Answer:
International (or Inland) Waterways: The system of transport on internal water bodies of a country such as rivers and canals is called internal or inland waterways. Internal water transportation services are developed more in the north-east state of Assam, West Bengal and Bihar as well as in Tamil Nadu and some other south Indian states. Steamers and large boats ply on waterways of these states.

River/ Canal Total length
1. Ganga between Haldia-Allahabad 1620 km
2. Brahmaputra between Dhubri-Sadia 891 km
3. West Coast Canal between Kollam Kottapuram 250 km
4. Godavari and Krishna River between Kakinada-Puducherry 1078 km
5. Brahmani River between Goenkhali- Talcher 588 km

II. Write to the point answer for the following questions.

Question 1.
What is included in mass communication?
Answer:
Mass communication system consists of

  1. Print media, and
  2. Electronic media.

Print media includes newspapers, magazines, pamphlets, etc. Electronic media includes TV, Radio, internet, etc.

Question 2.
Which are the main commodities exported from India?
Answer:
India’s export includes iron ore and minerals, engineering goods such as cycle, fans, sewing machines, cars, railway coaches, computer software, etc. We also export chemicals and related items, gemstones, hide and leather goods, cotton textile, fish and fish products, handicrafts, tea-coffee, jute and jute products, readymade clothes etc.

III. Write answer of the following questions in brief.

Question 1.
Where are the ropeways located in Gujarat?
Answer:
The ropeway services in Gujarat are available at Pavagadh, Saputara and Ambaji. Work for a ropeway has started at Gimar in Junagadh.

GSEB Solutions Class 10 Social Science Chapter 14 Transportation, Communication and Trade

Question 2.
Which are the effective gadgets in individual communication?
Answer:
Internet and smartphones are the most effective gadgets for individual communication system.

Question 3.
What is internal trade?
Answer:
The commercial transaction of goods or services among the various states or regions of the same country is known as internal trade. For example, Gujarat and Assam supply mineral oil to other states of India while West Bengal supplies coal to Gujarat.

Question 4.
How was the communication carried out in earlies times?
Answer:
In ancient times, messages for communication were delivered by playing the dhol (drum) and speaking loudly, by generation smoke, by pigeons and through other animals.

IV. Select the correct option of the following questions.

Question 1.
Who works as the porters during the ascent of Everest?
(a) Nepali
(b) Bhotia
(c) Bhaiyajee
(d) None of them
Answer:
(b) Bhotia

Question 2.
Which is the longest National Highway in India?
(a) No.3
(b) No.8
(c) No.7
(d) No.15
Answer:
(c) No.7

GSEB Solutions Class 10 Social Science Chapter 14 Transportation, Communication and Trade

Question 3.
Who is responsible for the construction of National Highways?
(a) State Government
(b) Central Government
(c) District Panchayat
(d) None of them
Answer:
(b) Central Government

Gujarat Board Class 10 Social Science Transportation, Communication and Trade Additional Important Questions and Answers

I. Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs)

Question 1.
Which of the following statements is correct for transportation?
(a) The transportation has an important contribution in economic and physical progress.
(b) Distant places can be linked through transportation.
(c) National integration and processes like urbanization and industrialization are made possible due to transportation.
(d) All of the above.

Question 2.
Which of the following influence transportation system.
(a) Human population
(b) Place climate
(c) Floods
(d) Relief
Answer:
(c) Floods

Question 3.
Following are cultural factors affect the transportation. Which of them applies to it?
(P) Market and capital investment
(Q) Climate
(R) Technical development and economic development
(S) Relief
(a) P and R
(b) Only Q
(c) R and S
(d) P and S
Answer:
(a) P and R

Question 4.
Which of the following is incorrect percentage?
(a) Roads 83%
(b) Railways 9%
(c) Waterways 3%
(d) Airways 6%
Answer:
(c) Waterways 3%

GSEB Solutions Class 10 Social Science Chapter 14 Transportation, Communication and Trade

Question 5.
Haldia: Allahabad; Ganga river: Goankhall; Talca:
(a) Godavari – Krishna river
(b) Brahmaputra river
(c) Brahmani river
(d) Canal of West Coast
Answer:
(c) Brahmani river

