GSEB Solutions Class 12 Organization of Commerce and Management Chapter 5 Staffing

   

Gujarat Board GSEB Textbook Solutions Class 12 Organization of Commerce and Management Chapter 5 Staffing Textbook Exercise Important Questions and Answers, Notes Pdf.

Gujarat Board Textbook Solutions Class 12 Organization of Commerce and Management Chapter 5 Staffing

GSEB Class 12 Organization of Commerce and Management Staffing Text Book Questions and Answers

1. Select the correct alternative and write answer to the following questions :

Question 1.
Employee are ________ for business.
(A) equal to capital
(B) responsibility
(C) strength
(D) invaluable assets
Answer:
(D) invaluable assets

Question 2.
The main function of Human Resource Management is
(A) Increase in sales
(B) Quality control
(C) Man power planning
(D) Production
Answer:
(C) Man power planning

Question 3.
First step or stage of the selection process is
(A) Receiving and screening of applications
(B) Preliminary meeting and welcome
(C) Personal interview
(D) Employment test
Answer:
(B) Preliminary meeting and welcome

Question 4.
The procedure up to obtaining candidates’ application is
(A) Recruitment function
(B) Ordinary function
(C) Advertisement function
(D) Scection function
Answer:
(A) Recruitment function

Question 5.
Which test decides the ability of the candidate?
(A) IQ test
(B) Aptitude test
(C) Psychological test
(D) Trade test
Answer:
(D) Trade test

GSEB Solutions Class 12 Organization of Commerce and Management Chapter 5 Staffing

Question 6.
Selection procedure for non-managerial staff is
(A) difficult
(B) short and simple
(C) expensive
(D) long and special
Answer:
(B) short and simple

Question 7.
Which type of function of management is staffing?
(A) Productive
(B) Objective oriented
(C) Managerial
(D) Administrative
Answer:
(D) Administrative

Question 8.
________ is the second step after recruitment.
(A) To give promotion
(B) Selection
(C) Training
(D) Transfer
Answer:
(B) Selection

Question 9.
Which test is conducted to know the nature and self-confidence of the employee?
(A) IQ test
(B) Trade test
(C) Aptitude test
(D) Psychological test
Answer:
(D) Psychological test

2. Answer the following questions in one sentence each :

Question 1.
Give the full forms of: IIM, IIT, HRM
Answer:
IIM — Indian Institute of Management, IIT – Indian Institute of Technology, HRM – Human Resource Management.

Question 2.
What is an organization without staff compared to?
Answer:
An organization without staff is compared to a skeleton.

Question 3.
State the names of various types of tests conducted for selection process.
Answer:

  1. IQ test,
  2. aptitude test
  3. trade test, and
  4. psychological test.

Question 4.
Which is the base of the selection process?
Answer:
The base of selection process is size of the organization, type of organization, and kind of employees required.

GSEB Solutions Class 12 Organization of Commerce and Management Chapter 5 Staffing

Question 5.
State the reasons for recruitment.
Answer:
The reason for recruitment to take place is when new enterprise is established, or when an existing firm is expanded or when an employee resigns or dies or retires.

3. Answer the following questions in short :

Question 1.
State the difference between recruitment and selection.
Answer:

Basis for comparison Recruitment Selection
Meaning Recruitment is an activity of searching candidates and encouraging them apply for it. Selection refers to the process of selecting the best candidates and offering them job.
Approach It has a positive approach i.e. it encourages more and more people to apply It has a negative approach where it rejects the unsuitable candidates
Key Factor Advertising the job Appointment of the candidate
Sequence Recruitment is the first step Selection is the second step
Process Vacancies are notified by the firm through various sources and application form is made available to the candidate. The firm makes applicant pass through various levels like submitting form, written test, interview, medical test and so on.
Contractual

Relation

As recruitment only implies the communication of vacancies, no contractual relation is established. Selection involves the creation of contractual relation between the employer and employee.
Method Economical Expensive

Question 2.
State the internal and external sources of recruitment.
Answer:

