GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 8 India – Challenges and Solutions

   

Gujarat Board GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 8 India – Challenges and Solutions Textbook Exercise Important Questions and Answers, Notes Pdf.

Gujarat Board Textbook Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 8 India – Challenges and Solutions

GSEB Class 8 Social Science India – Challenges and Solutions Textbook Questions and Answers

1. Answer the following questions.

Question 1.
What problems are created by the population explosion?
Answer:
The root cause of almost all problems of India is population explosion. Population explosion leads to certain man-made challenges such as pollution, congestion In residential areas, shortage of water and food as well as poor medical services, less educational opportunities, unemployment, poverty, terrorism, corruption, etc. Thus It is necessary to take steps to control population.

Question 2.
What measures have been taken by the government to eradicate illiteracy?
Answer:
Illiteracy is a taboo on the culture of any society. So to eradicate illiteracy, the government has declared free and compulsory education at primary level for the age group of 6-to-14-year-old children, scholarships, free mid-day meals, girl education-related policies like Vidyadeep Scheme, residential schools for tribal people, adult education programmes, etc. Since 2009 the Right to Education (RTE) Act has been introduced and implemented.

Question 3.
What are the problems faced by the common people due to inflation?
Answer:
The problems faced by the common people due to Inflation are:

  • The increase In prices of essential commodities and other necessities is known as 1nflation.’
  • It becomes tough for the middle-class people to earn their living.
  • Living standards of people go down.
  • Inflation has an adverse effect on people’s health.
  • Inflation causes stress-related problems.
  • Common man has to do without some essential commodities.
  • It becomes difficult for the common man to make two ends meet.

Question 4.
What is the criteria to determine poverty?
Answer:
The criterion of a person’s poverty is decided on the basis of purchase power and level of his / her income.

GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 8 India - Challenges and Solutions

Question 5.
Define corruption.
Answer:
In simple terms, ‘Corruption’ means lack of integrity and honesty or misuse of a position for dishonest gains. In short, the immoral and illegal behaviour towards a person is ‘corruption’.

Question 6.
What problems arise in slum areas?
Answer:
Challenges related to sufficient water, housing, electricity communication, cleanliness, health and education arise in slum areas formed In cities. Other problems like anti-social activities, child labour, drug diction, consumption of alcohol, mental stress, etc. are the byproducts of growing
urbanization and unemployment.

Question 7.
State the adverse effects of terrorism.
Answer:
Terrorism is a global problem and a challenge for any government.
The adverse effects of terrorism are as follows:

  • It is an obstacle in the progress of every nation.
  • Terrorism is an evil, lowly and violent process to disturb the peace, brotherhood and unity of a nation.
  • Terrorism creates fear in the minds of people through violence and hatred.
  • Terrorism is an inhuman act carried out by a certain group of people in a planned manner by resorting to bullying, killing or torturing innocent people.
  • TerrorIsm is pure hatred and cruelty and has nothing to do with any religion. There have been terrorist attacks on the Parliament. the Taj Hotel and Akshardham. etc.
  • Terrorist activities affect the trade and business of the region where the activities take place.
  • Terrorists smuggle intoxicating drugs Into the country thus increasing black money in the country.
  • Some terrorist organizations extort money from rich businessmen.
  • Government buildings are destroyed in bomb blasts. Hence, there is a huge loss amounting to crores of rupees. The government has to spend crores of rupees for reconstructing these buildings or for their repairs.

2. Fill in the blanks with appropriate word.

Question 1.
The root cause of all the problems is ………………….. .
Answer:
population explosion

Question 2.
The rise in price of essential commodities Is known as …………………. .
Answer:
inflation

GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 8 India - Challenges and Solutions

Question 3.
Terrorism Is a ………………………. problem.
Answer:
global

3. Match the items given in column ‘A’ with those in column ‘B’.

A B
1. Increase in population 1. R.T.E.
2. Solution to illiteracy 2. Opportunities for employment
3. Solution to poverty 3. Thrifty and planned lifestyle
4. Solution to inflation 4. creation of all problems

Answer:

A B
1. Increase in population 4. creation of all problems
2. Solution to illiteracy 1. R.T.E.
3. Solution to poverty 2. Opportunities for employment
4. Solution to inflation 3. Thrifty and planned lifestyle

Activities

  • Make a list of crowded places you have observed.
  • Visit your Village Panchayat or Municipal Corporation and find out the number of people who live under the Poverty Line.
  • Collect corruption-related news items from newspapers and discuss them in class.
  • Find the address of the Anti-Corruption Bureau in your district.
  • Prepare a list of occasions on which food is wasted. As a citizen, what can we do to stop it?
  • Make a list of cottage and handicraft industries functioning in your area. Visit the artisans/cottage industries and prepare a report.

Prepare a graph showing population increase from 1951 to 2011.
(Take a proper scale.)
1951 31.60 crores
1961 43.92 crores
1971 54.81 crores
1981 68.33 crores
1991 84.64 crores
2001 102.87 crores
2011 121.01
GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 8 India - Challenges and Solutions 1

GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 8 India - Challenges and Solutions

Inflation :

Commodity 1litre /1 kg Price (5 years ago) (in ₹) Price Now (in ₹) % Increase in price
(1) Milk
(2) Clarified Butter (Pure Ghee)
(3) Sugar
(4) Jaggery
(5) Gas
(6) Petrol

GSEB Class 8 Social Science India – Challenges and Solutions Intext Questions and Answers

Box Question And Answer

Year of Census Percentage of Literacy Percentage of Illiteracy
1971 36.95% 63.05%
1981 44.92% 55.08%
1991 61.29% 38.71%
2001 69.14% 30.86%
2011 79.13% 20.87%

GSEB Class 8 Social Science India – Challenges and Solutions Additional Important Questions and Answers

Choose the correct alternative from those given below each question:
Question 1.
What is the root of most of India’s problems?
A. Poverty
B. Unemployment
C. Population explosion
D. Illiteracy
Answer:
C. Population explosion

Question 2.
How many crores was the population of India according to the 2001 census?
A. 102
B. 108
C.110
D. 105
Answer:
A. 102

Question 3.
According to the 2011 census, how many crores has the population of India become?
A. 114
B. 116
C.118
D. 121
Answer:
D. 121

GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 8 India - Challenges and Solutions

Question 4.
What is the growth of population in India from 2001 to 2011?
A. 16.8 crores
B. 18.14 crores
C. 12.5 crores
D. 10.6 crores
Answer:
B. 18.14 crores

Question 5.
Which is the factor that is a huge obstacle in the progress of the nation?
A. Increase in diseases
B. Illiteracy
C. Child mortality rate
D. Decreasing number of women
Answer:
B. Illiteracy

Question 6.
What is necessary to understand new thoughts, discoveries or knowledge?
A. wealth and prosperity
B. Scholarship
C. Physical development
D. Literacy
Answer:
D. Literacy

Question 7.
Which act (law) has been passed regarding education since 2009?
A. D.T.E.
B. M.T.E.
C. R.T.E.
D. S.T.E.
Answer:
C. R.T.E.

Question 8.
Which of the following problems is like a headache for people?
A. Inflation
B. Population explosion
C. Professional treatment
D. Filthy residential quarters
Answer:
A. Inflation

Question 9.
Which is the serious problem of our country?
A. Child labour
B. Filthy residential quarters
C. Poverty
D. Simple farming
Answer:
C. Poverty

GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 8 India - Challenges and Solutions

Question 10.
What is the percentage of people living below the poverty line in Gujarat?
A. 22.2%
B. 8.9%
C. 10.5%
D. 14.7 %
Answer:
D. 14.7 %

Question 11.
Which is the greatest black spot on Indian society?
A. Corruption
B. Child labour
C. Unemployment
D. Slum areas
Answer:
A. Corruption

Question 12.
When was the Central Anti-Corruption Bureau established?
A. In 1983
B. In 1964
C. In 1988
D. In 1999
Answer:
B. In 1964

Question 13.
From which year has the Indian Government framed a law to control corruption at various levels?
A. From 1988
B. From 1990
C. From 1998
D. From 1995
Answer:
A. From 1988

Question 14.
In today’s scientific world what is the reason for the increase in unemployment?
A. Globalization
B. Privatization
C. Latest technology
D. Increase in economic activities
Answer:
C. Latest technology

Question 15.
Jobless people of what age and above are included in the category of unemployed?
A. 15
B. 16
C. 18
D. 17
Answer:
C. 18

Question 16.
What type of problem is terrorism?
A. Global
B. Regional
C. National
D. Statewide
Answer:
A. Global

Question 17.
Which activity is a hindrance in the progress of a nation?
A. Looting
B. Terrorism
C. Hoarding
D. Black marketing
Answer:
B. Terrorism

Fill in the blanks with proper words or numbers in the following statements:

Question 1.
In 2001, the population of India was ……………………… crores, which increased to ……………………… crores in 2011.
Answer:
102, 121

Question 2.
…………………………….. is a huge obstacle in the progress of our nation.
Answer:
Illiteracy

GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 8 India - Challenges and Solutions

Question 3.
…………………….. is required to understand new ideas, discoveries and knowledge.
Answer:
Literacy

Question 4.
………………………… is a black spot on society.
Answer:
Illiteracy

Question 5.
The Indian Government implemented the ‘Right to Education Act’ (RTE) in the year ………………. .
Answer:
2009

Question 6.
………………………. is a serious problem of our country.
Answer:
Poverty

Question 7.
The percentage of people living below the poverty line in Gujarat is ……………………. .
Answer:
14.7

Question 8.
Due to the …………………. plans of India, education and professional treatment are easily available.
Answer:
five-year

Question 9.
The immoral and illegal behaviour towards a person is known as ………………. .
Answer:
corruption.

Question 10.
The government has also framed certain laws against ………………….. since 1988.
Answer:
corruption

GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 8 India - Challenges and Solutions

Question 12.
In today’s scientific world due to latest technology …………………………. has increased a lot.
Answer:
unemployment

Question 13.
…………………………….. has increased since opportunities for work or jobs have not increased.
Answer:
Unemployment

Question 14.
Terrorist activities are a/an ……………………………. in the progress of the nation.
Answer:
hindrance / obstacle

State whether the following statements are true or false:

Question 1.
Due to population explosion, there is an increase in the progress of the nation.
Answer:
False

Question 2.
Due to government awareness towards education, the literacy rate is constantly rising.
Answer:
True

Question 3.
The income of people has increased with the advent of technology and mechanical farming.
Answer:
True

Question 4.
Inflation gets a boost due to corruption.
Answer:
True

Question 5.
Giving and taking bribes, both Eire a challenge for the people.
Answer:
False

GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 8 India - Challenges and Solutions

Question 6.
The goal of a terrorist is never of violence or giving trouble.
Answer:
False

Answer the following questions:

Question 1.
State the characteristics of terrorism.
Answer:
The characteristics of terrorism are as follows :

  • Terrorism is a global problem and a challenge for any government.
  • It is an obstacle in the progress of every nation.
  • Terrorism is an evil, lowly and violent process to disturb the peace, brotherhood and unity of a nation.
  • Terrorism creates fear in the minds of people through violence and hatred.
  • Terrorism is an inhuman act carried out by a certain group of people in a planned manner by resorting to bullying, killing or torturing innocent people.
  • Terrorism is pure hatred and cruelty and has nothing to do with any religion.
  • There have been terrorist attacks on the Parliament, the Taj Hotel and Akshardham, etc.

Question 2.
State the methods of protecting ourselves from terrorism.
Answer:
Measures to save ourselves from terrorism :

  • Citizens must face terrorism with bravery and courage.
  • The Intelligence Bureau should be strong and active.
  • People should always be ready to cooperate with security forces.
  • People should remain alert in public and crowded places.
  • People should not pay attention to rumours.
  • People shouldn’t panic.
  • Security forces should be well-equipped with CCTV cameras and metal detectors.

Question 3.
Show the classification of the problems of India in a tabular form.
Answer:
Classification of the problems of India in a tabular form:
GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 8 India - Challenges and Solutions 2

Answer the following questions briefly:

Question 1.
What are the benefits of 5-year plans?
Answer:
The benefits of 5-year plans are :

  1. Education and medical facilities have more accessible.
  2. Growth of industries has created many jobs.
  3. Poverty has reduced.
  4. Integration of technology in agriculture has increased the incomes of farmers also.

GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 8 India - Challenges and Solutions

Question 2.
What are the effects of corruption?
Answer:
In simple terms, ‘Corruption’ means lack of integrity and honesty or misuse of a position for dishonest gains.
Effects of Corruption :

  • Violation of human rights.
  • Hindrance to the development of the nation.
  • Deterioration of moral values.
  • Increase in inflation.
  • Lack of trust in law and order.
  • Encouragement to Nepotism.
  • Slow human development and breach of faith.

Question 3.
Which are the main reasons for increase in unemployment?
Answer:
People who are 18 years or above and cannot find work in spite of searching for a job come under the category of ‘unemployed’. The main reasons for increase in unemployment are as under :
1. Introduction of technology in modern times has led to the burning problem of unemployment. For e.g., the use of computers has made work faster and more accurate and machines have replaced human beings thus increasing unemployment.

2. Mechanization in agriculture has left many agricultural labourers unemployed. Such people migrate to the cities in search of work. So villages disintegrate and urban problems increase.

3. Education has increased and expanded its horizons but employment opportunities have not increased at the same rate. So the number of educated unemployed has increased.

Question 4.
Which plans has the government implemented to change the face of slums?
Answer:
The government implemented the following plans to change the face of slums :

  • Special residential complexes,
  • Free education,
  • Pure drinking water,
  • Cleanliness,
  • Mobile vans for professional medical treatment,
  • Loans to encourage cottage industries and handicrafts and
  • Nutritious food.

Answer the following questions in one or two sentences:

Question 1.
What is the meaning of population explosion?
Answer:
The continuous and rapid rise in population in the country for an extended period is known as ‘population explosion’.

Question 2.
How is literacy useful?
Answer:
Use of Literacy :

  • Literacy is required to understand new ideas, discoveries and knowledge.
  • An educated person can effectively communicate and explain his ideas, opinions, views and beliefs.
  • At the time of independence, literacy rate was low but it has gone up since then.

Question 3.
What is the meaning of ‘inflation’?
Answer:
The increase in prices of essential commodities and other necessities is known as ‘inflation. Inflation has an adverse effect on people’s health and causes stress-related problems.

GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 8 India - Challenges and Solutions

Question 4.
Which factors are responsible for inflation?
Answer:
Corruption, hoarding and population explosion, bribery and black marketing, etc. are the factors responsible for inflation.

Question 5.
Which is the best way to face inflation?
Answer:
The only way to face inflation is to practice thrift and spend sensibly by having a budget plan.

Question 6.
What is meant by ‘poverty?
Answer:
A situation wherein people are deprived of basic necessities like food, clothing, shelter, education, medical facilities, employment, etc. is termed as ‘poverty’.

Question 7.
What are the forms of corruption?
Answer:
Giving and taking bribes or inappropriate gifts, double or under-the-table dealing, manipulating elections, diverting money and money laundering, etc. are some forms of corruption.

Question 8.
What legal steps has the government taken to control corruption?
Answer:
To reduce and prevent corruption, the government set up the ‘Anti-Corruption Bureau’ in 1964. The government has also framed certain laws against corruption since 1988.

Question 9.
What is the function of the Anti-Corruption Bureau?
Answer:
The Anti-Corruption Bureau helps people by checking and controlling corruption and by investigating the complaints of bribery it receives.

Question 10.
What is the message of the Anti-Corruption Bureau?
Answer:
The Message of the Anti-Corruption Bureau is that Accepting and offering bribes, both are crimes’.

Question 11.
Which people fall in the category of unemployed?
Answer:
People who are 18 years or above and cannot find work in spite of searching for a job fall in the category of ‘unemployed’.

Question 12.
What is ‘terrorism’?
Answer:
Terrorism is an inhuman act carried out by a certain group of people in a planned manner by resorting to bullying, killing or torturing innocent people. They carry out these dastardly acts to fulfil their political or religious dreams.

Match the items given in column ‘A’ with those in column ‘B’.

Section ‘A’ Section ‘B’
(1) illiteracy (1) Responsible for inflation
(2) Inflation (2) Decrease in ethical values
(3) PopulatIon explosion (3) Like a headache for common people
(4) Corruption (4) Responsible for terrorism
(5) Black spot on society

Answer:

Section ‘A’ Section ‘B’
(1) illiteracy (5) Black spot on society
(2) Inflation (3) Like a headache for common people
(3) PopulatIon explosion (1) Responsible for inflation
(4) Corruption (2) Decrease in ethical values
(4) Responsible for terrorism

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