GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 6 Effects of the British Rule in India

   

Gujarat Board GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 6 Effects of the British Rule in India Textbook Exercise Important Questions and Answers, Notes Pdf.

Gujarat Board Textbook Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 6 Effects of the British Rule in India

GSEB Class 8 Social Science Effects of the British Rule in India Textbook Questions and Answers

Answer the following questions:

Question 1.
Which commodities were exported from India ?
Answer:
Commodities like jute, wool, silk, cotton clothes, muslin of Dhaka, saltpetre, salt, lump sugar, etc. were exported from India.

Question 2.
What reforms were done / introduced by William Bentinck in India ?
Answer:
When William Bentinck came to India, British started taking interest in the lives of Indian citizens. He became popular by introducing beneficial reforms like :

  1. Banning the evil custom of Sati in 1829 on the request of social reformers like Raja Ram Mohan Roy.
  2. In 1834, English education system was started with the help of Lord Macaulay.
  3. He allotted posts to Indians who knew English in British administration.
  4. Railways, post and telegraph system and printing ‘ was started during his tenure in 1853-1854.
  5. In 1857 he established universities in Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata.

Question 3.
Why did the British government start the facility of railway, post and telegraph?
Answer:
In 1853 the British government started railway in India for quick transportation of army. In 1854 C.E. the British government started modern system of telegraph and post in India in order to know about each part of India and exchange messages with England.

GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 6 Effects of the British Rule in India

Question 4.
Who appointed a collector to collect the revenue ?
Answer:
Lord Cornwallis appointed the first collector to collect the revenue.

Question 5.
Who banned the practice of Sati?
Answer:
William Bentinck banned the evil practice of Sati.

Discuss
Question 1.
What is the difference between the present peasants and those of the British time?
Answer:
The peasants during the time of the British rule were ruined due to the hard and unjust revenue policy of British government. With the enforcement of the ‘Permanent Settlement Act’, peasants lost their land also to the rich landlords. The peasants had to work hard in all kinds of weather, but they gained nothing. Thus peasants during the time of British rule suffered from poverty and hunger.

Question 2.
What reforms were done / introduced by William Bentinck in India ?
Answer:
When William Bentinck came to India, British started taking interest in the lives of Indian citizens. He became popular by introducing beneficial reforms like :

    1. Banning the evil custom of Sati in 1829 on the request of social reformers like Raja Ram Mohan Roy.
    2. In 1834, English education system was started with the help of Lord Macaulay.
    3. He allotted posts to Indians who knew English in British administration.
    4. Railways, post and telegraph system and printing was started during his tenure in 1853-1854.
    5. In 1857 he established universities in Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata.

Activities
Make a list of leaders who helped in arousing nationalism after acquiring English education.
Answer:
Leaders who helped in arousing nationalism after acquiring English education are :

      1. Surendranath Bannerjee,
      2. Vyomeshchandra Bannerjee,
      3. Gopalkrishna Gokhale,
      4. Bal Gangadhar Tilak,
      5. Lala Lajpat Rai,
      6. Bipinchandra Pal,
      7. Dadabhai Navrojee,
      8. Firojshah Mehta,
      9. Badaruddin Taiyabajee,
      10. Lala Murlidhar, I
      11. Madanmohan Malaviya,
      12. Arvind Ghosh,
      13. Rabindranath Tagore,
      14. Subhashchandra Bose,
      15. Gandhiji,
      16. Rajgopalachari,
      17. Rajendra Prasad,
      18. Vallabhbhai Patel,
      19. Jawaharlal Nehru,
      20. Motilal Nehru,
      21. Chittaranjandas,
      22. Hakim Ajamal Khan,
      23. Vitthalbhai Patel,
      24. Amrutlal Thakkar (Thakkarbapa),
      25. Sarojini Naidu,
      26. Gobind Ballabh Pant,
      27. Abbas Taiyabajee, etc.

GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 6 Effects of the British Rule in India

GSEB Class 8 Social Science Effects of the British Rule in India Intext Questions and Answers

Question 1.
What do you mean by ‘raw material’ ?
Answer:
Basic substances needed for production of things by man or machine is called ‘raw material’. For e.g., Cotton which is used to make cloth is raw material.

Question 2.
Give some examples of raw materials.
Answer:
Examples of raw materials : Cotton, wool, silk yarn, wheat, tobacco, oilseeds of groundnut, sesame, mustard, castor, etc., sugar cane, jute, vegetables like potatoes, tomatoes, etc., coconut, wood, milk, fish, bauxite, iron, copper, lime stone, mineral oil, etc.

