Our Revision Notes for GSEB Class 9 Social Science Notes Chapter 5 Movement Towards Independence summarises the key points of a chapter and useful resource to prepare effectively for the upcoming board exams.
Movement Towards Independence Class 9 GSEB Notes Social Science Chapter 5
Movement Towards Independence Class 9 GSEB Notes
→ The period from 1920-1947 is considered as Gandhian age and the Gandhian movements struggle for Independence.
→ It is the struggle for the Indian freedom too.
→ Government appointed Simon commission. The commission consisted of Sir John Simon and Seven other members. All of them were members of the British Parliament.
→ There was not a single Indian as a member.
→ Indian recommended inclusion of Indian members in the commission but Britishers rejected this recommendation.
→ So, the Indians decided to oppose it. The Assistant Police Suprintendent ordered lathi charge on Lalaji’s procession. He was injured seriously while taking the lead of the procession in Lahore.
→ Few months later he passed away. The news of Lalaji’s death instigated Veer Bhagat singh, Sukdev and Rajguru, therefore they killed Saunders.
→ Hindi Vazeer Burkenhead presented a draft of the Constitution as in Simon Commission in which, it stated that the Indian leaders of all parties formulate appropriate constitution which the British government will further think upon.
→ National General Assembly President drafted Nehru Report which states the Dominion status, independent judiciary, Fundamental rights, and Adult Suffrage.
→ Youth of India were not happy with the Dominion Status. On the banks of the river Raavi in Lahore, under the leadership of Jawaharlal Nehru, National General Assembly passed a resoultuion of Complete Independence.
→ After that, on 26th January, 1930, the members took the oath of complete independence.
→ Since then January 26th has become memorable for all of us.
→ Asa part of Civil Disobedience Movement, Gandhiji j decided to go to Dandi village by its sea- coast to break the Salt law.
→ On 12th March, 1930, under his leadership Gandhiji commenced Dandi Yatra with his supporters from Harijan Ashram.
→ This march was 370kms. On early morning of April 6th, Gandhiji broke the salt law by picking a handful of salt from the seacoast.
→ Shri Mahadevbhai Desai has compared this event as ‘Mahabhiniskraman -the great renunciation.
→ During Dandi March, numerous constructive programmes like boycott of foreign clothes, prohibition of liquor, removing untochability, Hindu-Muslim unity and oath to do social services etc were held.
→ The first round table conference was organized in London in 1930. It failed due to non participation of congress.
→ Gandhiji attended the Second Round Table Congerence as the sole nominee of the congress.
→ The Cripps Mission’s Proposals indicated that the British government did not want to give independence to India. Gandhiji asked people not to be disappointed and prepare for a final struggle.
→ Keeping in mind the World war situation the congress Working Committee decided to end the Individual Satyagrah.
→ On 8th August by the All India Congress Committee passed resolution for the Quit India
→ Gandhiji declared that this is my final struggle for Independence and gave slogan ‘Do or Die’ to the people of India.
→ Gandhiji and other prominent leaders were arrested early morning on 9th August,1942. Newspapers were banned.
→ The rural and urban regions of the country including workers, farmers, youth, students, teachers, businessmen and women were in the Forefront of this movement.
→ The government attempt to-suppress the agitation was resisted by people. They resorted to violence and destruction.
→ Subhashchandra Bose was bom on 23rd January, 1897 at Cuttack-odisha.
→ He passed the Indian civil service examination.
→ He joined India’s freedom struggle in 1921 at a very early age, he was twice elected as the President of the Indian National Congress.
→ He left Congress and founded Forward Bloc after his differences with Gandhiji.
→ He was arrested under Indian Defence Code and imprisoned.
→ He managed to escape from the house arrest and reached Berlin-Germany.
→ There after he reached Japan by a submarine in 1943.
→ He went to Singapore on 2nd July, 1943 and took over the leadership of the Indian Independence League and the Indian National Army. He was fondly called ‘Netaji’.
→ He formed the Provisional Indian Government and appointed his council of ministers.
→ He gave the slogans: Chalo Delhi, and Turn muze khoondo mein tume Azadi doonga.
→ In May, 1944, under the leadership of Netaji, his military units captured Rangoon, Prom, Kohima. Then it marched towards Imphal.
→ After the dropping of two atom bombs at Nagasaki and Hiroshima in Japan, the financial assistance to the provisional government stopped.
→ British aircrafts started warfare against Azad Hind Fauj and so the condition became critical.
→ On August 18, 1945 he started from Taipei airport of Formosa for Tokyo (Japan).But his plane caught fire and he got serious bums and while undergoing treatment, he died.
→ On February 20, 1947 Attlee, the Prime Minister of Britain announced that the British Government shall give all the powers to the Government of India as per the Cabinet Mission formula and shall quit India by June 1948.
→ Mountbatten was appointed as Viceroy in place of Lord Waved. When he took charge of his post, communal riots had started in India, the condition of India had become pathetic.
→ The League pressurised the government for Pakistan, on 16″ August, 1946. So terrible communal riots and tumult spread all over India.
→ Looking at the situation in India ,sardar Patel, Jawarharlal Nehru and other congress leaders felt there was no other alternative except accept- ing the demand of Muslim League for Pakistan, because Muslim League and Jinnah insisted for separate Pakistan.
→ On March 24, Viceroy Mountbatten presented his scheme.
→ According to him, there was no altema- tive other than the Par- tition of India. National and prolific leaders like Sardar Patel under- stood the matter.
→ After many discus-sions and pondering, finally on June 3, 1947 Viceroy Mountbatten decided to plan the Freedom and Acceptamce of Partiton in Meeting partition of India.
→ This plan is known as Mountbatten Plan.
→ When Mountbatten Plan started getting implemented, the people of East Bengal and Sylhet province of Assam decided to join East Pakistan, West Bengal and East Bengal were affiliated with India as per decision of their assembly West Punjab joined with Pakistan. It was decided to affiliate Northwest Province, Sindh and Baluchistan with Pakistan.
→ The British Parliament passed the Indian Independence Act according to Mountbatten Plan.
According to this, India’s first Governor General was Mountbatten and Janab Jinnah was the Governor General of Pakistan. ‘
→ India becoming Independent and the immediate problems of it India and Pakistan, two separate, Independent nations, came into existence as a result of Mountbatten Plan and Indian Independence Act, 1947.
→ India solved the tremendous problem of rehabilitation and restoration very skilfully and patiently.
→ The then Deputy Prime Minister and Home Minister SardarVallabhbhaiPatel merged about 562 small and big Princely States if India into ‘Indian Union’. Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel’s strong determination, iron will and diplomatic negotiations solved the problems.