  • In general terms recruitment can be defined as, “The process of looking for probable employees and making them apply for the job.”
  • In a broader sense “Recruitment is the process of acquiring at the right time, in the right number, in the right place, persons with the right qualifications.”
  • Recruitment is not a one-time job. It keeps on continuing in the organization.
  • Recruitment takes place when a new enterprise is established, when an existing unit is expanded or when an employee resigns, dies or retires. Sources of Recruitment:

There are two sources of recruitment.
(A) Internal sources

  1. Promotion
  2. Transfer
  3. Friends and relatives of employees
  4. Recalling retrenched employees
  5. Promotion with transfer
  6. Waiting list

(B) External sources

  1. Through advertisement
  2. Through employment exchange
  3. Through educational institutions
  4. Through trade unions
  5. Through contractors and jobbers
  6. Recruitment at the gate
  7. Modern methods

Question 3.
What is development?
Answer:

  • As contrast to training, development is an organized activity in which the manpower learns and grows through self-assessment. It is a type of educational process which develops the personnel over a period of time.
  • The concept of development is more applicable to the higher level and top level management.
  • Top level management and departmental heads perform more of intellectual work than physical work. Like workers, they do not work on machines. They play roles of leaders who lead the workers, manage them, motivate them and take out work from them. So, their training needs are different. Hence, they need different kind of training or say development.
  • The objective of this training is to increase their mental ability and their efficiency in taking policy decisions and leading the organization in more
    and more efficient way. Such development trainings make them experts in technical knowledge which then help in them in making strategic plans and policies. This type of training is called officer development.
  • The modern world industries are developing very fast. The managers need to remain in line with these developments so that they can stay well in the competition. So to enhance the ability of top level management, the organization undertakes development-oriented programs.
  • Development is the process of imparting theoretical and practical knowledge to top-level management and departmental heads.
  • The term development refers to a program which helps to achieve the predefined objectives of the organization by improving the capabilities of heads (officers).

Question 4.
What is recruitment?
Answer:

  • In general terms recruitment can be defined as, “The process of looking for probable employees and making them apply for the job.”
  • In a broader sense “Recruitment is the process of acquiring at the right time, in the right number, in the right place, persons with the right qualifications.”
  • Recruitment is not a one time job. It keeps on continuing in the organization.
  • Recruitment takes place when a new enterprise is established, when an existing unit is expanded or when an employee resigns, dies or retires.

Sources of Recruitment:
There are two sources of recruitment.
(A) Internal sources

  1. Promotion
  2. Transfer
  3. Friends and relatives of employees
  4. Recalling retrenched employees
  5. Promotion with transfer
  6. Waiting list

(B) External sources

  1. Through advertisement
  2. Through employment exchange
  3. Through educational institutions
  4. Through trade unions
  5. Through contractors and jobbers
  6. Recruitment at the gate
  7. Modern methods

Question 5.
Give the meaning of training.
Answer:

  • “Training means providing theoretical and practical knowledge with reference to the work of the employees.”
  • As stated by an expert, “Training means giving up-to-date information about the organization and also to increase efficiency, skill, aptitude, attitude and technical skill of the employees.”
  • In short “Training means imparting knowledge and education with the objective of gaining proficiency in the business.”

GSEB Solutions Class 12 Organization of Commerce and Management Chapter 5 Staffing

Question 6.
Name the stages of the process of selection.
Answer:
Steps of process of selection:

  1. Welcoming and primary meeting .
  2. Receiving and screening of applications
  3. Taking necessary tests:
    • IQ test
    • Aptitude test
    • Trade test
    • Psychological test
  4. Personal interview
  5. Checking references
  6. Preliminary selection
  7. Physical (Medical) examination
  8. Appointment letter
  9. Induction into the organization and allotment of work

Question 7.
Explain the term ‘waiting list’.
Answer:
Waiting list:

  • Waiting list is the list of candidates who had applied in the past but were not appointed in the organization. Such a list is useful for future recruitment.
  • Since, the applicant of the waiting list was thoroughly screened and tested, the organization can save time and money to spend again on advertisement and the entire recruitment procedure.
  • The organization can pick the best candidates from the waiting list if they are still available and fill the vacant posts.

