Our Revision Notes for GSEB Class 10 Social Science Notes Chapter 14 Transportation, Communication and Trade summarises the key points of a chapter and useful resource to prepare effectively for the upcoming board exams.
Transportation, Communication and Trade Class 10 GSEB Notes Social Science Chapter 14
Transportation, Communication and Trade Class 10 GSEB Notes
→ The process of going from one place to another is known as transportation.
→ The transportation has an important contribution in economic and physical progress.
→ Due to transportation, the exchange of goods and people is made possible and distant places can be linked through transportation.
The types of transportation are affected by factors like location, climate, relief, human population, etc.
→ Transportation is carried out by roads and railways in plains. In mountainous regions, men and animals are used for transportation of goods.
→ During ascent to Everest, Bhotia people, who are better mountaineers, also work as labourers to carry goods.
→ Camel is considered best for transportation in desert.
→ Roads were important in transportation since ancient times.
→ Most important characteristics of roads are the widespread field of their services, safety of goods, economic time saving and cheap, etc.
→ The road system of India is third largest in the world after United States of America and China.
→ Indian roadways are classified into five types:
- National Highway
- State Highway
- District Roads
- Village Roads
- Border Roads.
→ National Highway: The responsibility of the construction of national highways rests with the central government. These roads also connect India with neighbouring countries like Myanmar, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan and China.
→ National Highway No. 44. is the longest highway of the country and it extends between Varanasi with Kanniyakumari.
→ The four metropolitan cities i.e. Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata are interlinked by Golden Quadrilateral Highway system.
→ National Highways No. 27, 41, 47, 141, 147, etc. pass through Gujarat.
→ State Highway: Roads linking a state capital with different headquarters are known as State Highways. These roads are constructed and maintained by the State Government.
→ District Roads: These are maintained by district panchayats.
→ Village Roads: These roads are constructed by Gram Panchayat. Under Pradhan Mantri Grameen Sadak Yojana, special provisions are made to improve the village transportation.
→ Border Roads: Border road organization was established in 1960.
→ Expressways are also called Drut Gati Marg. Vehicles can be driven without any obstruction on these highways of 4 to 6 lanes.
→ Ahemedabad-Vadodara Express Highway in Gujarat is an example of it. A toll tax has to be paid for using this highway.
→ Overbridges, bypass roads and ring roads around the cities are constructed to avoid the traffic problem in larger cities.
→ The urban roads cannot be widened compared to the increasing population and increasing number of vehicles.
→ With increasing encroachments along the roads, traffic jam scenes have become very common during peak hours in cities. Traffic jam is also caused due to marriage processions, social processions, etc.
→ Indian railway is the largest national institution. Indian Railway is the main medium of transportation to co-operatre in the economic fields of India such as agriculture, industries, trade service, etc.
→ It has a major contribution in national security, peace, management, to establish cultural and geographical unity and to maintain it.
→ India ranks first in Asia and second in world in railways.
→ First railway in India started in 1853 between Mumbai and Thane. There are three types of railway in India. These are: Broad Gauge, Metre Gauge and Narrow Gauge.
→ Indian Railway network is more dense in the states which have plain region, dense population, industrial development, intensive agriculture and have rich mineral fields. It is also useful for the speedy transfer of foodgrains, etc. during drought.
→ Konkan Railways has provided a good example by laying down railway tracks through Tunnels in the mountainous regions which were highly inaccessible.
→ The route between Dibrugadh and Kanniyakumari is the longest railway route in India.
→ Ahmedabad is the biggest railway station in Gujarat.
→ Waterways: There are two types of waterways in India:
- Internal waterways
- Oceanic waterways.
→ West Bengal, Assam, Tamil Nadu and Bihar are important states as river waterways. Steamers
and large boats use these permanent waterways.
→ To maintain the internal water transportation, the government has recognized the following waterways:
- National Waterway 1: Ganga River: Haldia-Allahabad 1620 km.
- National Waterway 2: Brahmaputra River: Dhubri-Sadia 891 km.
- National Waterway 3: West Coast Canal: Kollam-Kottapuram, Udyogamandel and Champakkara Canals 205 km
- National Waterway 4: Godavari Krishna River: Kakinada-Puducherry 1078 km
- National Waterway 5: Brahamani River: Goenkhali- Talcher 588 km.
→ India has about 7516 km long coastline. There are 13 major and about 200 minor ports.
→ After shipping corporation of India was established, there has been much development of national and international waterways.
→ Gujarat has got a long coastline of about 1600 km.
→ Kandla is the largest port of Gujarat.
→ Bhavnagar is the only port having automatic lock-gate system.
→ Porbander is a free port for the entire year.
→ Airways: It is the fastest, most comfortable and prestigious mode of transport.
→ Airways are used to reach distant places, remote and dense forests and those places which are not accessible easily by road.
→ Today Air India and other private companies provide air transportation services.
→ Today we have 15 international, 87 domestic, and 25 civilian airport terminals.
→ Pawanhans Helicopters provides helicopter services to ONGC and to government.
- It is used to transport liquid material such as water, mineral oil, natural gas and other liquids.
- An oil pipeline exists between NaharKatia to Mathura, Kalol to Koyali in Gujarat and from Salaya to Mathura.
- A pipeline has been installed from Bombay High upto Mumbai coast.
- In Gujarat, natural gas is transported through pipeline to Khambhat-Dhuvaran-Koyali- Ahmedabad.
- Ropeways: In mountainous regions, the summits are connected by ropeway to transport goods and passengers. There are about 100 ropeways in India.
- The arrangement to send or to collect information from one place to another is called Communication.
- The communication proved extremely useful in routine life for relief and rescue works at the time of natural disasters like flood, drought, cyclone, tsunami, etc.
- The communication system plays an important role in the economic, social and cultural progress and for maintaining national integration and unity.
• Communication can be divided into two parts:
- Individual communication system
- Mass communication system
(1) Individual communication system: Internet and smart phones are the effective among individual communication system, e-mail, E-commerce, exchange of currency, etc. have become very fast due to internet.
(2) Mass communication system: There are two mediums in mass communication system:
- Print Media which includes newspapers, magazines, pamphlets, etc.
- Electronic media which includes Akashwani (radio) and Doordarshan (television) etc.
(i) Prasar Bharti is the autonomus body for transmissions in the country. Its two deivisions are Akashwani and Doordashan.
(ii) There are about 415 radio stations in the country today. It broadcasts programmes in 23 languages.
(iii) The Indian National Satellite (INSAT) launched by India are multi-purpose systems, which is helpful to Doordashan for the forecast of weather, cyclone and thunderstorms, warning for disasters, research and other telecasts.
→ There are two types of trade systems in the country:
- Internal trade
- International trade.
→ Internal Trade: The commodities available in excessive quantity of one state is transported to another state and vice versa. This is known as internal trade.
→ International Trade: The system in which different countries of the world export and import their requirements, can be called international trade.
→ India imports iron, copper, petroleum, mineral oil, lubricants machines, perils, gemstones, edible oils, etc.
→ Indian export includes iron ore and minerals, goods such as bicycles, fans, sewing machines, cars, railway coaches, computer software, etc.
Transportation, Communication and Trade Class 10 GSEB Notes Important Terms
• Transportation: The movement of people and goods from one place to another is called transportation.
• Load carrying: The one who carries load is load carrying.
• Roadways: The only option to connect goods, man and the area is roads.
• Ropeways: In mountainous regions, the summits are connected by ropeway to transport goods and passengers.
• Communication system: The arrangement to send or to collect information from one place to another is called communication.
• Indian Railways: Country’s largest national institution Konkan Railway: An example of engineering skill
• SCI: Development of national and intemation waterways Individual communication system: Internet, smart phone
• Group communication system: Print and electronic mediums