GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 1 Socio-Religious Reforms

   

Gujarat Board GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 1 Socio-Religious Reforms Textbook Exercise Important Questions and Answers, Notes Pdf.

Gujarat Board Textbook Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 1 Socio-Religious Reforms

GSEB Class 8 Social Science Socio-Religious Reforms Textbook Questions and Answers

1. Answer the questions given below:

Question 1.
Which were the various evil customs prevalent in our society before independence?
Answer:
Before independence (i.e. before 1947 C.E.) various evils like superstition, doubts, child marriage, denial of widow remarriage, the practice of ‘sati’, female infanticide as soon as she was born (by drowning her in milk – known as ‘dudhpiti’), polygamy, dowry system, selling of girls, etc. were prevalent in India.

Question 2.
What recommendations were made to the British government by Raja Ram Mohan Roy?
Answer:
Raja Ram Mohan Roy recommended many changes to the British government like freedom of press, freedom of speech, women’s rights, keeping the judiciary and the administration separate, etc. and to give more government jobs to Indians.

Question 3.
Which activities did the Arya Samaj’ do for society?
Answer:
The ‘Arya Samaj’ did the following activities for society:
1. The Arya Samaj started a ‘reconversion’ movement whereby Hindus who had changed their religion could be reinstated into their original religion. After Swami Dayanand’s death leaders like Lala Hansraj, Pandit Gurudutt and Lala Lajpat Rai continued the activities of the Arya Samaj. In 1902 C.E. Swami Shraddhanand established the ‘Kangdi Gurukul’ near Haridwar.

2. The Arya Kanya School was started at Vadodara, Gujarat where girls were taught discipline, dignity of labour, tolerance, patience and moral values.

3. What did Swami Dayanand Saraswati do for the people?
Answer:
Dayanand Saraswati studied the Vedas and advised the people to ‘Return to the Vedas’. He wrote a book named ‘Satyartha Prakash’. Through this book he proved that there is no mention of idol worship, religious rituals, child marriage, ‘sati’ system, untouchability in the Vedas. He, therefore, revolted against these vices.

Question 4.
Which were the activities of the Ram Krishna Mission?
Answer:
Swami Vivekanand established the ‘Ram Krishna Mission’ at Kolkata in the name of his guru. The headquarters were at Bellur. The mission adopted Swami Vivekanand’s ideals as well as the slogan ‘Service to man is service to God.’ The mission opened schools to impart education. It also provides social education, medical treatment and other such activities nationally as well as internationally.

Question 5.
How did Thakkar Bapa and his followers contribute to the social reforms in Gujarat?
Answer:
Thakkar Bapa and his companions did the following work:

  • Thakkar Bapa established the ‘Panchmahal Bhil Sewa Mandal’. He brought about huge reforms in the lives of the Bhil tribes that inhabited the jungles and hilly regions of the Panchmahal district.
  • He helped these tribal people to free themselves from alcohol addiction, evil customs and superstitions.
  • He opened schools for the Bhil children. He taught them how to spin the wheel (charkha) to produce khadi and also involved them in many cottage industries.

Fill in the blanks with appropriate words:

Question 1.
Raja Ram Mohan Roy was born In ………………….. village.
Answer:
Radhanagar

Question 2.
The law banning the practice of Sail Pratha was passed by ……………………… .
Answer:
the then Governor-General Lord William Bentinck

Question 3.
Dayanand Saraswatl wrote a book named …………………… .
Answer:
Satyarth Prakash

Question 4.
………………………. was the Guru of Swami Vivekanand.
Answer:
Ramakrishna

Question 5.
The magazine named Rashta Goftar was started by …………… organization.
Answer:
Dadabhai Naoroji and Kharshedji Cama

2. Write a short note on the following characters:
Question 1.
Jyotiba Phule
Answer:
Jyotiba Phule was the well-known social reformer of Maharashtra. In 1857 C.E. he started schools in Pune for girls. To inculcate confidence, courage and enthusiasm in people he established the ‘Satyashodhak Samaj’ in 1873 C.E.
He undertook the work of uplifting women and Dalit classes. He helped widows to remarry. He challenged the supremacy of Brahmins in society. Jyotiba Phule made a noteworthy contribution towards abolishing untouchability and educating girls.