Question 8.
Staffing is not merely an employee welfare activity, Why?
Answer:

  • Although one of the key objectives of staffing is to recruit and select personnel, train and develop them and look after their welfare, there are several other important aspects that staffing looks after.
  • Staffing acquires the right employees and makes the best use of them to achieve the business goals.
  • Appropriate staff brings dynamism in all the makes all the activities of an organization.
  • Other managerial functions like planning, organizing, directing, co-ordinating and controlling are closely related with staffing.
  • Moreover, staffing is an expensive process and the expense is in recurring form.
  • Thus, staffing is not merely an employee welfare activity.

Question 9.
What can be known through IQ and aptitude tests?
Answer:

  1. IQ test: IQ test assess the common sense, memory, smartness, power of decision making and thinking capacity, etc.
  2. Aptitude test: Aptitude test assesses whether the candidate is interested in the work for which he is hired.

Question 10.
What can be known through trade test and psychological tests?
Answer:

  • Trade test: The trade test decides if the candidate has the necessary skills to perform the expected job or not.
  • Psychological test: This test is meant to know about the nature, self-confidence, attitude and habits of the candidate.

4. Answer the following questions in brief :

Question 1.
Write a note on staffing as a part of Human Resource Management.
Answer:

  • In modern days, the staffing department is known as the Human Resource Department (HRD).
  • All the activities of staffing that the HRD does are together also called Human Resource Management (HRM).
  • The concept of HRM is broader even than staffing.
  • Staffing includes recruitment, selection and training. It also includes providing materialistic facilities, progressive wage system and taking care of welfare of employees. Over and above all these activities of staffing, the Human Resource Management also does the activities for growth and development of personnel.
  • Thus, Human Resource Management is the process of planning for recruiting necessary staff and developing it for achieving objectives of the enterprise.
  • In these days of global competition, the importance of human resource has increased tremendously.
  • Over and above maintaining the other factors of production properly, the organization can achieve great success if it gives proper recognition to the loyalty and efficiency of the staff and provide them satisfaction, motivation and care.

Question 2.
State the difference between Training and Development.
Answer:

Points of Difference Training Development
1. Meaning It is a process of imparting theoretical and practical knowledge to employees with the object of acquiring proficiency in work It is a process of imparting theoretical and practical knowledge to top level management and departmental heads
2. Objective The objective of training is to increase efficiency and productivity The objective is over all development of management and officers by enhancing their abilities and moulding their personalities
3. Centre point Work is at the centre of training Future career and probable challenges are at the centre of development
4. Time and expense It is a short term and less expensive process It is a long term and expensive process
5. Who imparts? Experienced employees, experts or supervisors. Experts belonging to educational institutions and various fields
6. To whom? Training is given to staff at the bottom level. Developmental programs are for executives and departmental heads working at top and middle level.

GSEB Solutions Class 12 Organization of Commerce and Management Chapter 5 Staffing

Question 3.
“An efficient staff is an invaluable asset.” Explain the statement.
Answer:

  • Appropriate and efficient staff brings dynamism in all the makes all the activities of an organization.
  • If the employees are efficient and if the organization can satisfy their needs, then the employees can become the driving force of the organization.
  • An efficient staff by making correct use of other factors of production can accomplish the objectives of business successfully.
  • Efficient staff can increase the quality of production. Moreover, their efficiency can lead to higher productivity and reduced wastage.
  • Thus, efficient staff is an invaluable asset.

Question 4.
“Staffing is like the different limbs of the organization.” Explain the statement.
Answer:

  • Planning is considered the brain of organization and management. But once the planning is done it needs to be executed too.
  • The job of execution is taken care by the staff. It is staffing that performs all the planned activities.
  • Staff does the production and also increases the productivity.
  • Without staff, the organization is a dead organization in which no activity can take place.
  • Thus, staffing is like the different limbs of the organization.

Question 5.
“Training is expensive but its absense is more so.” Explain the statement.
Answer:

  • Small companies hire trainers and pay for their training fees, accommodation, conveyance, etc.
  • Large organizations set-up a separate training department. They appoint/ special officers who provide training to. new employees.
  • The organization has to incur huge expenses on all these training activities.
  • On the brighter side, training improves the efficiency of the employees. It makes them more productive.
  • Better trained personnel save resources such as raw material, time, energy and effort. These savings lead to indirect earnings to the organization.
  • Training increases morale and motivation of the employees.
  • They become more loyal towards the organization and their turnaround rate reduces.
  • Absence of training can lead to losses of all these benefits. Hence, it is said that although training is expensive, its absence is more so.

