Gujarat Board GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Revision 1 Textbook Exercise Important Questions and Answers, Notes Pdf.
Gujarat Board Textbook Solutions Class 8 Social Science Revision 2
GSEB Class 8 Social Science Revision 2 Textbook Questions and Answers
Let us understand:
Which Europeans came to India for trade?
Portuguese from Portugal, Dutch people from the Netherlands (Holland), Britishers from England and French from France, etc. were the Europeans who came to India for trade.
After which two wars did the British increase their trade in India?
The British increased their trade in India after :
- The Battle of Plassey of 1757 C.E. and
- Battle of Buxar in 1764 C.E.
What do you mean by ‘Spheres’ ?
After the origin of Earth, many elements got transformed into liquids, gases and further into solids. These life supportive elements surround our Earth. Hence they are known as spheres. There are 4 spheres viz. lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere and biosphere.
Why was there an outbreak of revolt against the British in the year 1857 C.E. ?
Mangal Pandey, a soldier of Barrackpore battalion,opposed to use the cow-and-pig-fat greased cartridge of the new Enfield Rifle. Indian soldiers who had agreed to join the revolt wanted to wait until 31st May, but 26-year-old Mangal Pandey could not. He refused to use the Enfield Rifle. As a result the revolt began earlier than the fixed date. This disrupted the planning and the objectives of the revolt could not be achieved.
Sargeant-Major Hewson ordered for his arrest, but Mangal Pandey shot him and defeated another British officer also. Indian soldiers refused to arrest Mangal. When he was cornered, Mangal shot himself with his own ‘ Sifle. A bleeding Mangal Pandey was taken to hospital to get information about the revolt from him. The British pretended to run a case against Mangal on 6th April, 1857. The entire procedure was purposely in English. Though he was sentenced to death, he did not divulge any information to the British. He was hanged at 5:30 a.m. on 8th April, 1857. Thus, Mangal Pandey became the First Martyr of the 1857 revolt which began earlier than planned.
Functions of Parliament.
The main functions of the Parliament:
- When the Parliament is in session, the time for the Question Hour is decided in the beginning itself.
- During Question Hour, Members of the Parliament ask questions through which they gain information about the working of the government. Thus, the Parliament controls the Executive.
- Members draw attention to loopholes in government functioning as well as to people’s opinions with the help of these questions.
- The Parliament makes new laws and makes amendments in old laws.
What is ‘Secularism’ ?
The Government of India does not conform to the norms of any particular religion or sect. Citizens are not discriminated on the basis of their faith, sect or religion. Every citizen of the country is free to follow the religion of his/her choice. The India government is neutral in religious matters. Thus, It is said that ‘India is a secular nation’.
[The Constitution of India has declared India as secular country. The Constitution has given religious freedom as a fundamental right to all citizens.]
How did the cottage industries get destroyed in India ?
With raw material and revenue collected from India, British industries prospered. Cloth manufactured in England was imported to India without levying any duty, while cloth manufactured in India was levied 80% tax. These unjust rules made Indian cloth costly in Indian markets. So Indian textile, cottage and handicraft industries could not compete with British industries. Many Indian industries like silk, glass, paper, minerals, ship-building, etc. were ruined. Lakhs of people lost their jobs and many people became poorer and poorer.
What do you mean by (Global Warming’ ?
Global warming means unequal and continual rise in average temperature in Earth’s climate due to greenhouse effect. Certain gases trap infrared rays (UV radiation) so that the temperature of earth increases. The planet becomes warmer. This effect is known as ‘Global Warming’.
Let us think about it:
If the British were defeated in the Battle of Plassey ?
Had the British been defeated in the Battle of ” Plassey, they would have never been able to establish their power in India. Because of losing their business centres (Kothis) in India, the British would have been compelled ‘ to bid farewell to India.
How is human life interconnected with the various spheres?
Lithosphere is the main support of all life forms. We can construct houses, obtain water for drinking, land for agriculture so that we have enough food, minerals for industries, and forests for animals and other useful products only from the Lithosphere. The Hydrosphere is the liquid component of the Earth. No life form can survive without water. Salt is obtained from seawater. All water bodies are home to many aquatic species.
The very existence of the living world is dependent on the Hydrosphere. The sphere that wraps the Earth from all sides is called the Atmosphere. Composed of various gases like Oxygen and Nitrogen along with water vapour, dust particles etc. Atmosphere is responsible for the life of all living creatures. Life is not possible without oxygen. Ozone layer in the Atmosphere protects us from harmful – effects of sunlight.
Atmosphere influences food, clothing, habitat, economic activities, etc. of any region. That part of Lithosphere, Hydrosphere and Atmosphere where the living world exists is known as Biosphere. Earth is the only planet which has a Biosphere and so it is the only planet on which there is life. All types of vegetation and animals can grow only due to the Biosphere which is the support of all existence of all life forms and their maintenance.
Thus, we can easily see how human life is interconnected with the various spheres.
How are the industries, which produce items for daily use like soap, shampoo, powder, etc. harmful for environment?
Industries producing items like soap, shampoo, powder, etc. are harmful for environment because harmful gases emitted by such industries, workshops, etc. mix with air and pollute it. Due to this, the proportion of harmful gases in the atmosphere increases which in turn proves harmful to all living creatures.
Are there any rules which are made outside the country and we have to follow them in our country ?
International Nuclear Organisation, International Development Corporation, International Communication Organisation, World Trade Organisation, World Meteorological
Organisation, World Intelligence Union, World Organisation to Save Environment, etc. are the various organisations which work at international level. The rules which are made by them have to be observed by every country including ours.
Hot water spring is a blessing. Why ?
Hot water springs in volcanic areas have ger-m killing elements. Various skin diseases are cured due to these elements. Therefore, hot water springs are a blessing.
Why was the revolt of 1857 a failure despite the sheer dedication and sacrifice of the rebels?
See the answer to sub-question (5) of Question 1 of Chapter 9.
DO it yourself
What efforts will you make to maintain the purity of environment ? Make a list.
I will make the following efforts to maintain the purity of environment:
- I will plant, nourish and take care of trees.
- I will take care of the plants around my house.
- I will use all domestic and mechanical equipment judiciously.
- I will use eco-friendly paper.
- I will not cut trees and also stop anyone from -cutting trees.
- I will use natural resources very carefully and economically.
- I will make arrangements to ensure that there is natural light inside my house.
- I will throw rubbish in the dustbin. I will nfver dirty any place.
- I will use toilets to answer the call of nature.
What were the effects of the British rule on the peasants of India? List them.
After acquiring rights to extract revenue from states like Bengal, Bihar and Orissa, the British started extracting maximum revenue from peasants thus making them poorer and poorer. These rights were known as the Diwani Rights. Peasants had to borrow money to meet their expenses and so fell into the debt trap of loans. They eventually lost their land too. Moreover, lakhs of people starved to death during the terrible famine that Bengal witnessed in 1770 C.E. Governor General Lord Cornwallis’ ‘Permanent Settlement Act’ of fixed revenue collection on an annual basis gave rights of revenue collection to landlords who became faithful to the British. Against this the poor farmers were exploited and became poorer.
Make a note of the main features of our Constitution.
The main features of our Constitution are :
- Independence and
- Sovereign state.