Question 3.
Make a list of raw materials supplied by your village.
Answer:
Raw materials supplied by my village are : Wheat, tobacco, groundnut, sesame, mustard, castor, vegetables like potatoes and tomatoes, sugar cane, milk, cotton, etc.

Question 4.
Make a list of products prepared from the raw materials and the places to which they are supplied.
Answer:
Some products made from raw materials are :

  1. Wheat: Bread, biscuits, cake, macaroni, spaghetti, etc.
  2. Tobacco : Bidis and cigarettes.
  3. Groundnut, mustard and sesame seeds : Edible oil.
  4. Castor seed : Castor oil.
  5. Potatoes : Potato wafers / chips.
  6. Tomatoes : Ketchup, sauce, puree, etc.
  7. Sugar cane : Jaggery, sugar, etc.
  8. Milk : Butter, ghee, buttermilk, babyfood, milk powder, ice cream, cream, cheese, paneer, etc.
  9. Cotton : Cloth.

GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 6 Effects of the British Rule in India

Question 5.
What do you mean by land revenue ? Make a list of taxes paid by us.
Answer:
Land revenue means the tax which we pay to the government for the use of land.
We pay many types of taxes like residential tax, water v tax, electricity tax, income tax, sales tax, service tax, value added tax (VAT), etc.

Question 6.
If famine occurs in modem times, the people suffer less. Why did they suffer more during the British rule in India?
Answer:
In the present time, we have a state government as well as a centred government. So if famine occurs, the state government and social welfare institutions manage to ‘ reach food and fodder to the affected people and their cattle. Water is also reached to the affected people. The government starts relief work immediately. Due to this the people get whatever they need at their own place. Shelters are opened for people and cattle. So people suffer less if famines occur in present times.

However, during the British rule all Indians were enslaved. The British did not care for the welfare of Indian subjects. They simply exploited and oppressed the people. No steps were taken to help or save people when a devastating famine hit Bengal. So during the British reign, people had to suffer a lot.

Question 7.
What cottage industries can be seen at the village level in the present times ?
Answer:
Cottage industries seen at the village level at the present times are :

  1. Handicraft industry,
  2. Oil mill industry,
  3. Leather industry,
  4. Poultry rearing,
  5. Cattle rearing,
  6. Dairy industry,
  7. Making incense sticks,
  8. Spice industry,
  9. Making locks-almaris,
  10. Making readymade clothes,
  11. Making clay pots, etc.

GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 6 Effects of the British Rule in India

Question 8.
Why did Macaulay start English education in India ?
Answer:
The British needed people who knew English to do their clerical jobs. To have more people who could understand English in order to do such jobs, Macaulay thought of starting English education in India.

GSEB Class 8 Social Science Effects of the British Rule in India Additional Important Questions and Answers

Choose the correct alternative from those given below each question:

Question 1.
Until which century was India economically prosperous ?
A. Nineteenth
B. TWelfth
C. Eighteenth
D. Seventh
Answer:
C. Eighteenth

Question 2.
In which year did a devastating famine attack Bengal ?
A. 1760 C.E.
B. 1880 C.E.
C. 1772 C.E.
D. 1770 C.E.
Answer:
D. 1770 C.E.

Question 3.
Which Indian state did the devastating famine attack in 1770 C.E. ?
A. Bengal
B. Bihar
C. Mumbai
D. Orissa
Answer:
A. Bengal

Question 4.
During whose tenure was the right of revenue collection given to collectors ?
A. Wellesley
B. William Bentinck
C. Dalhousie
D. Lord Cornwallis
Answer:
D. Lord Cornwallis

Question 5.
Which governor enforced the ‘Permanent Settlement Act’?
A. William Bentinck
B. Lord Cornwallis
C. Dalhousie
D. Warren Hastings
Answer:
B. Lord Cornwallis

GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 6 Effects of the British Rule in India

Question 6.
Which governor general became popular by introducing some beneficial reformations ?
A. Dalhousie
B. Hardinge
C. William Bentinck
D. Wellesley
Answer:
C. William Bentinck

Question 7.
Who enforced the law banning the evil practice of Sati ?
A. William Bentinck
B. Dalhousie
C. Wellesley
D. Lord Cornwallis
Answer:
A. William Bentinck

Question 8.
When was the law banning the evil practice of Sati enforced ?
A. 1858 C.E.
B. 1829 C.E.
C. 1868 C.E.
D. 1839 C.E.
Answer:
B. 1829 C.E.