5. Answer the following questions in detail :

Question 1.
Explain the meaning and characteristics of staffing.
Answer:

  • The process of recruitment i.e. acquiring employees for the work and training and maintaining them in the organization is called staffing.
  • In general terms, staffing refers to just recruitment. But, the concept of staffing is much broader and it includes all the activities of selection, training, promotion, transfer and post-retirement activities.

Characteristics of staffing:
1. Important function of management:
Just like planning, organizing, directing, co-ordinating and controlling, staffing is also one of the important functions of management. ,

2. Perennial process:
Organization cannot exist without employees. As long as organizational activities exist, employees and staffing wili also exist.

3. Related to human relations:

  • The main objective of staffing is to acquire the right employees and make the best use of them to achieve the business goals.
  • Out of all the factors or production, employees are the only one in living form. Humans have feelings, emotions and self-respect.
  • Since staffing is related with human element, humanitarian behavior is expected towards them when they are made to work in the organization.

4. Staffing is a dynamic process:
Appropriate staff brings dynamism in all the activities of an organization.

5. Related with other managerial functions:
Other managerial functions like planning, organizing, directing, co-ordinating ‘ and controlling are closely related to staffing.

6. Wide scope:
Staffing has a very wide scope and it does not end just at recruitment. It takes care of labour welfare, training and maintaining personnel and also working for their development.

7. Capital expenditure (Investment):
The expenditure incurred for recruitment, selection, training and development of the staff is not an expense but an investment.

Question 2.
Explain the importance of staffing.
Answer:
Importance of staffing:
1. Driving force:

  • If the employees are efficient and if the organization can satisfy their needs, then the employees can become the driving force of the organization.
  • An efficient staff by making correct use of other factors of production can accomplish the objectives of business successfully.

2. Dynamic activity:
Staffing infuses dynamism into business and helps to perform all the business activities.

3. Important for other functions of management:
Other managerial functions like coordinating, directing, controlling, planning, etc. cannot succeed without proper staffing.

4. Limbs of business enterprise:
Planning is the brain of management and enterprise while staffing is like the limbs. Without the limbs the body i.e. the enterprise cannot do any activity.

5. Job satisfaction among staff:

  • Staffing helps to listen the complaints and problems of the employees. This then helps to bring solution to their problems speedily.
  • If the planning and distribution of work is done properly than the employees become more satisfied with their jobs. As a result their efficiency increases.

6. Harmony in relations:
If staffing is done right, it can create a harmonious and satisfying environment between the employees and employees and employers of the organization.

7. Increases prestige of the organization:
A contented and efficient staff is an invaluable asset. It increases the prestige of the organization.

8. Continuous process:
Business cannot exist without staff. As long as business activities continue, staff and staffing process will also continue.

GSEB Solutions Class 12 Organization of Commerce and Management Chapter 5 Staffing

Question 3.
What is recruitment? Discuss in detail the internal and external sources of recruitment.
Answer:

  • In general terms recruitment can be defined as, “The process of looking for probable employees and making them apply for the job.”
  • In a broader sense “Recruitment is the process of acquiring at the right time, in the right number, in the right place, persons with the right qualifications.”
  • Recruitment is not a one time job. It keeps on continuing in the organization.
  • Recruitment takes place when a new enterprise is established, when an existing unit is expanded or when an employee resigns, dies or retires. Sources of Recruitment:

There are two sources of recruitment.
(A) Internal sources

  1. Promotion
  2. Transfer
  3. Friends and relatives of employees
  4. Recalling retrenched employees
  5. Promotion with transfer
  6. Waiting list

(B) External sources

  1. Through advertisement
  2. Through employment exchange
  3. Through educational institutions
  4. Through trade unions
  5. Through contractors and jobbers
  6. Recruitment at the gate
  7. Modern methods

There are two main sources of recruitment,
(A) Internal sources arid
(B) External sources.

Depending upon the need of the organization and situation, recruitment is done from any of these sources.
(A) Internal sources:
1. Promotion:

  • When a post in the organization becomes vacant, it can be filled by promoting an existing staff member after considering his work, ability, honesty, skill, loyalty and qualifications.
    Promotion of employees boosts morale and loyalty of the staff.
  • Moreover, promotion also results in increased salaries, status, power and responsibility.

2. Transfer:
In case of shortage of staff at a particular location or department, staff member from location or department having surplus staff can be transferred on the basis of his suitability and qualifications.

3. Friends and relatives of employees:

  • Whenever a vacancy comes up in an organization, the management asks employees ask employees to recommend their qualified friends and relatives for the post.
  • The applications are called from such interested candidates and are screened, interviewed and if all goes well, are recruited.
  • This form of recruitment helps to boost the morale of the employees and make them feel proud to be a part of the recruitment process.

4. Recalling retrenched employees:

  • Retrenchment of employees is the process of removing employees from the organization in case if they are surplus or to cut down organizational costs.
  • The organization can invite former employees who were retrenched because of some or the other reasons or employees who have left the organization and joined elsewhere voluntarily to rejoin.

5. Promotion with transfer:
Under this system, organization provides promotion along with transfer and transfers employees to a different location on the basis of their efficiency, experience and loyalty

For example, an employee can be transferred along with promotion to his native place or any other place of his choice. This will boost the morale and enthusiasm of the employees. Since, in many cases employees do not prefer transfer, giving them promotion and then transferring them is a way to keep their morale high.

6. Waiting list:

  • Waiting list is the list of candidates who had applied in the past but were not appointed in the organization. Such a list is useful for future recruitment.
  • Since, the applicant of the waiting list was thoroughly screened and tested, the organization can save time and money to spend again on advertisement and the entire recruitment procedure.
  • The organization can pick the best candidates from the waiting list if they are still available and fill the vacant posts.

(B) External sources:
1. Through advertisement:

  • Advertisement is an effective way for recruitment.
  • The organization releases advertisements in newspapers, business journals and periodicals for specific posts and invites application from qualified candidates.
  • The organizations also put such advertisements on internet, TV or websites. The candidates that come across such advertisements can apply online.
  • Through advertisement, the organization can receive a very large number of applications that too from distant corners of the country.
  • This helps to choose the right candidate form a large pool of applicants.

2. Through employment exchange:

  • Unemployed people register themselves in public and private employment exchanges. These exchanges prepare a database of all such people.
  • The database contains details such as name, address, qualifications, experience, skills, etc.
  • The organizations can approach these employment exchanges and obtain the list of candidates that can fit into the job.
  • The organizations then contact suitable candidates and calls for recruiting them.

3. Through educational institutes:

  • In modern times many enterprises visit colleges and universities and ask them to arrange a campus interview.
  • Campus interviews are held by colleges and universities themselves too wherein they invite various organizations to visit their campus and conduct interviews and select the student as a future candidate.
  • Such placement camps are arranged every year at various institutes like Indian Institute of Management (IIM) and Indian Institute of Technology (NT) and also at several colleges and universities.

4. Through trade unions:

  • Most of the workers are the members of trade unions. Trade unions maintain the list of these employees working in the organization.
  • The organizations can contact these trade unions and take the list of such employees that are either removed or have left the organization. They can then contact them if they are available for the job.
  • The concept of trade unions is quite popular in textile industries, mining industries, etc.

5. Through contractors:

  • There are certain employment contractors who mainly supply unskilled labourers to the organizations.
  • The business enterprise makes a contract with such contractors where in the contractor takes the responsibility to supply the workers to the enterprise.
  • The contractor is in constant contact with various types of labourers. He recommends these workers to the enterprise as and when the enterprise asks for.
  • This practice is quite popular for workers working in construction industries, mining industries, tea plantation, etc.
  • This is an informal channel of recruitment and so there are chances that the contractor or the enterprise or both together exploit the worker.

6. Recruitment at the gate:
Workers can be recruited by business enterprises by placing a notice at the factory gate. This method is more suitable for daily wages.

