This GSEB Class 8 Social Science Notes Chapter 11 The United Nations (U.N.) covers all the important topics and concepts as mentioned in the chapter.
The United Nations (U.N.) Class 8 GSEB Notes
→ Massive destruction was caused in most of the countries during World War I. People wanted peace and historical experience proved that it was essential to establish an international organization to safeguard peace in the world, unite countries and promote co-operation.
→ The president of U.S.A., Woodrow Wilson, was the first one to present the idea of a world organization.
→ As a result, the League of Nations was established in April, 1920 with an objective of maintaining peace and co-operation at an international level.
→ The League of Nations tried to prevent war between nations by solving disputes diplomatically. But it failed as it could not protect weaker nations from being attacked by the stronger ones.
→ The World War II broke out in 1939. During the World War, the then President of U.S.A., Franklin D. Roosevelt put in efforts to establish a world organization.
→ On 24th October, 1945 United Nations Organization (U.N.) was established. The U.N. started with 51 nations as its members. Today the number has grown to 193.
→ Main objectives of U.N.:
- To maintain international peace and safety.
- To promote the feeling of friendship among member nations.
- To solve economic, social, cultural and humanity related problems at international level.
- To seek co-operation to create a feeling of respect for human rights and the fundamental right to freedom.
→ These objectives are realized by the six organs of the U.N.
→ Six organs of United Nations :
- Secretariat: Implements the decisions taken by various organs of U.N.
- General Assembly : The organization of countries to discuss and solve international issues.
- Security Council: It works to safeguard inter¬national peace and security.
- International Court of Justice : Solves disputes among member nations.
- Trusteeship Council: It helps nations to acquire freedom from foreign rule.
- Economic and Social Council: It works to improve the economic and social conditions for the welfare of people.
→ The General Assembly of United Nations (U.N.) can also be called the ‘World Parliament’. Representatives of all member nations attend it.
→ Mrs Vijayalaxmi Pandit of India was elected as the President of the General Assembly of United Nations in 1953-54.
→ The assembly presented the Universal Declaration of Human Rights on 10th December, 1948.
→ Security Council is the most important organ of the U.N. It has 15 members, of which, 5 countries i.e. U.S.A., Great Britain, France, Russia and China are permanent while the other 10 are temporary.
→ The Security Council enjoys tremendous powers to manage peace and security in the world. Its aim is, as far as possible, to solve disputes between nations diplomatically.
→ The head of the U.N. is known as ‘Secretary-General’. He is appointed by the General Assembly on the recommendation of the Security Council.
→ ‘Veto Power’ or ‘Right to Deny’ is a negative vote cast against a proposal made in the Security Council. All five permanent members, who have the ‘Veto Power’, must agree over any decision. If not, they can cast ‘a negative vote’, and the decision or resolution cannot be passed.
→ The main objective of the United Nations (U.N.) is to foster social, economic, cultural and educational development of people and help them to improve their standard of living by generating employment opportunities.
→ Various organizations have been established to work in specific areas to achieve the objectives of the U.N.
→ The headquarters of World Health Organization (WHO) are located at Geneva in Switzerland.
→ The main function of World Health Organization (WHO) is to make efforts to improve physical and mental health of people of the world.
→ The headquarters of UNESCO are located in Paris, the capital of France.
→ The main function of UNESCO is to contribute to peace and security through education, science and culture. It aims to further universal respect for justice, law and human rights.
→ The headquarters of International Labour Organization (ILO) are located at Geneva in Switzerland.
→ The main function of the ILO is to promote rights at work, encourage decent employment opportunities, enhance social protection and strengthen dialogue on work-related issues.
→ The headquarters of UNICEF are located in New York City of U.S.A.
→ The main function of UNICEF is to provide long-term humanitarian and developmental assistance to children and mothers in developing countries to obtain good standard of living and nutritious food and organize children welfare programmes.
→ The headquarters of Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) are situated in Rome, the capital of Italy.
→ The main function of the FAO is to ensure that people get a regular supply of enough and high quality of food. To promote agriculture.
→ The headquarters of World Bank / International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (WB / IBRD) are situated in Washington D.C., the capital of U.S.A.
→ The main function of World Bank (IBRD) is to provide low-interest loans, interest-free credits and grants to developing countries. These support a wide array of investments in such areas as education, health, public administration, infrastructure, financial and private sector development, agriculture and environmental and natural resource management.
→ India has adopted the strategy of solving disputes with foreign countries through the U.N.
→ India has always contributed on a large scale to peace keeping forces of the U.N. India had sent a team of doctors to treat the wounded soldiers in the Korean war. Indian delegates holding various posts in the U.N. have contributed to the welfare with their knowledge and experience.
→ The great ideals of ‘PanchsheeV are a gift of India to the world.
→ If all the countries of the world co-operate with the United Nations world peace can be achieved in the real sense.
→ All the countries of the world must resolve to stop producing deadly weapons. Crores of rupees can be saved if this race ends. This money can be used for human