Our Revision Notes for GSEB Class 10 Social Science Notes Chapter 13 Manufacturing Industries summarises the key points of a chapter and useful resource to prepare effectively for the upcoming board exams.
Manufacturing Industries Class 10 GSEB Notes Social Science Chapter 13
Manufacturing Industries Class 10 GSEB Notes
→ The process in which man can change the natural resources into usable conditions according to his intellectual, cultural and economic capacity is called “Industry”.
→ In India, the industrial traditions are found since Indus Valley civilization. At that time, India used to prepare cotton textile, clay utensils, things of bell metal and beads.
→ Manufacturing industries contribute about 29% of the national production of India.
→ In 1853, the first Industrial complex of iron furnace based on charcoal was founded, but it was failed.
→ First successful attempt was made in 1854, a factory was established at Kulti for making iron are which was
closed after a few years. It was restarted in 1881. In 1907, a new dimension was provided with the founding of Tata Iron and Steer Company at Jamshedpur
→ On the basis of labour, the industries can be classified as small scale industry and large scale industry.
→ Industries also can be classified as private, public, collaborative and cooperative groups.
→ On the basis of the source of the raw material, the industries can be classified into agro-based industries and mineral based industries.
→ Agro based Industries: Cotton textile, jute, silk, woollen textile, sugar, paper, etc. are industries based on the raw material obtained from activity based on agriculture.
→ Cotton textile industry: Textile Industry is the industry which provides maximum employment in the country. India holds second rank after China in the export of cotton textiles.
→ First cotton mill was established in Mumbai. Thereafter, Shahpur mills and Calico mills were established in Ahmedabad.
→ Today, cotton textile mills are located in about 100 cities of the country.
→ Main traditional and important cotton textile centres are Mumbai, Ahmedabad, Bhivandi, Solapur, Kolhapur, Nagpur, Indore and Ujjain.
→ There are more mills in Mumbai in Maharashtra, hence it is also called as cottonpolis of India.
→ The industry is also established at Pune, Kolhapur, Aurangabad, Jalgaon cities.
→Ahmedabad in Gujarat is called as “Manchester of the ‘East’ or ‘Denim city of India’.
→ Today cotton textile industry is facing a tough competition due to the factors like inadequate supply of best variety of cotton, use of old machinery, irregular electric supply, competition from artificial fibre cloth in the market and keen competition in global markets.
→ Jute textile Industry: Jute is second ranked major industry of India. India holds first place in the production of jute and goods made from jute.
→ India is at second place after Bangladesh in the export of Jute.
→ Much water is needed to purify jute. So most of the mills are located on the bank of Hoogli river.
→ This industry is concentrated in West Bengal due to cheap labour force, banks and insurance L coverage, port for export facility, etc.
→ Today, the demand for jute has decreased because of other options in packing material for
→ goods. Jute industry is facing such problems like more cost of production and decreasing its demand in international markets.
→ Silk Textile Industry: After China, India ranks second in the world in silk production.
→ In India, four types of silk are produced. There are mulberry, eri, tasar and muga.
→ Today there are about 300 silk weaving mills in India. Indian silk is facing a tough competition from China.
→ Woollen Textile Industry: As a cottage industry, the history of woollen textile industry is very old. India also produced woollen carpets. Woollen cloth is exported to America, Canada,Germany, France, Russia, etc.
→ Synthetic Textile Industry: The cloth made from synthetic fibre made by man is strong, durable and does not retain wrinkles. Hence this industry has developed very much. The cotton fibres are mixed with synthetic fibres to get mixed variety of cloth.
→ Sugar Industry: It stands second after textiles in agrarian industries in India,
→After reaping the crop of sugarcane, it has to be squeezed within 24 hours so that the amount of water is not reduced, otherwise its sugar contents will decrease. That is why the sugar factories are located near sugarcane growing centres.
→ Paper Industry: It is made out of soft wood, bamboo, grass, molasses, etc.
→ Iron and steel industry: This industry is the axis of modern industrial and the economic development. It is considered to be the base industry.
→ Machines and other constructions are produced from its productions. This can be also considered to be a key industry.
→ The first factory in India to produce iron was established at Portonova in Tamil Nadu. It was closed due to some reasons. A successful production of raw iron was made at Kulti.
→ In 1907, the factory established at Jamshedpur started producing iron-steel at a large scale.
→ The administration of all iron and steel factories except Tata is handed over to Steel Authority of India Limited (SAIL).
→ India ranks fifth in the world in iron and steel production.
→ Aluminium Refining Industry: After iron and steel industry, aluminium refining is another important industry. This mineral is light in weight, strong, malleable, smooth conductor of electricity and rustproof.
→ Bauxite is the aluminium ore. About 40 – 50% of expenses is incurred in electricity. So this industry is founded where hydro-electricity and bauxite are available easily.
→ Copper Refining: The usage of copper has increased due to its properties such as easy conductor of electricity, and it can be mixed with other minerals easily.
→ The first copper refining unit of India was established by Indian Copper Corporation (ICC) at Ghatshila in Jharkhand.
→ In 1972, ICC was handed over to Hindustan Copper Limited. Besides HCL today, copper is produced by private sector also.
→ Chemical Industry: The chemical industry is important in India. Chemical are of two types i.e. Organic and Inorganic chemicals.
→ Petrochemicals is the main organic chemical industry. It is used in artificial fibres, artificial rubber, plastic goods, colour, chemicals and in medicines.
→ Chemical Fertilizer Industry: First chemical fertilizer factory of India was established in 1906 at Ranipat in Tamil Nadu.
→ The development of this industry started when fertilizer corporation of India established its factory at Sindri.
→ Plastic Industry: It is also known as ‘Sunrise Industry’. There has been a constant increase in the demand of raw material for plastic.
→ Plastic it is waterproof and can fit into any mould. Hence, It is used in packing chemicals, textiles, building construction, vehicle manufacturing, electronics, etc.
→ Cement Industry: Cement is inevitable in construction of, roads, dams etc. India ranks second after China in cement production. It produces about 6% of the world production.
→ Limestone, coal, gypsum, bauxite, clay etc. are the raw material for cement industry.
→ Railway: Railways manufacture the equipment of its own requirement by itself, such as railway engines, passenger coaches, goods coaches etc. These are also produced privately. There are three types pf railway engines- steam, diesel, electric.
→ Road Vehicles: The road vehicles are manufactured mostly by private sector. India ranks fifth in the world in the production of commercial vehicles.
→ Today, the vehicles and their spare parts manufactured in India are exported to foreign countries.
→ Tractors and cycles are produced at very large scale and we export them overseas.
→ Ship-building industry: This is an ancient industry in India. In recent times, there are the centres to build modern ship.
→ We have also started building helicopters. But the building of aircrafts for travelling has still not started.
→ Electronic Industry: Radio sets and telephone industry was established in India in 1905. This can be said to be the beginning of electronic industry in India.
→ Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL) was established in 1956 in Bengaluru to manufacture equipments for Akashwani and weather department. It produces various electronic equipments in collaboration with India Space Research Organization.
→ Bengaluru has become capital of this industry. It is also called ‘Silicon Valley of India’.
→ Software park, science park and technological park are established for the development of this industry. The future of this industry in India is very optimistic.
→ Industries have increased pollution and the environment has degraded.
→ When the environmental conditions deteriorate due to natural or man-made factors, the quality of environment is reduced which is called environmental degradation.
→ Mainly four types of pollutions are created due to industries i.e. air pollution, water pollution,
land pollution and noise pollution.
→ The amount of pollution can be reduced with proper planning for industrial development. Pollution can be reduced also by selection of the quality equipment and fuel.
→ The air pollution can be curbed through filters, scrubbers, precipitators etc.
→ The water pollution can be prevented by releasing industrial effluents after proper treatment. Industrial water can be purified after due treatment.
Manufacturing Industries Class 10 GSEB Notes Important Terms
• Industrial revolution: Fundamental changes observed in the equipments of manufacturing process to obtain more industrial production in England during 1750 to 1850 AO. It is called industrial revolution.
• Economic development: Per head income of people of the country increases at high rate compared to previous and life style of people or standard of life improves, it is called economic development.
• Private endeavour: Factories of company owner, firm and a person.
• Public enterprise: Factories of government ownership.
• Joint venture: The ownenrship of the business is jointly possessed by public sector and private sector is called joint venture.
• FCI: Fertilizer Corporation of India.
• ISRO: Indian Space Research Organization.