7. Modern method:

  • Modern method is mostly suitable for recruitment of skilled employees.
  • In modern times a very large amount of recruitment is done through the internet.
  • Search portals such as naukri.com, monster.com, etc. are internet companies that provide a facility to candidates to register their bio-data on these web-portals.
  • This database is then shared with the business enterprises worldwide. Whenever the enterprise needs to fill a post, it contacts the candidates registered on these websites.
  • Moreover, the candidates can also directly apply to the company from the company’s website.
  • This tool is very fast, quite effective and has very wide reach.
  • Under the modern method, various procedures of recruitment such as application, exams (tests), results and appointments can be done.
  • If the candidate is well-versed with the computers, he can take tremendous benefit from this source of recruitment.

Question 4.
Explain the selection procedure.
Answer:
The process (steps) of selection:
1. Welcoming and primary meeting:

  • When the candidate arrives at the enterprise, he is welcomed by the receptionist.
  • The receptionist then makes the primary investigation. If the candidate is found suitable/eligible he is given an appointment of the recruitment officer.
  • The recruitment officer then gathers information about the knowledge, education, skill and the working capability of the candidate.
  • The main objective at this stage is to see that only proper candidates are sent further for applying for the job.
  • If the candidate is found suitable in the primary meeting, he is asked to fill the application form. This saves the time of the recruitment officer and the process becomes simple too.

2. Receiving and screening of applications:

  • The candidate, along with application submits various documents such as bio-data, copies of mark sheets, experience certificates and other certificates, etc.
  • The enterprise screens these applications and documents. The ones that are found faulty or incorrect are rejected.

3. Taking necessary tests:

  • After shortlisting the candidates based on their applications, the enterprise arranges various tests for these candidates.
  • Every enterprise conducts tests in its own way. The number, difficulty level and way of conducting test vary among organization.
  • These tests help the enterprise to identify mental ability, skill, aptitude, efficiency, etc. of the candidate.

The major types of tests are:

  1. IQ test: IQ test assess the common sense, memory, smartness, power of decision making and thinking capacity, etc.
  2. Aptitude test: Aptitude test assesses whether the candidate is interested in the work for which he is hired.
  3. Trade test: Trade test decides if the candidate has the necessary skills to perform the expected job or not.
  4. Psychological test: This test is meant to know about the nature, self-confidence, attitude and habits of the candidate.

4. Personal interview:

  • Candidates who succeed in the above tests are called for personal interview.
  • To remove any bias or preferences, the enterprise forms a selection cum recruitment committee for interviewing the candidates.
  • The interviewing committee consists of representatives of the management, the departmental head, the personnel manager and experts from various fields.
  • These people perform a proper work-related interview. They stick to this agenda and do not deviate.
  • They also clarify the terms and conditions of the job to the candidate.

5. Checking references:

  • To know the present and past work-related situation of the candidate, the business enterprise checks and enquires from candidate’s present and past employers.
  • This is done to know whether the information provided by the candidate is correct or not.
  • This also helps to obtain the right opinion about an employee before finalizing him.

6. Preliminary selection:

  • If the matters gathered from personal interview and the past references are positive then the selection committee will make a list of selected candidates.
  • This list usually includes more number of candidates than required. These candidates are also called short listed candidates.

7. Physical (Medical) examination:

  • After preliminary selection of the required candidates they are sent to a specified hospital or doctor for medical examination.
  • The main objective of this examination is to know whether the candidate is suffering from any serious illness or any other physical problem.
  • Serious or major illness can decrease efficiency of the candidate and hence will affect the productivity of the organization.
  • The other employees are kept in waiting list. In future, if the organization needs more candidates then it can select from this list.

8. Appointment letter:

  • Once the candidate passes all the tests and interviews he is given the appointment letter.
  • The appointment letter contains details regarding the nature of work, work place, designation, rights and responsibilities, remuneration and other financial and non-financial details.

9. Induction into the organization and allotment of work:
In modern organizations, after giving the appointment letter and before the allotment of duties, employees are given information regarding the policies of the organization, organization environment, superiors, colleagues and subordinates. In other words, the to-be employees are introduced to the organization. This is called induction.