Question 2.
Swami Vivekanand
Answer:
Swami Vivekanand’s original name was Narendranath. He came in contact with Ram Krishna Paramhans who reciprocated his quest for knowledge. So Narendra became a disciple of Ram Krishna Paramhans and then an ascetic acquiring the name of Swami Vivekanand. He studied Indian and Western philosophy extensively. Swami Vivekanand advised people to ‘Serve the poor’ and seek God in needy people. He imbibed pride for our rich cultural heritage and faith in a bright future for Indian youngsters. He gave the slogan of ‘Arise, awake and stop not till the goal is achieved to the people of India. He explained Indian culture and philosophy with his influential speech at the Parliament of Religions in Chicago, USA.

He propagated Indian culture to countries like the US, Egypt, China, Japan, etc. by touring all over the world. In 1897 C.E. Swami Vivekanand established the ‘Ram Krishna Mission’ at Kolkata in the name of his guru. The headquarters were at Bellur. The mission adopted Swami Vivekanand’s ideals as well as the slogan ‘Service to man is service to God.’ The mission opened schools to impart education. Unfortunately, in 1902 C.E. this great man, Swami Vivekanand died at the young age of 40. A memorial has been erected in his memory at the southern tip of India in Kanniyakumari.

Question 3.
Thakkar Bapa
Answer:
Thakkar Bapa (Amrutlal Thakkar) was born in Bhavnagar in 1869. Being inspired by Gandhiji he left his lucrative engineering job to serve the downtrodden people of society throughout his life. To reform the lives of tribal people (Bhils) who inhabited the deep forests and hilly areas of Panchmahal he established the ‘Panchmahal Bhil Sewa Mandal’. Thakkar Bapa’s contribution as the head of ‘Akhil Hind Harijan Sangh’ established by Gandhiji was very valuable for the upliftment of untouchables (Harijans).

Match the pairs correctly :

Section ‘A’ Section ‘B’
(1) Brahmo Samaj (1) Dayanand Saraswati
(2) Arya Samaj (2) Thakkar Bapa
(3) Ram Krishna Mission (3) Saiyad Ahmed Khan and Shariatullah
(4) Wahabi Movement (4) Swami Vivekanand
(5) Panchmahal Bhil Seva Mandal (5) Raja Ram Mohan Roy

Answer:
(1-5),
(2-1),
(3-4),
(4-3),
(5-2).

Activities

1. Collect pictures of social reformers of the 19th century and make an album.
2. Prepare a list of the evil and orthodox practices still rampant in India.
3. If you see blind faith being practised at a house in your village what will you do? What will you say at such a place?

GSEB Class 8 Social Science Socio-Religious Reforms Intext Questions and Answers

Think Questions and Answers

Question 1.
What will you do to eradicate any superstitious or evil practice prevalent in your village/community?
Answer:
Mr Karsan Patel’s father, Mr Devji Patel passed away in our village. On the 12th day after his death, Karsan Patel had arranged a huge lunch ceremony in his father’s memory as one of the rituals to be done after a death according to Hindu religion. About 2000 villagers would partake of the food which would definitely have the traditional ‘laddoos’. On the eve of that day I along with 10 of my closest friends went to Karsan Patel’s house. He was sitting with important people as well as his well-wishers from the village.

They were discussing the arrangements made for the next day’s lunch ritual. All my friends and I saluted the elders and requested them with folded hands to stop next day’s lunch ritual. We informed them that nowhere in our religious scriptures or literature is there any reference to such a luncheon to be held after a person’s death. The death of a person is a sad event and so it is not proper to have a lunch ceremony at such a time.