Question 6.
Which of the following is included in ports located on the west coast of India?
(a) Kolkata – Haldia
(b) Brahmaputra river
(c) Nhava Sheva – New Mangalore
(d) Chennai – Tuticorin
Answer:
(c) Nhava Sheva – New Mangalore

Question 7.
On the west coast of India: Kandla. On the east coast of India: ……………..
(a) Marmagao and Kochi
(b) Kolkata and Vishakhapatnam
(c) Paradip and Tuticorin
(d) Kandla and Porbandar
Answer:
(b) Kolkata and Vishakhapatnam

Question 8.
One statement is related to airways.
(a) It is the fastest among all types of transportation.
(b) In India, the weather remains favorable for aviation only in monsoon.
(c) Airport Authority of India carries out the management of 127 international airports.
(d) Pawan Hans helicopter company provides supply of cooking gas to Government authority.
Answer:
(a) It is the fastest among all types of transportation.

Question 9.
Which of the following is not a centre for ropeway services in Gujarat?
(a) Shamlaji
(b) Ambaji
(c) Saputara
(d) Pavagadh
Answer:
(a) Shamlaji

Question 10.
Arrange national waterways of India from South to North incorrect order.
(1) National Waterway No. 4
(2) National Waterway No. 3
(3) National Waterway No. 5
(4) National Waterway No. 1
(5) National Waterway No. 2
(a) 3, 4, 5, 1, 2
(b) 3, 5, 2, 1, 4
(c) 5, 3, 2, 4, 1
(d) 3, 4, 1, 5, 2
Answer:
(a) 3, 4, 5, 1, 2

II. Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is the meaning of transportation?
Answer:
The movement of people and goods from one place to another is called transportation.

GSEB Solutions Class 10 Social Science Chapter 14 Transportation, Communication and Trade

Question 2.
Which means of communication are widely used nowadays?
Answer:
Means of communication like mails, telephone, cell phones, internet, etc. are widely used nowadays.

Question 3.
Which type of economic activity trade is?
Answer:
Trade is the tertiary economic activity.

Question 4.
Which animals are used for transportation in mountainous forests?
Answer:
Animals like elephants, mules and horses Eire used for transportation in mountainous forests.

Question 5.
Who works as laborers to carry goods during Mt. Everest expeditions?
Answer:
Bhatia people work as laborers to carry goods during Mt. Everest expeditions.

Question 6.
During rule of which kings, do we find network of highways?
Answer:
There was a road network of highways during the rule of Samarat Ashok and Chandragupta Maurya.

Question 7.
To which routes are roads complimentary?
Answer:
Roads are complimentary to the railways, sea routes and air routes.

GSEB Solutions Class 10 Social Science Chapter 14 Transportation, Communication and Trade

Question 8.
Which countries are on first, second and third position in the world in terms of the largest network of roads?
Answer:
In terms of the largest network of roads, U.S. is at the first, China is at the second and India is at the thirds place in the world.

Question 9.
Which types of roadways are seen in India?
Answer:
We can see the following types of roadways in India:

  1. National Highway,
  2. State Highways,
  3. District Roads,
  4. Village (Approach) Roads,
  5. Border Roads,
  6. Express Highways.

Question 10.
Which cities will be interlinked by Golden Quadrilateral High System?
Answer:
Four main cities – Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata will be interlinked by Golden Quadrilateral Highway System.

Question 11.
Which National Highways pass through Gujarat?
Answer:
Nation Highways No. 21, 41, 46, 141, 147 pass through Gujarat.

Question 12.
When are the numbers of-National Highways changed by the Government of India?
Answer:
The Government of India has changed the numbers of National Highways in .2011.

Question 13.
Which is the largest national institution?
Answer:
India Railway is the largest national institution.

GSEB Solutions Class 10 Social Science Chapter 14 Transportation, Communication and Trade

Question 14.
What is India’s rank in Asia and in the world in railway?
Answer:
India ranks first in Asia and second in the world in railway.

