This GSEB Class 8 Social Science Notes Chapter 12 India-Post Independence covers all the important topics and concepts as mentioned in the chapter.
India-Post Independence Class 8 GSEB Notes
→ India attained independence on 15th August, 1947.
→ On 14th August, 1947 Pakistan separated from India.
→ Major challenges that had to be faced immediately after independence were:
- Rehabilitation of 80 lakh refugees who had come into India from Pakistan
- As many as 562 small and big states of India had to be integrated into United India and
- To build a stable political system to fulfil people’s hopes and build a strong India.
→ The British always followed the policy of ‘Divide and Rule’
→ They propagated that Hindus and Muslims had different interests and cultures.
→ Many Muslim leaders were convinced that the Muslim community would not be safe and their socio-political and cultural interests will not be taken care of in independent India. So these Muslim leaders were in favour of a separate nation (Pakistan) so that both the countries could flourish independently.
→ In the Lahore Session of March, 1940. the Muslim League passed the resolution that Pakistan would be formed in areas that had majority of Muslims. Thereafter, the demand for Pakistan became the main goal of the Muslim League.
→ Viceroy Lord Mountbatten was of the opinion that partition was an inevitable condition to India’s independence. Otherwise the entire country would face communal riots and many people would suffer.
→ Viceroy Lord Mountbatten prepared a plan for the partition of India which was known as the ‘Mountbatten Plan’. The British Parliament passed the ‘Indian Independence Act: 1947’ that finalized the arrangements for partition and abandoned British sovereignty over the princely states.
→ The main clauses of the ‘Mountbatten Plan’:
- Sikhs, Hindus and Muslims in Punjab and Bengal would vote for partition but Sindh was to take its own decision.
- India would be independent by 15th August and separate independence for Bengal was ruled out.
- The princely states could join any one of the unions and if they were not willing to do so, they were free to remain independent.
→ According to ‘Indian Independence Act’ and ‘Mountbatten Plan’ India was divided into two – India and Pakistan.
→ Lord Mountbatten was appointed as the first Governor General of independent India.
→ Mohammad Ali Jinnah was appointed as the first President of independent Pakistan.
→ Sindh, Baluchistan, West Punjab, North-West Frontier and East Bengal were included in Pakistan. The rest of the regions remained in India.
→ Amid great rejoicing, Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of independent India, unfurled the Tricolour flag of our country at the Red Fort in Delhi on 15th August, 1947, and replaced the Union Jack of Britain for the first time.
→ At the time of independence there were about 562 states in our country.
→ The most important and challenging task of merging these princely states into the Indian Union was completed by the Deputy Prime Minister and Home
→ Minister Shri Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel and his secretary Shri V. E Menon. With their excellent diplomatic skills and their appeals to the patriotism of the various kings, they successfully merged 559 states into the Indian Union.
→ The first princely state to accept the merger was the King of Bhavnagar, Maharaj Krishnakumar Singhji.
→ In the end, only three states were reluctant to cooperate- Junagadh, Hyderabad and Kashmir.
→ People launched a protest against the Nawab of Junagadh. Leaders like Ratubhai Adani and others established ‘Arzi Hakumat’. Sardar Patel conducted a referendum and declared Junagadh as a part of the Indian Union as per the people’s will.
→ ‘Military action’ was taken against the Nizam of Hyderabad and in the end this state was also merged into the Indian Union.
→ Pakistan attacked Kashmir in 1948 C.E. At that time, the King of Kashmir, Harisingh, officially joined the Indian Union.
→ Indians will always remain indebted to Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel and V R Menon for their mammoth task of securing the unity and integrity of the princely states into the Indian Union.
→ Gandhiji was assassinated by Nathuram Godse on 30th January, 1948.
→ This sad news was announced on the radio by Jawaharlal Nehru in the following words : “Friends and comrades, the light has gone out of our lives and there is darkness everywhere. I do not know what to tell you and how to say it. Our beloved leader, Bapu as we called him, the ‘Father of the Nation’ is no more.”
→ Our government successfully faced the challenge of rehabilitating the lakhs of refugees that had come into India from Pakistan. They were given food, shelter, employment and compassion.
→ The Constituent Assembly was formed in 1946 C.E. to frame the constitution of independent India.
→ Dr Babasaheb Ambedkar was appointed the Chairman of the Drafting Committee.
→ Dr Rajendra Prasad was the President of the Constituent Assembly (Constitution Committee).
→ The constitution of India was implemented on 26th January, 1950. So this day is known and celebrated as Republic Day.
→ Chakraborty Rajgopalachari was the last Indian Governor General of independent India.
→ Dr Rajendra Prasad became the first President of independent India.
→ Thus, 26th January is celebrated as ‘Republic Day’ and 15th August is celebrated as ‘Independence Day
→ These are our national festivals. We celebrate both these festivals with great pomp and show.