Such a ritual is in actual fact a social evil. In this age of Science all of us should bid a farewell to such orthodox customs. It is good to follow customs but to stick to them rigidly is suicidal – we explained the truth of these words to Karsan Patel and his family members. We also requested them to use the money that would be spent on the luncheon ceremony for the welfare of the poor and the needy. We asked them to stop the lunch ritual and organise an evening of ‘bhajans’ instead.

Question 2.
What do the words ‘superstition’ and ‘evil custom’ mean to you?
Answer:
Where there is faith without understanding, it is known as ‘blind faith’. For e.g., while leaving home for some good work if one sneezes one feels that it is a bad omen; this is superstition or blind faith. When someone breaks a glass object, it is a good omen-this is also superstition.

Social pollution or evil practices are known as orthodox customs. For e.g., the dowry system-at the time of a girl’s marriage, the girl’s father has to give a lot of money etc. to the boy according to his status and the boy’s demands. But this custom is actually against good social customs. Even if the girl’s father is incapable of giving such a lot of things he is forced to do so and give a hefty amount in cash and costly gifts to the boy’s family. Such an evil practice proves very troublesome for the girl and her parents.

Question 3.
Why did Raja Ram Mohan Roy start a newspaper?
Answer:
Raja Ram Mohan Roy was an important social reformer. He established the ‘Brahmo Samaj’ in 1828 C.E.
In order to spread the principles of the Brahmo Samaj he started two newspapers viz. the ‘Samvad Kaumudi’ in Bengali and the ‘Mirat-ul-Akbar’ in Persian.

Question 4.
What is the status of education of girls in your community? What activities would you take up to promote education of girls in the community?
Answer:
Education of girls in my community is increasing with each passing day. People have become aware of the importance of educating girls. They have understood Chacha Nehru’s words ‘When you educate a woman you educate a family.’ In the villages around us also many girls have started going not only to school but also to college.

To promote girl education my friends and I would ensure that all the houses send their girls to school. We would ask our domestic helpers to send their children (girls) to school so that they will not remain domestic helpers when they grow up but can hold better jobs with their education.

We would support the ‘Save the girl child’ mission and participate actively in its programs. We would go to slums and teach the girls living there so that their future becomes bright.

GSEB Class 8 Social Science Socio-Religious Reforms Additional Important Questions and Answers

Choose the correct alternative from those given below each question:

1.
Question 1.
Who was the first torch-bearer of the socio-religious reform revolution of the 19th century in India?
A. Dayanand Saraswati
B. Swami Vivekanand
C. Raja Ram Mohan Roy
D. Justice Ranade
Answer:
C. Raja Ram Mohan Roy

Question 2.
Who established the Brahmo Samaj?
A. Raja Ram Mohan Roy
B. Justice Ranade
C. Swami Vivekanand
D. Dayanand Saraswati
Answer:
A. Raja Ram Mohan Roy

Question 3.
Which Bengali newspaper did Raja Ram Mohan Roy start in 1821 C.E.?
A. Anand Patrika
B. Subhodh Patrika
C. Tatvabodhini Patrika
D. Samvad Kaumudi
Answer:
D. Samvad Kaumudi

Question 4.
When did Raja Ram Mohan Roy establish the Brahmo Samaj?
A. In 1828 C.E.
B. In 1831 C.E.
C. In 1821 C.E.
D. In 1838 C.E.
Answer:
A. In 1828 C.E.

Question 5.
Who framed the law banning ‘sati’ system in India?
A. Lord Wellesley
B. Lord Bentinck
C. Lord Dalhousie
D. Lord Curzon
Answer:
B. Lord William Bentinck

Question 6.
When did Lord William Bentinck pass the law banning the ‘sati’ system?
A. In 1818 C.E.
B. In 1839 C.E.
C. In 1829 C.E.
D. In 1828 C.E.
Answer:
C. In 1829 C.E.

