This GSEB Class 8 Social Science Notes Chapter 10 Following the Mahatma Part II covers all the important topics and concepts as mentioned in the chapter.
Following the Mahatma Part II Class 8 GSEB Notes
→ The Indian National Congress that met in Ahmedabad authorized Gandhiji with all the rights to launch the Civil Disobedience Movement in order to attain Swaraj (freedom).
→ The British government had made salt a taxable commodity. Moreover, they monopolized the production and trade of salt. Mahatma Gandhi and other nationalists felt that it was unjust to put a tax on salt as it is the most essential component of our daily diet. So Gandhiji announced that he would carry out a march to break the salt law.
→ On 12th March, 1930 Gandhiji, along with 78 companions, had started the Dandi March from Sabarmati Ashram in Ahmedabad.
→ Gandhiji reached Dandi on 5th April, 1930. The next day, i.e., on 6th April, he reached the Dandi seacoast and picked up a fistful of salt and broke the salt law. He was arrested.
→ The British government convened Round Table Conferences in London to discuss constitutional changes required for India.
→ The First Round Table Conference organized in London was boycotted by Indian National Congress. So, the First Round Table Conference was unsuccessful.
→ Gandhiji attended the Second Round Table Conference held in London in 1931 as the sole representative of the Indian National Congress. Since the communal problems could not be solved, this conference also proved unsuccessful. Gandhiji returned to India with a heavy heart.
→ The Government of India Act of 1935 was the second phase of constitutional changes in India.
→ According to Dr Rajendra Prasad, the degree of autonomy introduced at provincial level was limited. Provincial governors retained important reserved powers and British authorities also retained the right to suspend responsible government.
→ Elections were held as per the act. Gandhiji suggested that governors should not exercise the exclusive powers granted to them but should act as per the advice of the elected provincial ministries. Gandhiji said that the Congress would form the Federal Legislature only on this guarantee.
→ When the 2nd World War broke out in 1939 the British government declared that India would be a part of it without first consulting the Federal Legislature. The heads of various committees resigned in protest.
→ Mohammad Iqbal and Choudhary Rehmat All were the Muslim Leaders who propagated that Hindus and Muslims should form two separate nations.
→ The resolution to demand Pakistan was passed in the Muslim League session held at Lahore in March, 1940. Thereafter, the formation of Pakistan became the main objective of the Muslim League.
→ During World War II, Gandhiji started Individual Satyagraha instead of Mass Satyagraha as he was not willing to put the British government into an embarrassing situation during wartime.
→ Vinoba Bhave started his Individual Satyagraha by delivering an anti-war speeches.
→ In 1942 Gandhiji asked the British to leave India immediately.
→ Gandhiji asked the people of India to follow the principle of ‘Do or Die’ and to continue the struggle against the British in a non-violent manner.
→ The historical resolution of ‘Quit India’ was passed on 8th August, 1942, during the Mumbai session of the Indian National Congress.
→ Gandhiji and other leaders were arrested on 9th August. This gave new impetus to the movement. Thus, the ‘Quit India’ movement spread all over the country. To curb this movement, the government adopted suppressive measures like mass arrest; however, they were unsuccessful in stopping the Indians. So the British government realized that now their hold over the people of India would not be for long. This revolution is of great importance in India’s struggle for freedom.
→ The Prime Minister of Britain, Mr Clement Atlee sent a Cabinet Mission in 1946 to India that aimed to discuss and plan for the transfer of power from the British to Indian leadership thereby conferring India with complete independence (Purna Swaraj).
→ The Congress secured majority in the elections that followed and Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru was the Prime Minister of the interim government that was formed during this time.
→ On 20th February, 1947, the British Prime Minister announced that powers would be completely transferred to India latest by June 1948.
→ The enthusiasm of Indian leaders and common people knew no bounds. Gandhiji welcomed this decision of the British by saying that it was their best decision.