Question 9.
When did the thought of starting English education in India come to Macaulay?
A. In 1834 C.E.
B. In 1828 C.E.
C. In 1830 C.E.
D. In 1838 C.E.
Answer:
A. In 1834 C.E.

Question 10.
When were the first universities established in India?
A. In 1864 C.E.
B. In 1857 C.E.
C. In 1875 C.E.
D. In 1980 C.E.
Answer:
B. In 1857 C.E.

GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 6 Effects of the British Rule in India

Question 11.
Who started English education in India ?
A. Wellesley
B. Hardinge
C. Macaulay
D. Charles Wood
Answer:
C. Macaulay

Fill in the blanks with appropriate words:

1. ………………….. prosperity of India was sustained until the eighteenth century.
Answer:
economic

2. The British increased their income due to the ……………….. Rule which gave them the rights to collect revenue from Bengal, Bihar and Orissa.
Answer:
Diwani

3. The British gave rights to ……………. to collect revenue thus making them loyal to the British.
Answer:
landlords

4. Governer Cornwallis enforced the ……………….. Act for revenue collection.
Answer:
Permanent Settlement

5. During Lord Cornwallis’ tenure …………………. had to collect the revenue and perform the function of a judge.
Answer:
collectors

GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 6 Effects of the British Rule in India

6. The British System destroyed our ancient system of …………….. which was handled by Gram Panchayats.
Answer:
village selfrule

7. In ancient time, every village was like a small …………………. .
Answer:
republic

8. An order was passed in ………………… that every Indian had to salute the …………….. .
Answer:
Agra, British

9. ………………… enforced the law to stop Sati practice.
Answer:
William Bentinck

10. In 1834, …………………. introduced education through English in India.
Answer:
Lord Macaulay

11. The reforms made by the British rule were for their ………………. only.
Answer:
benefit

GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 6 Effects of the British Rule in India

12. The reforms made by the British rule came as a blessing in disguise for …………….. .
Answer:
Indians

State whether the following statements are true or false:

1. A devastating famine attacked Bihar in the year 1770 C.E.
Answer:
False

2. Governor William Bentinck enforced the Permanent Settlement Act for revenue collection.
Answer:
False

3 The collectors who collected revenue also performed the functions of a judge.
Answer:
True

4.The fine and soft Dhaka muslin was much in demand all over the world during ancient times.
Answer:
True

GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 6 Effects of the British Rule in India

5. The British Policy of Social Reforms made the people feel insecure.
Answer:
True

6. Mahatma Gandhiji called English education as ‘Swarajya Education’.
Answer:
False

7. The people of India came closer to one another due to newspapers, post and telegraph and railways.
Answer:
True

Match the following pairs:

Section ‘A’ Section ‘B’
(1) Cornwallis (1) Started English education in India
(2) Macaulay (2) ‘Giving knowledge of English is to enslave people.’
(3) William Bentinck (3) Enforced the Permanent Settlement Act
(4) Gandhiji (4) banned the practice of Satl
(5) Established the Supreme Court

Answer:
(1 – 3), (2 – 1), (3 – 4), (4 – 2).

GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 6 Effects of the British Rule in India

Answer the following questions in one or two sentences:

Question 1.
What has been said by historians of the world about the economic progress of India?
Answer:
The historians of the world have said that till the 18th century India was economically prosperous.

Question 2.
What type of country did India become during the hundred years of British rule from 17571 to 1856?
Answer:
During the hundred years of British rule from 1757 to 1856 India became a source of raw material for British industries and a big market for commodities which were manufactured in those industries.

Question 3.
How did the peasants of India become economically poor?
Answer:
After acquiring rights to extract revenue from states like Bengal, Bihar and Orissa the British started extracting maximum revenue from peasants thus making them poorer and poorer. These rights were known as the Diwani Rights. Peasants had to borrow money to meet their expenses and so fell into the debt trap of loans. They eventually lost their land too.

Question 4.
How did lakhs of people die in Bengal in the year 1770?
Answer:
Lakhs of people starved to death during the terrible famine that Bengal witnessed in 1770.

GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 6 Effects of the British Rule in India

Question 5.
Which revenue system was enforced by Cornwallis ?
Answer:
Governor General Lord Cornwallis enforced ‘Permanent Settlement Act’ to collect revenue.