Question 7.
With whom did Dayanand Saraswati study Hindu literature in Mathura?
A. Swami Vivekanand
B. Swami Sahajanand
C. Swami Ram Krishna Paramhans
D. Swami Virajanand
Answer:
D. Swami Virajanand

Question 8.
Which book did Dayanand Saraswati write ?
A. Avesta
B. Arya Prakash
C. Satyarth Prakash
D. Subodh Prakash
Answer:
C. Satyarth Prakash

Question 9.
Who established the Arya Samaj?
A. Dayanand Saraswati
B. Swami Vivekanand
C. Raja Ram Mohan Roy
D. Ishwarchandra Vidhyasagar
Answer:
A. Dayanand Saraswati

Question 10.
In which language did Dayanand Saraswati explain and spread the principles of Arya Samaj?
A. In Hindi
B. In English
C. In a local language
D. In Sanskrit
Answer:
A. In Hindi

2.
Question 11.
Who established the ‘Kangdi Gurukul’ near Haridwar in 1902 C.E.?
A. Lala Lajpat Rai
B. Swami Shraddhanand
C. Pandit Gurudutt
D. Lala Hansraj
Answer:
B. Swami Shraddhanand

Question 12.
Who was the priest at the Kali Temple situated at Dakshineshwar near Kolkata?
A. Swami Par am an and
B. Swami Vivekanand
C. Swami Saraswati
D. Ram Krishna Paramhans
Answer:
D. Ram Krishna Paramhans

Question 13.
What was Swami Vivekanand’s original name?
A. Surendranath
B. Ravindranath
C. Ram Krishna
D. Narendranath
Answer:
D. Narendranath

Question 14.
What was the name of Swami Vivekanand’s guru?
A. Ram Krishna
B. Swami Virajanand
C. Radha Krishna
D. Gopi Krishna
Answer:
A. Ram Krishna

Question 15.
Swami Vivekanand represented India at the Parliament of Religions organised in …………. city of USA.
A. Chicago
B. New York
C. Washington
D. Los Angeles
Answer:
A. Chicago

Question 16.
Who established the Ram Krishna Mission?
A. Dayanand Saraswati
B. Swami Vivekanand
C. Swami Virajanand
D. Swami Ram Krishna
Answer:
B. Swami Vivekanand

Question 17.
Which revolution did Saiyad Ahmed Khan and Shariatullah start?
A. Janabi
B. Akali
C. Inqualabi
D. Wahabi
Answer:
D. Wahabi

Question 18.
Who established the Muslim college in Aligadh?
A. Sir Saiyad Ahmed Khan
B. Nawab Abdul Latif
C. Sir Saiyad Mohammed Khan
D. Shariatullah
Answer:
A. Sir Saiyad Ahmed Khan

Question 19.
Where was the Khalsa college set up to impart English education to Sikhs?
A. In Ludhiana
B. In Chandigarh
C. In Patiala
D. In Amritsar
Answer:
D. In Amritsar

Question 20.
Due to whose efforts did the British government frame a law in 1891 C.E. declaring the minimum age for marriage?
A. Beharamji Malabari
B. Maharshi Karve
C. K. R. Cama
D. Dadabhai Novroji
Answer:
A. Beharamji Malabari

3.
Question 21.
Who started a girls’ school in 1857 C.E. in Pune?
A. Ishwarchandra Vidhyasagar
B. Jyotiba Phule
C. Justice Ranade
D. Vinoba Bhave
Answer:
B. Jyotiba Phule

Question 22.
Who established the Satyashodhak Samaj?
A. Jyotiba Phule
B. Maharshi Karve
C. Swami Vivekanand
D. Ishwarchandra Vidhyasagar
Answer:
A. Jyotiba Phule

Question 23.
Who served for many years as the minister of the Akhil Hind Harijan Sangh’?
A. Vinoba Bhave
B. Dr Ambedkar
C. Gandhiji
D. Thakkar Bapa
Answer:
D. Thakkar Bapa

Question 24.
Who established the ‘Panchmahal Bhil Sewa Mandal’?
A. Thakkar Bapa
B. Ravishankar Maharaj
C. Gandhiji
D. Narayan Guru
Answer:
A. Thakkar Bapa

Fill in the blanks with proper words in the following statements:

1.
Question 1.
Raja Ram Mohan Roy started a newspaper named ‘…………………’ in Persian in 1822 C.E.
Answer:
‘Mirat-ul-Akbar’

Question 2.
………………………. established the Brahmo Samaj.
Answer:
Raja Ram Mohan Roy

Question 3.
Raja Ram Mohan Roy set up a Hindu college in ……………………… .
Answer:
Kolkata

Question 4.
……………………….. set the foundation of revolt for the awakening of India in the 19th century.
Answer:
Raja Ram Mohan Roy

Question 5.
Dayanand Saraswati was born in a village named ………………… located near Morbi in Saurashtra.
Answer:
Tankara

Question 6.
………………….. wrote the book named ‘Satyartha Prakash’.
Answer:
Dayanand Saraswati

Question 7.
……………………… established the Arya Samaj.
Answer:
Dayanand Saraswati

Question 8.
The Arya Samaj started a ……………………………. whereby the Hindus who had changed their religion could be reinstated into the Hindu religion.
Answer:
Purification movement

Question 9.
………………….. was the saint and reformer who understood all religions.
Answer:
Ram Krishna Paramhans

Question 10.
Ram Krishna Paramhans was born in ………………………. village of Hooghly district in West Bengal.
Answer:
Kamarpukur

2.
Question 11.
Ram Krishna Paramhans was a priest and a staunch devotee at the Kali Temple at ……………….. near Kolkata.
Answer:
Hindu temples

Question 12.
Swami Vivekanand’s original name was ………………………. .
Answer:
Narendranath Datta

Question 13.
Swami Vivekanand represented India at the ‘…………………………..’ organised at Chicago, USA.
Answer:
1893

Question 14.
Swami Vivekanand established the ‘Ram Krishna Mission’ at …………………….. .
Answer:
Calcutta

Question 15.
The two leaders ………………. and ……………………. started the ‘Wahabi revolution’ in India.
Answer:
Saiyid Ahmad of Rai Bareilly

Question 16.
Shariatulla and Saiyad Ahmed Khan were motivated by the preaching of the religious leader Shah ……………………….. of Delhi.
Answer:
Sir Sayyid’s ideas, which were taken over without much change by his followers, are still influential in Pakistan

Question 17.
Sir Saiyad Ahmed Khan was born in an ………………………… family.
Answer:
Syed Muhammad Muttaqi and Aziz-un-Nisa in

Question 18.
Sir Saiyad Ahmed Khan started a social daily named ‘……………………… ’ in 1870 C.E.
Answer:
journal Tehzeeb-ul-Akhlaq (Social Reformer)

Question 19.
Parsi youths who had acquired English education established the ‘…………………………….’ in 1851 C.E.
Answer:
hbbc Buddha hgdb kutta didi

Question 20.
The ‘Rahnuma-e-Mazdayasne Sabha’ started a periodical named ‘…………………………’.
Answer:
Wacha, S.S. Bangali and Naoroji Furdonji founded the Rahanumai Mazdayasanan Sabha (Religious Reform Association) in 1851. The association had for its object “the regeneration of the social condition of the Parsis and the restoration of the Zoroastrian religion to its pristine purity.

State whether the following statements are true or false:

1. Raja Ram Mohan Roy started a revolution in support of the ‘sati’ system.
Answer:
False

2. Dayanand Saraswati left his home in order to search for truth.
Answer:
True

3. Ram Krishna Paramhans was interested in religious activities from his childhood.
Answer:
True

4. Raja Ram Mohan Roy established the Arya Samaj.
Answer:
False

5. Swami Vivekanand was a true devotee of Indian culture and a staunch patriot.
Answer:
True

6. Saiyad Ahmed Khan established a Muslim college in Aligadh.
Answer:
False

7. Parsi leader K. R. Cama gave importance to the spread of women’s development.
Answer:
False

8. Jyotiba Phule was a famous social reformer of Gujarat.
Answer:
False

Match the pairs correctly :