Question 15.
When and where was the first railway started in India?
Answer:
The first railway was started in 1853 between Mumbai and Thane.

Question 16.
How many types of railway are there in India. Name them. ?
Answer:
There are three types of railway in India:

  1. Broad Gauge
  2. Meter Gauge
  3. Narrow Gauge.

Question 17.
In which cities of India, Metro Rail has started?
Answer:
Metro Rail has started in large cities like Delhi, Kolkata, Jaipur.

Question 18.
How has Konkan Railway provide a good example of the best engineering skill?
Answer:
Konkan Railway has proved a good example of engineering skills by laying down railway tracks through tunnels in the mountainous region.

Question 19.
Which is the biggest railway station of Gujarat?
Answer:
Ahmedabad is the biggest railway station of Gujarat.

Question 20.
Which are the main railway stations of Gujarat?
Answer:
Ahmedabad, Vadodara, Surat, Mehsana, Rajkot, Kheda, Anand, Viramgam, etc. are the main railway stations of Gujarat.

Question 21.
Why are waterways cheaper compared to roads and railways?
Answer:
Waterways are cheaper as compared to roads and railways because there is no expense in their construction or maintenance.

Question 22.
In which states of India re internal water transport services developed?
Answer:
Rivers, canals are used as waterways in states like West Bengal, Assam, Tamil Nadu, Bihar in India.

GSEB Solutions Class 10 Social Science Chapter 14 Transportation, Communication and Trade

Question 23.
What is the length of Indian coastline?
Answer:
Indian coastline is 7516 km long.

Question 24.
How many major and minor ports has India?
Answer:
India has 13 major ports and 200 minor ports.

Question 25.
Which is the speediest and the costliest mode of transportation?
Answer:
Airway is the speediest and the costliest mode of transportation.

Question 26.
Where can airways be useful?
Answer:
Airways can be useful to reach distant places, remote and dense forests and to reach those places which are not accessible easily by road.

Question 27.
How were air services started in India?
Answer:
The airway services in India were started as airmail services between Allahabad and Naini.

Question 28.
Which airlines provide air services in India?
Answer:
Today, ‘Air India’, and other private companies provide air transportation services.

Question 29.
Who carries out the management of international, domestic and civilian airport terminals?
Answer:
Airport Authority of India (AAI) carries out the management of international, domestic and civilian airport terminals.

Question 30.
How many airports are there in India? How many of them are international airports, domestic airports and civilian airports?
Answer:
There are total 127 airports in India. Out of them, 15 are international airports, 87 are domestic airports and 25 are civilian airports.

Question 31.
Name some of the international airports of India?
Answer:
Kolkata, Mumbai, Chennai, New Delhi, Bengaluru, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad etc. are important international airport of India.

GSEB Solutions Class 10 Social Science Chapter 14 Transportation, Communication and Trade

Question 32.
Who provides helicopter services in India? To who does it provide those services?
Answer:
Panvanhans Helicopter provides helicopter service, it provides helicopter services to O.N.G.C. and to the Government.

Question 33.
What is transported through pipeline?
Answer:
Liquid material such as water, mineral oil, natural gas and other liquids are transported through pipelines.

Question 34.
Where the ropeways useful?
Answer:
Ropeways are useful in mountainous regions. Ropeways are useful to transport goods and passengers to the summits.

Question 35.
How many ropeways are there in India?
Answer:
There are about 100 ropeways in India.

Question 36.
How is the communication carried out in modem age?
Answer:
In modern age, communication is carried out through mail services, telegraph, telephone, mobile telephones, smartphones and satellites.

Question 37.
Which discoveries have made modem communication speedy and easy?
Answer:
The discoveries of mobile phones, smartphones and satellites have made modem communication speedy and easy.

Question 38.
In how many parts can communication be divided? Which are they?
Answer:
Communication can be divided into two parts:

  1. Individual Communication System.
  2. Mass Communication System.

Question 39.
Why has there been a revolution in telecommunication?
Answer:
There has been a revolution in telecommunication due to various applications on social media.