GSEB Solutions Class 12 Organization of Commerce and Management Chapter 5 Staffing

Question 5.
Explain the meaning and importance of training.
Answer:
Meaning of training:

  • “Training means providing theoretical and practical knowledge with reference to the work of the employees.”
  • As stated by an expert, “Training means giving up-to-date information about the organization and also to increase efficiency, skill, aptitude, attitude and technical skill of the employees.”
  • In short “Training means imparting knowledge and education with the objective of gaining proficiency in the business.”

Importance of training:
1. To provide modern information:
Training is necessary for providing information to the employees about modern technological changes and research.

2. Safety:

  • It is extremely important to provide safety training.
  • Safety related trainings are given to those workers who work on machines. The training modules include, safe operation, importance of safety equipment such as helmet, gloves, etc.
  • Safety training improves the ability of machine handling, reduces fatigue and increases morale.

3. Increases job satisfaction:

  • Training helps employees to understand their work better and ways to improve their efficiency and adopt new methods.
  • This increases their enthusiasm which, in turn, increases their job satisfaction.

4. Reduces labour turnover rate:

  • Training increases knowledge, skill and efficiency of the workers. This improves their chances of promotion and earning higher income.
  • When the efficiency along with income rises, the employees do not think of changing their job and remain loyal to the companies. This reduces the rate of labour turnover.

5. Increase in profit:
Training increases production and productivity. This reduces cost of production and increases profit.

6. Reduction in expenses:

  • Training increases efficiency of the workers. This increases productivity as well as production and decreases wastage of raw material and time.
  • It also reduces supervision cost.
  • Thus training reduces production cost.

7. Growth and development of employees:
Training increases skills, knowledge, ability and intelligence of the employees. This also results in personal growth and development of the employees.

8. Other benefits:

  • Training improves quality of production. Increased quality enhances prestige of the organization and reduces stress of sales and complaints.
  • Training creates an environment of co-operation, loyalty, sincerity and enthusiasm.

Question 6.
Give the meaning of development and explain its importance.
Answer:

  • As contrast to training, development is an organized activity in which the manpower learns and grows through self-assessment. It is a type of educational process which develops the personnel over a period of time.
  • The concept of development is more applicable to the higher level and top-level management.
  • Top level management and departmental heads perform more of intellectual work than physical work. Like workers, they do not work on machines. They play roles of leaders who lead the workers, manage them, motivate them and take out work from them. So, their training needs are different. Hence, they need different kind of training or say development.
  • The objective of this training is to increase their mental ability and their . efficiency in taking policy decisions and leading the organization in more
    and more efficient way. Such development trainings make them experts in technical knowledge which then help in them in making strategic plans and policies. This type of training is called officer development.
  • The modern world industries are developing very fast. The managers need to remain in line with these developments so that they can stay well in the competition. So to enhance the ability of top level management, the organization undertakes development oriented programmes. .
  • Development is the process of imparting theoretical and practical knowledge to top level management and departmental heads.
  • The term development refers to a program which helps to achieve the predefined objectives of the organization by improving the capabilities of heads (officers).

Importance of development:
1. Increase in technical knowledge:

  • Although the officers do not have to work on the machines but, with changing business conditions, it is necessary for the officers to have technical knowledge because their functions are related with technical aspects.
  • Developmental programmes provide guidance (knowledge) to use technical knowledge, machines and methods, so that correct and positive decisions can be taken for organizations.

2. Research and new ideology:
Training increases the efficiency of departmental heads to work at the administrative level by providing them knowledge about new researches and ideologies.

3. Development of the organization:
In present times, developmental programs are necessary to help the organization grow at national and even international levels by adopting new changes and strategies.

4. Optimum use of resources:

  • Developmental programs help to make optimum use of available resources.
  • Moreover, training reduces unnecessary expenses, controls the cost of production and hence increase the profit.

5. Solution to problems:
Development programs help in bringing speedy and successful solutions to newly arising, problems in the organization.

6. Effective supervision:
Development programs enhance the skill of officers involved in technical work. This makes their supervision more effective.

7. Reduces stress:

  • Management and departmental heads often have to face many challenges and problems while managing the enterprise or business.
  • Taking decisions and managing daily operations creates a lot of stress on them. Developmental programs help to reduce this stress.

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