Section ‘A’ Section ‘B’
(1) Raja Ram Mohan Roy (1) Helped in framing the law against child marriage
(2) Swami Dayanand Saraswati (2) A saint and reformer
(3) Swami Vivekanand (3) Revolted against the ‘sati’ system
(4) Ram Krishna Paramhans (4) Started a girls’ school in Pune
(5) Beharamji Malabari (5) Advised people to ‘Go back to the Vedas’
(6) Established the Ram Krishna Mission

Answer:
(1-3),
(2-5),
(3-6),
(4-2),
(5-1).

Give reasons for each of the following sentences in one or two sentences:

Question 1.
Lord William Bentinck framed a law banning the ‘sati’ system.
Answer:
The first social reformer Raja Ram Mohan Roy started an aggressive protest against the *sati’ system and requested the British government to frame a law banning this evil practice. Therefore, Lord William Bentinck framed a law banning the ‘sati’ system.

Question 2.
Swami Dayanand Saraswati advised the people to ‘Go back to the Vedas’.
Answer:
Swami Dayanand Saraswati had studied the Vedas and other religious books in great depth to search for enlightenment and truth. He realised the greatness of Indian religion and culture as depicted in the Vedas. Therefore, he spread the Veda religion and requested people to ‘Go back to the Vedas’.

Question 3.
Swami Vivekanand established the ‘Ram Krishna Mission’.
Answer:
Following the advice of his guru, Swami Vivekanand established the Ram Krishna Mission to serve the poor and the needy.

Question 4.
Saiyad Ahmed Khan and Shariatullah started the ‘Wahabi revolution’.
Answer:
Saiyan Ahmed Khan and Shariatullah believed that since Islam had become weak and corrupt, the British had succeeded in establishing their reign over India. Therefore, to strengthen Islam and its culture, the two leaders started the ‘Wahabi revolution’.

Question 5.
Thakkar Bapa established the ‘Panchmahal Bhil Sewa Mandal’.
Answer:
Thakkar Bapa established the ‘Panchmahal Bhil Sewa Mandal’ to bring about huge reforms in the lives of the Bhil tribes that inhabited the jungles and hilly regions of the Panchmahal district and to uplift them.

Answer the following questions in one or two sentences:

Question 1.
Who started social reforms for the first time in the 19th century?
Answer:
Raja Ram Mohan Roy was the one to start social reforms for the first time in the 19th century.

Question 2.
Where and when was Raja Ram Mohan Roy born?
Answer:
Raja Ram Mohan Roy was born in 1772 C.E. in Radhanagar village of Hooghly district in Bengal.

Question 3.
Against which evils did Raja Ram Mohan Roy start an aggressive protest?
Answer:
Raja Ram Mohan Roy started an aggressive protest against evils like ‘sati’, child marriage, forbidding widow remarriage, caste system, female infanticide by drowning the baby in milk (dudhpiti), etc.

Question 4.
Who framed the law banning the ‘sati’ system? When was it framed?
Answer:
Governor-General William Bentinck framed the law banning the ‘sati’ system in 1829 C.E.

Question 5.
Who had sent Raja Ram Mohan Roy to England? When and for what?
Answer:
The Mughal emperor of Delhi had sent Raja Ram Mohan Roy to England in connection with the case for his (the emperor’s) property rights in 1830 C.E.

Question 6.
When and where did Raja Ram Mohan Roy pass away?
Answer:
Raja Ram Mohan Roy passed away in Bristol, England in 1833 C.E.

Question 7.
Who contributed greatly to changing the point of view of the Hindu society?
Answer:
Raja Ram Mohan Roy contributed greatly to changing the point of view of the Hindu society.

Question 8.
Where was Swami Dayanand Saraswati born?
Answer:
Swami Dayanand Saraswati was born in Tankara village situated near Morbi in Saurashtra.