Question 7.
Which feelings were aroused in people’s minds regarding the British Policies for Social Reforms ?
Answer:
The British Policies for Social Reforms made the people feel insecure. They feared that the government was trying to convert them to Christianity in order to destroy Indian religion and culture.

Question 8.
Which order was passed in Agra by the British government ?
Answer:
The order passed in Agra by the British government was that every Indian had to salute the British. If this was not done, it was considered a crime liable for punishment.

Question 10.
Why did materials produced in India became costlier in India itself?
Answer:
Cloth manufactured in England was imported to India without levying any duty, while cloth manufactured in India was levied 80% tax. These unjust rules made Indian cloth costly in Indian markets.

GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 6 Effects of the British Rule in India

Question 12.
Who started English education in India?
Answer:
British citizen Lord Macaulay started English education in India.

Question 13.
What did Gandhiji say about English education?
Answer:
Mahatma Gandhiji’s opinion about English education was, “To give millions a knowledge of English is to enslave them.”

Answer the following questions:

Question 1.
How were the peasants of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa ruined?
Answer:
After acquiring rights to extract revenue from states like Bengal, Bihar and Orissa, the British started extracting maximum revenue from peasants thus making them poorer and poorer. These rights were known as the Diwani Rights. Peasants had to borrow money to meet their expenses and so fell into the debt trap of loans. They eventually lost their land too. Moreover, lakhs of people starved to death during the terrible famine that Bengal witnessed in 1770 C.E. Governor General Lord Cornwallis’ ‘Permanent Settlement Act’ of fixed revenue collection on an annual basis gave rights of revenue collection to landlords who became faithful to the British. Against this the poor farmers were exploited and became poorer.

Question 2.
What was the result of ‘The Permanent Settlement Act’ ?
Answer:
Governor General Lord Cornwallis enforced ‘Permanent Settlement Act’ to collect revenue. According to this act, the company fixed the revenue on an annual basis and landlords were given rights to collect this revenue. Thus landlords became faithful to the British. In contrast to this, the poor farmers who worked in the hot sun were exploited and became poorer.

Question 3.
What was the effect of the British Policy of Social Reforms on the village life of India?
Answer:
Warren Hastings was given the job of collecting revenue; so he was called ‘Collector’. He also functioned as a judge. The British System destroyed our ancient system of self-rule which was handled by Gram Panchayats in every village. These Gram Panchayats were the backbone of the self-rule in our country and they had stood their ground during times of foreign invasions but were destroyed by the administrative policies of the British. The British Policy of Social Reforms made the people feel insecure. They feared that the government was trying to convert them to Christianity in order to destroy Indian religion and culture.

Question 4.
What was the effect of the British rule on cottage industry and handicrafts ?
Answer:
With raw material and revenue collected from India, British industries prospered. Cloth manufactured in England was imported to India without levying any duty, while cloth manufactured in India was levied 80% tax. These unjust rules made Indian cloth costly in Indian markets. So Indian textile, cottage and handicraft industries could not compete with British industries. Many Indian industries like silk, glass, paper, minerals, ship-building, etc. were ruined. Lakhs of people lost their jobs and many people became poorer and poorer.

GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 6 Effects of the British Rule in India

Question 5.
How did British reforms benefit the British as well as Indians ?
Answer:
Benefits of British reforms for the British :

  • With English education the British government got administrative workers who knew English.
  • Many machines were invented to facilitate industry, transport and communication.
  • In 1853 the British government started railway in India for quick transportation of army.
  • In 1854 C.E. British government started modern system of telegraph and post in India. Thereafter printing press and newspapers also started in India.

Benefits of British reforms for Indians :

  • English education also developed national emotions among Indians.
  • The emotion of nationalism was inculcated in the minds of Indians who were brought closer with education, newspapers, railways and posts and telegraphs.
  • Nationalistic emotions created a longing for freedom in the minds of literate Indians.
  • With English education, people became familiar with new trends of the world and national awareness spread in the country.

Thus, though the reforms were introduced by the British for their benefit, they benefitted Indians too. This is how British reforms proved a blessing to Indians too.

Present day peasants are free citizens of a democratic nation. They are the rightful owners of their land. Land revenue decided by the government is quite less and so they do not have to pay much. They farm their fields according to their wish and get income from crops. They” get facilities like irrigation, electricity, fertilizer, seeds, etc. from the government. Thus, Indian peasants of today are free and live peacefully and happily.

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *