Gujarat Board GSEB Textbook Solutions Class 12 Biology Chapter 9 Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production Textbook Questions and Answers, Additional Important Questions, Notes Pdf.
Gujarat Board Textbook Solutions Class 12 Biology Chapter 9 Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
GSEB Class 12 Biology Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production Text Book Questions and Answers
Explain in brief the role of animal husbandry in human welfare.
Animal husbandry is the agricultural practice of breeding and raising livestock. Animal husbandry deals with the care and breeding of livestock like buffaloes, cows, pigs, horses, cattle, sheep, camels, goats, etc., that are useful to humans. It also includes poultry farming and fisheries. Fisheries include rearing, catching, selling, etc., of fish, mollusks (shell-fish), and crustaceans (prawns, crabs, etc.). The world farm produce is only 25 percent, i.e., the productivity per unit is very low. Hence food produce from plants alone cannot feed the population. Recent developments in animal husbandry have enhanced milk and meat production.
If your family owned a dairy farm, what measures would you undertake to improve the quality and quantity of milk production?
Measures should be taken under the following headings:-
- Selection of Breed – Milk production depends mainly on the breed. High yielding, disease-resistant, acclimatized to the climate condition of the area.
- Cattle shed – It should be spacious, roofed but airy with sloping floors draining wine and dung removal with a permanent water supply.
- Feed – Daily, regular, fresh fodder and water in adequate quantity has to be provided.
- Grooming – To be regularly brushed, massaged, and cleaned. Regular grooming keeps cattle healthy.
- Sanitation – Hygiene of cattle, handlers, transportation, mechanization, etc., to bee kept, Sanitation of cattle shed.
- Health care – Regular checkup, vaccination is mandatory.
What is meant by the term ‘breed’? What are the objectives of animal breeding?
A group of animals related by descent and similar in most characters like general appearance, features, size, configuration, etc., are said to belong to a breed.
The breeding of animals is an important aspect of animal husbandry. Animal breeding aims at increasing the yield of animals and improving the desirable qualities of the produce.
Name the methods employed in animal breeding. According to you which of the methods is best? Why?
The main methods employed in breeding are inbreeding and out-i breeding. When breeding is between animals of the same breed it is called inbreeding, while crosses between different breeds are called I outbreeding. Since inbreeding causes inbreeding depression, outbreeding techniques especially hybridization are the best.
To improve the chances of a successful production of hybrids, other means like Multiple Ovulation Embryo Transfer Technology (MOET) are also employed.
What is apiculture? How is it important in our lives?
Apiculture or beekeeping is the maintenance of hives of honeybees for the production of honey.
It has been an age-old cottage industry. Honey is a food of high nutritive value and also finds use in the indigenous systems of medicine. Honeybee also produces beeswax, which finds many uses in industry, such as in the preparation of cosmetics and polishes of various kinds. The increased demand for honey has led to large-scale beekeeping practices. It has become an established income-generating industry, whether practiced on a small or on a large scale.
Discuss the role of fishery in the enhancement of food production.
Fish and other edible aquatic animals are an important source of food rich in proteins, minerals, and vitamins and is a source of oil. It provides with good financial gain. Enhanced food availability is called Blue Revolution.
Briefly describe various steps involved in plant breeding.
The main steps in breeding a new genetic variety of a crop are –
- Collection of variability
- Evaluation and selection of parents
- Cross hybridisation among the selected parents:
- Selection and testing of superior recombinants
- Testing, release and commercialisation of new cultivars
Explain what is meant by biofortification.
Crop breeding programme aimed at increasing quality of crop like high vitamin content, more minerals, complete proteins, and heathier fats, eg: lysine and tryptophan-rich maize, Vitamin A enriched carrot.
Which part of the plant is best suited for making virus-free plants and why?
Meristem culture is best suited for making virus-free plants because meristem is free of virus.
What is the major advantage of producing plants by micropropagation?