Question 9.
What advice did Swami Dayanand Saraswati give to the people?
Answer:
Swami Dayanand Saraswati advised the people to ‘Go back to the Vedas’.

Question 10.
Who continued the activities of the Arya Samaj after the death of Swami Dayanand Saraswati?
Answer:
After the death of Swami Dayanand Saraswati, leaders like Lala Hansraj, Pandit Gurudutt, Lala Lajpatrai, etc. continued the activities of the Arya Samaj.

Question 11.
When and which gurukul (school) did Swami Shraddhanand establish?
Answer:
Swami Shraddhanand established the ‘Kangdi’ j gurukul near Haridwar in 1902 C.E.

Question 12.
Where was Ram Krishna Paramhans born?
Answer:
Ram Krishna Paramhans was born in Kamarpukur village of Hooghly district in West Bengal.

Question 13.
What advice did Swami Vivekanand give to the people of India?
Answer:
Swami Vivekanand advised the people to serve the poor and the needy and seek God in this service and these people.

Question 14.
What effect did Swami Vivekanand have on Indian youngsters?
Answer:
Swami Vivekanand imbibed pride for our rich cultural heritage and faith in a bright future in the minds of Indian youngsters.

Question 15.
Which slogan did Swami Vivekanand give to India?
Answer:
Swami Vivekanand gave the slogan of ‘Arise, awake and stop not till the goal is achieved to the people of India.

Question 16.
Who established the Ram Krishna Mission? When and where?
Answer:
Swami Vivekanand established the ‘Ram Krishna Mission’ at Bellur in 1897 C.E.

Question 17.
Which slogan did the Ram Krishna Mission follow?
Answer:
The slogan that the Ram Krishna Mission followed was ‘Service to man is service to God’.

Question 18.
Who tried to bring about awakening in the Muslim society for the first time in the 19th century?
Answer:
Religious awakening was initiated in the Muslim society under the leadership of people like Shariatulla from Bengal and Saiyad Ahmed Khan from Rai Bareily in Uttar Pradesh in the 19th century.

Question 19.
Who started the ‘Wahabi Revolution’ in India?
Answer:
Leaders like Shariatulla from Bengal and Saiyad Ahmed Khan from Rai Bareily in Uttar Pradesh started the ‘Wahabi Revolution’ in India.

Question 20.
Who established the Muslim college in Aligadh? When and why?
Answer:
Sir Saiyad Ahmed Khan established the Muslim College at Aligadh in 1875 C.E. to enable Muslims to get higher education. (This college later became famous as the Aligadh Muslim University.)

Question 21.
Why was the ‘Shiromani Gurudwara Prabandhak Samiti’ set up?
Answer:
The ‘Shiromani Gurudwara Prabandhak Samiti’ was set up to reorganise religious practices and remove evil practices from Gurudwaras.

Question 22.
Why were the Khalsa college and schools set up in Amritsar?
Answer:
Khalsa college and schools were set up in Amritsar to impart English and religious education to the Sikh community.

Question 23.
Who did the work of religious and social reform in the Parsi community?
Answer:
Mr K. R. Cama and Mr Behramji Malbari worked to reform Parsi religion and society.

Question 24.
Who established the ‘Rahnuma-e-Mazdayasne Sabha’? When and why?
Answer:
To improve Parsi religion and society Parsi youths who had acquired English education established
the ‘Rahnuma-e-Mazdayasne Sabha’ in 1851 C.E.

Question 25.
When and where was Amrutlal Thakkar born?
Answer:
Thakkar Bapa (Amrutlal Thakkar) was born in Bhavnagar in 1869 C.E.

Question 26.
Why was there noteworthy progress in the efforts to improve the conditions of the backward classes of India?
Answer:
Since Gandhiji gave a lot of importance to the abolishment of untouchability, the efforts to improve the conditions of the backward classes in India made noteworthy progress.

Question 27.
Raja Ram Mohan Roy
Answer:
Raja Ram Mohan Roy who was born in 1772 C.E. at Radhanagar village in Hooghly district of Bengal was the first social reformer of Indian society. He protested strongly against the evil practices of ‘sati’, child marriage, caste system, the ritual of female infanticide (dudhpiti), etc. and made great efforts to abolish them from Indian society. He started two newspapers viz. the ‘Samvad Kaumudi’ in Bengali and the ‘Mirat-ul-Akbar’ in Persian.

He established the ‘Brahmo Samaj’ in 1828 C.E. He also established a Hindu college in Kolkata. He recommended many changes to the British government like freedom of press, freedom of speech, women’s rights, keeping the judiciary and the administration separate, etc. Raja Ram Mohan Roy requested the British government to legally ban the ‘sati’ system. So, in 1829 C.E. British Governor, Lord William Bentinck framed a law banning the ‘sati’ system. Thus in the 19th century, Raja Ram Mohan Roy laid the foundation for a New Awakening with social, religious and political revolutions. Raja Ram Mohan Roy passed away in 1833 C.E. at Bristol in England. He was the first social reformer of India.

In this way Raja Ram Mohan Roy laid the foundation for social, religious and political awakening in India in the 19th century. He is, therefore, considered as the ‘First Torch-bearer’ of the complete development of India.

Question 28.
Swami Dayanand Saraswati
Answer:
Swami Dayanand Saraswati was born at Tankara village near Morbi in Saurashtra. He renounced his house and family at a tender age in order to search for enlightenment and truth. He travelled all over the country for 15 years. Thereafter he became an ascetic (sanyasi) and studied the Vedas and other Hindu literature with Swami Virajanand in Mathura. He encouraged the people to ‘Go back to the Vedas.’ He advocated monotheism i.e. he made people aware that There is only one God.’

He advised the people to leave evil practices of idol worship, religious rituals, child marriage, ‘sati’ system, untouchability, etc. He wrote a book called ‘Satyarth Prakash.’ In 1875 C.E. Swami Dayanand Saraswati established the ‘Arya Samaj’ in Mumbai. The Arya Samaj started a ‘reconversion’ movement whereby Hindus who had changed their religion could be reinstated into their original religion.

After Swami Dayanand’s death leaders like Lala Hansraj, Pandit Gurudutt and Leila Lajpat Rai continued the activities of the Arya Samaj. In 1902 C.E. Swami Shraddhanand established the ‘Kangdi Gurukul’ near Haridwar. The Arya Kanya School was started at Vadodara, Gujarat where girls were taught discipline, dignity of labour, tolerance, patience and moral values.

Question 29.
Ram Krishna Paramhans
Answer:
Swami Ram Krishna Paramhans was the torchbearer of Indian culture. He was a great saint who sought truth through all religions. He was born at Kamarpukur village of Hooghly district in Bengal. He was a priest and a staunch devotee at the Kali Temple at Dakshineshwar near Kolkata. Many social reformers like Keshavchandra Sen and Swami Dayanand Saraswati would come to him to discuss various aspects of religion as well as to seek his advice and guidance. Those who had been influenced by western culture redeveloped their faith in Indian religion and culture because of the preaching of Ram Krishna Paramhans.

Question 30.
Sir Saiyad Ahmed Khan
Answer:
Sir Saiyad Ahmed Khan was the first Muslim social reformer. He was born in an Umrao family of the Mughal dynasty. He joined the East India Company and remained faithful to the company during the revolt of 1857 C.E. He went to England in 1869 C.E. and was greatly influenced by western broad-mindedness.

He advocated the idea of English education as a means to reform the Muslim community of its orthodox attitude. He started a magazine named ‘Tahzib-ul-Akhlaq’ in 1870 C.E. and established Aligarh Muslim College in 1875 C.E. (Known as Aligarh Muslim University today). He opposed the veil system (burkha pratha), child marriages and supported widow remarriage. This college later became famous as the ‘Aligadh Muslim University.’

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