GSEB Solutions Class 10 Social Science Chapter 14 Transportation, Communication and Trade

Question 40.
Which is the autonomous body for transmissions in India? Name its divisions.
Answer:
Prasarbharti is the autonomous body of transmission in India.

Question 41.
How many types of trade are there? Name them.
Answer:
There are two types of trade:

  1. Internal trade
  2. International Trade.

Question 42.
What is international trade?
Answer:
Different countries of the world export and import the requirements. This is called international trade.

Question 43.
What is the meaning of positive (favorable) trade/positive trade balance?
Answer:
If a country exports more than its imports. It is c&lled positive (favorable) trade.

Question 44.
Which scheme has the government started to make India’s trade balance positive?
Answer:
The government has started “Make in India’ scheme to make India’s trade balance positive.

Question 45.
Which items does India import? From which countries? .
Answer:
India imports iron, copper, mineral oil, machines, pearls, gemstones and edible oil. Generally, India imports from USA, Germany, Russia, Myanmar, Iran, etc.

III. Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Transportation is one of the yardsticks to measure the economic, social and political progress of a nation. Give reason.
Answer:
Transportation has a very important contribution in social, economic and physical progress of the nation. Transportation makes the exchange of goods and people possible. It also helps to link distant places. National integration and processes like industrialization arid urbanization are made possible due to transportation. It brings the urban and rural people as well as people all around the world closer to each other.

The distribution of natural resources is uneven everywhere and so transport of goods among various parts of the world becomes very important. Better the transport system, better the economic, social and political stability of the country. Thus transportation is one of the yardsticks to measure the economic, social and political progress of the country.

GSEB Solutions Class 10 Social Science Chapter 14 Transportation, Communication and Trade

Question 2.
What are expressways? Explain.
Answer:
Expressways are also called Drut Gati’ Marg’ which means that vehicles can run on these roads at high speeds without any obstruction. Expressways have four or six lanes. Several flyovers and railway bridges are made on expressways so that people can drive without any obstruction. Ahmedabad – Vadodara Express Highway in Gujarat is one such expressway. One needs to pay toll-tax for using this highway.

Question 3.
There is dense network of roadways in India. Give reason.
Answer:
India is a large country with varied topography. Much of India’s population lives in villages or remote and in accessible areas. India needs to connect all its parts of the country so that it can grow economically as well as socially. To connect such a huge country, requires a large network transport. Road route is a cheaper way to connect most of the regions of the country. Thus, India has developed a dense network of roadways.

Question 4.
On which types of railway gauge do Indian trains ply? Which gauge is best among them? Why?
Answer:
There are three types of railways in India:

  1. Broad Gauge,
  2. Meter Gauge, and
  3. Narrow Gauge.

Out of the three, the Broad gauge has the highest capacity to bear load and allow running high power rail locomotives. So, although the meter gauge and narrow gauge railway tracks still exist, the government has converted most them into broad gauge. This is a big achievement for Indian Railways. Having one single gauge helps to save a lot of time for transporting goods and passenger stable this also saves quite a lot of money.

Question 5.
Railways are like lifeline for India. Give reason.
Answer:
Railways are useful for carrying people and goods over short and long-distance. Compared to other means of transport, rail transport is cheap, quick, speedy, easy, far-reaching and convenient. Railways are also used during wars or natural calamities for the transportation of goods and people. Over and above this the railways have also started metro rail in many cities. Mumbai also has local trains and mono rials which save a lot of time, money and energy of people. Therefore, railways are the lifeline of India.

Question 6.
Indian Railways have mostly converted all the rail tracks into broad gauge. Give reason.
Answer:
Generally, broad gauge railway tracks are located in areas with dense population whereas narrow gauge railway tracks are located in areas with less population or where there is less need. During a rail journey, passengers or goods need to change the train due to the difference of gauges.

This consumes more time, money and also it becomes tedious. Out of the three gauges, the broad gauge has the highest capacity to bear load and allow running high power rail locomotives. Having one single gauge helps to save a lot of time for transporting goods and passengers. This also saves quite a lot of money. As a result, Indian Railways have mostly converted all the rail tracks into broad gauge.

GSEB Solutions Class 10 Social Science Chapter 14 Transportation, Communication and Trade

Question 7.
Give an introduction of waterways as a means of transportation.
Answer:
Using water as a means of transport for transporting passengers and goods are called waterways. Water transportation has existed in India since ancient times. In the olden times, waterway was an important medium of transport when road and rail networks did not exist. It is cheaper to transport through waterway compared to roads and railways because no expense is incurred in construction and maintenance of waterways. There are two types of waterways in India. They are

  1. Internal (or Inland) waterways and
  2. Oceanic waterways.

Question 8.
Write a note on internal waterways of India.
Answer:
The system of transport on internal water bodies of a country such as rivers an canals is called internal or inland waterways. Internal water transportation services are developed more in the north-east states of Assam, West Bengal and Bihar as well as in Tamil Nadu and some other south Indian states. Steamers and large boats ply on waterways of these states.

River/ Canal Total length
1. Ganga between Haldia-Allahabad 1620 km
2. Brahmaputra between Dhubri-Sadia 891 km
3. West Coast Canal between Kollam Kottapuram 250 km
4. Godavari and Krishna River between Kakinada 1078 km
5. Brahmani River between Goenkhali- Talcher 588 km

Question 9.
Waterways are cheaper than other forms of transport. Give reason.
Answer:
Unlike roads and railways, there is no need to construct waterways, bridge or tunnels. Water is a natural means of transport which is open to all while roads have to be constructed on land. Since no construction is needed to develop waterways, there is also no cost of maintenance and expansion of waterways. Hence, waterways are cheaper than other forms of transport.

IV. Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Give and idea about the development of transportation and the different means of transportation that man uses.
Answer:
The movement of people and goods from one place to another is called transportation. In common language, transportation can also be defined as the process from one place to another. Earlier man used to live a wanderer’s life. When he learnt agriculture, he started living a steady and settled life. Earlier he used to carry his things himself. Later, he made use of animals as beast of burden.

With the invention of wheel, man used several animals to pull the carts. This name transportation faster and also in larger quantities. Thus, slowly and gradually, the transportation developed. Modern form of transportation mostly relies on mechanized vehicles. The type of transportation that one can see in a region depends upon the factors like location, climate, relief, human population, etc. of that region.

Over and above these factors, some cultural factors like technical development, economic development, market and capital investment, political decisions, etc. also affect the transportation in a given region. For example, transportation is carried out by roads and railways in plain regions whereas in mountainous regions, animals such as donkeys, mules, horses and yaks and also man do the task of transportation. Bhatia people who live in mountains themselves work as laborers to carry goods up and down the mountain.

Besides, elephants, mules and horses are used in the mountainous forests. Camel is best for transportation in desert. In railway stations, coolies do the work of carrying luggage on their head. Ship or a small boat is used as transport vehicle near the sea coast or where the river is fairly deep and is perennial. Mechanized forms of transport include to two-wheelers, cars, buses, rickshaws, trains, aeroplanes, etc. Thus, there are several forms, means and vehicles of transportation that man uses.

GSEB Solutions Class 10 Social Science Chapter 14 Transportation, Communication and Trade

Question 2.
Give an idea about road transportation in India. Also mention its important characteristics.
Answer:
Roads are the most basic and the most important transportation since ancient times. One can trace the existence of road network in India since the rule of Samrat Ashok and Chandragupta Maurya. Roads are complimentary to the railways, sea routes and air routes.
Some of the most important characteristics of roads are:

  1. They have widespread network.
  2. They assure safety of goods.
  3. They save time and are cheap so saves money.
  4. They can be used to transport anything and everything that can be thought of roads are the only link to connect goods, man and a region.

India has the third-largest road system in the world after United States of America and China. Indian roadways can be divided into:

  1. Nation Highway,
  2. State Highway,
  3. District Roads,
  4. Village (Approach)

Roads and Border Roads. Over and above these roads, India has also constructed roads connecting all major ports.

Question 3.
Give the classification of Indian roadways.
Answer:
Indian roadways can be classified into:

  1. National Highway
  2. State Highway
  3. District Roads
  4. Village (Approach) Roads and Border Roads.

(1) National Highways: The Highway that connects one state with other is called national highway. For example, National Highway No.8 (NH.8) connects Gujarat with Mumbai. Highways are extremely important for economic development of the nation. They are also a very safe means of transport. It is the central government who builds and takes care of the national highways.

National highways interconnect state capitals, large industrial and commercial cities and major ports. These roads also connect India with neighboring countries like Myanmar, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan and China. National Highway No. 7 is the longest highway of the country. It extends from Varanasi in Uttar

Pradesh to Kanyakumari in Tamil Nadu. The golden Quadrilateral is a national highway network which connects all the four metro cities of India namely Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata. Nation Highway No. 27, 41, 47, 141, 147, etc. pass through Gujart. These numbers were changed by the Government of India in 2011.

The length of national highways in the union territories namely Chandigarh, Puducherry and Delhi and state of Goa is more as compared to their population. Next comes the states of Mizoram, Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Manipur, etc. The total length of national highways is less in states like Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Maharashtra and Gujarat where there is more population.

(2) State Highways: The highways that connect major cities within the state are called state highways. They are important for trade and industries. These highways connect with all the districts and also with the national highway that pass through that state. The responsibility of construction and maintenance of these roads lies with the state government.

(3) District Roads: These roads connect villages and the main cities with the district headquarters as well as talukas with districts. The responsibility of construction and maintenance of these roads lies with the district panchayat. Earlier district roads of Gujarat were not metalled. But now most of them are converted into metalled roads.

(4) Village Roads: The construction and the maintenance of village roads is done by gram panchayat. Most of the village roads are ‘kachcha roads’ i.e. unmetalled and hence they cannot be used in the monsoon. These roads which connect the roads passing by the villages are unmetalled and so these are not useful in rainy season. The government under Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana is trying to improve these roads and hence village transportation. Under this scheme, the government is making attempts to convert these roads into metalled roads.

(5) Border Roads: Border Road Organization (BRO) was established in 1960 to construct and maintain roads in the border area. These roads are extremely important for national security because they help in movement of defence personnel, equipment and food over and above allowing the movement of general public. BRO also constructs roads in inaccessible remote area, maintains them, clears the snow, landslides etc.

GSEB Solutions Class 10 Social Science Chapter 14 Transportation, Communication and Trade

Question 4.
Write a detailed note on Indian Railways.
Answer:
Indian Railways is the largest public sector organization and the largest national institution of India. With respect to size of operation, Indian Railways got first rank in Asia and second in the whole world.

Advantages of Railways:
India’s first railway line started in 1853 between Mumbai and Thane. There are three types of railway in India:
(A) Broad Gauge,
(B) Meter Gauge and
(C) Narrow Gauge.

Out of the three, the Broad gauge has the highest capacity to bear load and allow running high power rail locomotives. So, although the meter gauge and narrow gauge railway tracks still exist, the government has converted most them into broad guage. This is a big achievement for Indian Railways. Having one single gauge helps to save a lot of time for transporting goods and passengers. This also saves quite a lot of money.

Railway network is widespread and strong in the states that have flat-plain regions, dense population, industrial development intensive agriculture and rich mineral fields. India has also started Metro Rails in large cities like Kolkata, Delhi, Mumbai and Jaipur for travelling within the city. Metro Rail project work has also started between Ahmedabad and Gandhinagar.

Mumbai also has two other forms of rail network namely the Local trains and the Monorail. Konkan Railways has laid down railway tracks through tunnels in the mountainous regions which were highly inaccessible. Indian Railways is considered to be one of the best railways in terms of time, safety and facilities it provides. Indian Railways has modernized very fast and process of modernization continues. The route between Dibrugarh and Kanyakumari is the longest railway route in India.

Question 5.
Differentiate, between Roadways and Railways.

Roadways Railways
(i) Different types of vehicles can run on roads (i) Only trains can run on rails.
(ii) Construction and maintenance of roads is cheaper and easier. (ii) Construction and maintenance of rails is costlier.
(iii) Road services reach door-steps distance. (iii) Railways prove less expensive for long
(iv) It is easier to transport perishable goods by road. (iv) Transporting perishable goods by railways increases the chances of spoil age.
(v) Travellers can use short cut roads short-cut roads (v) Travellers do not not have any such option.
(vi) Generally, they are slower. (vi) They move fast.

GSEB Solutions Class 10 Social Science Chapter 14 Transportation, Communication and Trade

Question 6.
Describe about the oceanic waterways of India.
Answer:
Oceanic Waterway: India has about a 7516 km long coastline. Along this coastline, there are 13 major and about 200 minor ports. After the establishment of Shipping Corporation of India, our national and international waterways have quite developed.

Kandla, Mumbai, Nhava Sheva, Marmagoa, New Mangalore and Kochi ports are located on the western coast, while Kolkata, Haldia, Paradip, Vishakhapatnam, Chennai, Tuticorin, etc. are main ports of eastern coast. Oceanic Waterways in Gujarat: Gujarat has a long coastline of about 1600 km. Kandla is the largest port of Gujarat. Bhavnagar is the only port having automatic lock-gate system.

The port of Porbandar remains open the entire year. Veraval, Sikka, Pipavav, Navlakhi, Mundra, Poshitra, Okha and Hajira are other important ports of Gujarat. A project in process to develop Poshitra port in Poshitra village of Jamnagar.

Question 7.
Write a note on Indian Airways.
Answer:
Airways are the speediest but at the same time costliest mode of . transportation. Compared to all other means of transport, airways are capable to reach distant places, remote and dense forests and also to reach those places which are not accessible easily by road. Indian weather is quite favourable for airways. So, air transport of man and material takes place almost throughout the year. The airways have become quite popular due to increased demand of faster delivery of goods and transport of people.

In India, the service of airways was first started for airmail services i.e. transporting important documents, letters, small parcels, etc. between Allahabad and Naini. It was run by a private company. Today, Air India and several other private companies provide air transportation services for transporting both man and goods. The management of all the airports of India is done by the Airport Authority of India (AAI).

It manages 127 airports which include 15 international, 87 domestic and 25 civilian airport terminals. Kolkata, Mumbai, Chennai, New Delhi, Bengaluru, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad, etc. have both domestic and international airports. Pawan Hans Limited provides helicopter services to ONGC and to the government.

V. Fill in the blanks

1. The movement of people and goods from one place to another is called ……………..
2. Trade is the ………………. economic activity.
3. During ascent to Everest, ……………… people work as laborers to carry goods.
4. ………….. is the best for transportation in desert.
5. There are …………… roadways, …………….. railways, …………….. waterways and ……………. airways in Indian transportation system.
Answer:
1. Transportation,
2. Tertiary,
3. Bhotia,
4. Camel,
5. 83, 9, 2, 6

VI. Write whether the following statements are true or false.

1. Work has started on the metro rail project between Ahmedabad and Gandhinagar
2. First railway in India started in 1954 between Mumbai and Thane.
3. In order to make trade balance positive, the government has started project named “Make in India’.
4. Artificial satellites have their own communication skills but along with that it also controls mediums of communications.
5. There are two mediums in individual communication system. Print media & electronic media.
Answer:
1. True
2. False
3. True
4. True
5. False

VII. Match the following.

GSEB Solutions Class 10 Social Science Chapter 14 Transportation, Communication and Trade 1
GSEB Solutions Class 10 Social Science Chapter 14 Transportation, Communication and Trade 2
Answer:
1. (c)
2. (d)
3. (b)
4. (a)

GSEB Solutions Class 10 Social Science Chapter 14 Transportation, Communication and Trade

VIII. Identify me

1. I am considered as a messenger in ancient time.
2. I have obtained 1600 km long sea coast.
3. I am the air service provider.
4. I provide helicopter services to state government.
5. I am considered as the biggest railway station of Gujarat.
Answer:
1. Pigeon
2. Gujarat
3. Air India
4. Pawan Hans
5. Ahmedabad

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