A very large number of identical, virus-free plants of desired characters (e.g. tolerance, mutation, resistance) can be raised in a very short duration.
Find out what the various components of the medium used for propagation of an explant in vitro are?
The nutrient medium for in vitro culture must contain a carbon source such as sucrose and also inorganic salts, vitamins, amino acids and growth regulators like auxins, cytokinins etc.
Name any five hybrid varieties of crop plants which have been developed in India.
- Hybrid Maize
- Hybrid Jowar
- Hybrid wheat
- Hybrid Bajra
- Hybrid Garden Pea.
GSEB Class 12 Biology Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production Additional Important Questions and Answers
Name the wheat varieties which were introduced all over the wheat-growing belt of India and were high-yielding and disease resistant.
Sonalika and Kalyan Sona
Domesticated animals which are raised for use or profit are collectively called livestock.
Name the two sugar cane varieties which were successfully crossed to produce high-yielding sugar cane varieties.
a. Saccharum barberi
b. Saccharum officinarum
Mention the two major practices included in animal husbandry.
The two major practices
- Management of the animals (caring, feeding, housing, etc.)
- Animal breeding.
Name some crop varieties bred by hybridisation and selection, for disease resistance to fungi, bacteria, and viral diseases.
Pusa swarnim (Brassica)
Pusa shubhra (Cauliflower)
Pusa Komal (Cowpea)
Pusa Sadabahar (Chilli)
What is plant breeding? (CBSE 2005)
It is the manipulation of plant species so as to create new improved varieties that are better suited for cultivation, give better yield and are resistant .to damage from pest and pathogens.
a. Through which method do genes for disease resistance is transferred from a related crop to a cultivated variety?
b. Give example for a vegetable crop which was transferred by this method.
c. Give the name of new variety.
a. Sexual hybridisation
b. Bhindi/ladies finger
c. Parbhani kranti
What is a callus?
A callus is an unorganized undifferentiated mass of actively dividing cells.
A group of animals related by descent and similar in most characters are said to belong to a breed. Many breeds are produced by inbreeding and outbreeding. Briefly explain the two terms.
Inbreeding refers to the mating of more closely related individuals within the same breed for 4-6 generations.
Outbreeding is the breeding of unrelated animals which may be between individuals of the same breed but having no common ancestors for 4-6 generations (outcrossing) or between different breeds (cross-breeding) or different species (interspecific hybridisation).
What is embryo rescue? (Embryo culture)
Embryos which normally don’t survive inside seeds can be grown in tissue culture to form new plants. This process is called embryo rescue.
Outbreeding is the breeding of unrelated animals usually done by outcrossing, cross breeding and interspecific hybridisation.
a. Differentiate these three methods with brief descriptions.
b. Give examples for the last two methods.
a. Outcrossing: Mating of animals within the same breed, but having no common ancestors on either side of their pedigree upto 4-6 generations. Crossbreeding: Mating of superior males of one breed with superior females of another breed.
Interspecific hybridisation: Mating male and female animals of two different related species.
b. Crossbreeding: Hisardale sheep developed by crossing Bikaneri ewes and Marino rams.
Interspecific hybridization: Mule by crossing horse and donkey.
The maintenance of the hives of honey bees for the production of honey.
MOET technology is used to produce successful hybrids during breeding programmes for cattle.
a. Give the full form of MOET.
b. Explain the process.
a. Multiple Ovulation Embryo Transfer.
b. In this method a cow is administered hormones with FSH-like activity, to induce follicular maturation and superovulation. Instead of one egg, they produce 6-8 eggs. Then the animal is inseminated. The fertilized eggs at 8-32 cell stages, are recovered non-surgically and transferred to surrogate mothers.
IARI has released several varieties of crop plants that are biofortified. Give 3 examples of crops and there biofortification.
- Vitamin A enriched carrots, spinach, pumpkin etc.
- Vitamin C enriched tomato, mustard, bitter guard.
- Calcium enriched spinach
- Proteins enriched broad bean, french beans and garden peas etc.
Different steps of plant breeding are given. Arrange them in order.
a. Selection and testing of superior recombinants.
b. Collection of variability.
c. Testing, release and commercialisation of new cultivars.
d. Evaluation and selection of parents.
e. Cross hybridisation among selected parents.
a. Collection of variability.
b. Evaluation and selection of parents.
c. Cross hybridisation among selected parents.
d. Selection and testing of superior recombinants.
e. Testing, release and commercialisation of new cultivars.
Name and explain the method employed these days for breeding for disease resistance give an example.
Mutation breeding is used Mutation breeding is the process in which mutations are induced by the use of chemicals or radiation and selecting and using the plants that show the desirable characters, e.g.: By this process, mung bean is resistant to yellow mosaic virus and powdery mildew has been produced.
Suppose you have a crop plant with high protein quality, but prone to diseases. If you want to bring high protein quality and disease resistance to one plant, what type of plant breeding method do you follow? Why?
Hybridisation. Because by cross hybridising two parents (one with high protein quality and another with disease resistance) to produce hybrids, the desired characters of the parents genetically combine in one plant.
What is the significance of sheep and goats? Give the name of three Indian species of each.
The zoological name of sheep is Ovis ones. It gives wool, meat, and leather its species are:
- Lohi: It gives carpet quality of wool and meat production.
The zoological name of the goat is Capra aegagrus It gives us both meat and milk. The three species are as follows:
- Cashmere goat.
Explants, totipotency, micropropagation, and soma clones are terms related to a modern plant breeding method. Name the method and explain the terms.
Explants: Any part of a plant taken out and grown in a test tube during tissue culture technique.
Totipotency: The capacity to generate a whole plant from any cell. Micropropagation: Producing a large number of plants using tissue culture technology.
Soma clones: Individuals which are genetically identical to the original plant from which they are grown.
Write the name of the causal organism, symptoms of the disease, and control measures of Ranikhet disease of fowls.
Ranikhet Disease: This disease was first discovered from the hills of Ranikhet (Kumau), hence called Ranikhet disease.
Causal organism: Virus.
- Difficulty in breathing.
- Head, neck, and legs are paralyzed.
- Loss of appetite.
- Increase in the temperature of the body.
- Secretion of mucilaginous substance from the mouth and nostrils.
- The colour of the body becomes violet.
- The laying of the egg is inhibited and eggs become ruptured.
Control and Treatment:
- Died individuals should be immediately burned.
- Water should be disinfected.
- Vaccination by Ranikhet vaccine:
- F strain vaccine is given to 1 to 3 days old chicks.
- Freeze-dried chick embryo vaccine is given to 6 to 8 months old chicks.
Single-cell proteins are microbes grown on a large scale to produce proteins. Give the merits of growing SCP.
- It can be grown easily on materials like wastewater, straw, sewage, and animal manure.
- It can serve as food rich in protein, minerals, fats, carbohydrates, and vitamins.
- It reduces environmental pollution.
- It has a high rate of biomass production.
Rahul had a good variety of tobacco plants, which were infected by a virus. He wants to produce new disease-free plants from the old plants. As a student of biology, can you give advice to Rahul for producing virus-free plants?
I advise him to do meristem culture because although the plants are infected by a virus, the meristem will be free of virus.
If you have to produce a new plant with characters of two separate parents which are unrelated (like potato and tomato)
a. which breeding method do you undertake?
b. Explain the process.
a. Somatic hybridisation
b. First isolate single cells from both the parents. After digesting the cell wall of both the cells, the naked protoplasts are made to fuse with the help of some physical and chemical factors. The resultant cell is grown in a culture medium to produce plantlets.
Why does a beekeeper keep beehives in crop fields during the flowering periods?
In plants, nectar production is maximum during the flowering period. The honey bees suck nectar from these flowers which increases honey production.