Gujarat Board GSEB Textbook Solutions Class 12 Biology Chapter 4 Reproductive Health Textbook Questions and Answers, Additional Important Questions, Notes Pdf.
Gujarat Board Textbook Solutions Class 12 Biology Chapter 4 Reproductive Health
GSEB Class 12 Biology Reproductive Health Text Book Questions and Answers
What do you think is the significance of reproductive health in a society?
Reproductive health means total well-being in all aspects of reproduction i.e., physical, emotional, behavioural, and social. A society with people having physically and functionally normal reproductive organs are necessary not only for the existing people but also for the future generation.
Suggest aspects of reproductive health which need to be given special attention in the present scenario.
- Sex education
- Family welfare information
- Reproductive health clinics.
- Prompting elders to give support and suggestions to children.
Is sex education necessary in schools? Why?
Sex education is necessary for schools. It will help the students to understand the problems such as uncontrolled population growth, social evils like sex abuse, and sex-related crimes. This will enable the students to think and take up necessary steps to prevent them and thereby build up a socially responsible and healthy society.
Do you think that reproductive health in our country has improved in the past 50 years? If yes, mention such areas of improvement.
Yes, our country has improved in the past 50 years. The areas of such improvement are:
- Reduced MMR and IMR (Maternal Mortality Rate and Infant Mortality Rate)
- Reduced birth rate.
- The decline in STDs in India.
- Couple protection by family planning has increased.
What are the suggested reasons for the population explosion?
A rapid decline in the death rate, maternal mortality rate (MMR), and infant mortality rate (IMR).
Is the use of contraceptives justified? Give reasons.
- It slows down the growth of the population
- Helps for proper spacing of children.
- Helps to prevent STDs and prevent its spreading.
- Helps couples to lead a healthy reproductive life.
Removal of gonads cannot be considered as a contraceptive option. Why?
Contraception means the prevention of pregnancy. There are a lot of methods available to check pregnancy. So removal of gonads cannot be considered as a good contraceptive option.
Amniocentesis for sex determination is banned in our country. Is this ban necessary? Comment.
Amniocentesis is a method for sex determination of the foetus. Due to ethical and spiritual reasons, in India female foetus is not accepted and foetus is destroyed by some families. So, sex-ratio has declined in India. In order to maintain sex – ratio and to prevent social problems in future generations, this test has been banned in India.
Suggest some methods to assist infertile couples to have children.
The couples could be assisted to have children through certain special techniques commonly known as assisted reproductive technologies (ART). They are IVF (in vitro fertilisation), ZIFT (zygote intrafallopian tube transfer),‘GIFT (gamete intrafallopian transfer), ICSI (intracytoplasmic sperm injection), AI (artificial insemination), and IUI (intrauterine insemination).
What are the measures one has to take to prevent contracting STDs?
Avoiding sexual intercourse with unknown/multiple partners, use condoms during coitus are some of the simple precautions to avoid contracting STDs.
State True/False with explanation
a. Abortions could happen spontaneously too. (True/False)
b. Infertility is defined as the inability to produce viable offspring ‘ . and is always due to abnormalities/defects in the female partner. (True/False)
c. Complete lactation could help as a natural method of contraception. (True/False)
d. Creating awareness about sex-related aspects is an effective method to improve the reproductive health of the people. (True/False)
b. False – The problem lies in both partners.
Correct the following statements:
- Surgical methods of contraception prevent gamete formation.
- All STDs are completely curable.
- Oral pills are very popular contraceptives among rural women.
- In E.T techniques, embryos are always transferred into the uterus.
- Gamete formation → Gamete fusion.
- Completely curable → not curable
- Rural women → the woman (urban women piostly)
- Embryos → more than eight celled (zygote or early embryos).
GSEB Class 12 Biology Reproductive Health Additional Important Questions and Answers
Match the items in column A with those of column B.
|a. Lactational amenorrhea||IUD|
|b. Barrier||Surgical method|
|c. Vasectomy||Natural method|
|d. Lippes loop||Diaphragms|
|a. Lactational amenorrhea||Natural method|
|c. Vasectomy||Surgical method|
|d. Lippes loop||IUD|
How does Cu T act as an effective contraceptive for human females?
Cu T is an intrauterine device (IUD) and functions as follows:
The Cu ions released suppressed sperm motility and the fertilizing capacity of sperms.
IUDs increase the phagocytosis of sperms within the uterus.
Give one example for
a. Non-medicated IUD
b. Copper releasing IUD
c. Hormone releasing IUD-
a. Lippes loop
b. CuT, Cu7, Multiload 375
c. Progestasert, LNG-20
Explain any 2 methods of Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) that have helped couples to bear children. [CBSE – 2008]
- GIFT is a method of transferring the ovum, collected from a donor, into the uterus of a female who cannot produce ova.
- ICSI is the process in which sperms are directly injected into the ovum under laboratory conditions is and the embryo is transferred into the uterus / fallopian tube.
- In the so-called test-tube baby programme, the ova of the female and sperms of the male are made to fuse under laboratory conditions and the embryo is transferred into the uterus / fallopian tube of the female.
Expand the following.
MTP – Medical Termination of Pregnancy
STD – Sexually Transmitted Disease
IUD – Intra-Uterine Device
ICSI – Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection
How do surgical procedures prevent conception in humans? Mention the way it is achieved in human females.
Surgical procedures block the transport of gametes and achieve contraception.
The sterilization procedure in human males is called vasectomy. In this method, a small part of the vas deferens is removed and then tied up through a small incision on the scrotum. Hence the continuity of the path of sperm is lost.
A slogan related to the family planning program is given below.
“We two, have two”, “We one, have one”.
As a citizen of India, state your response on it.
Hint: In the year 2020, it is expected that India becomes the most populous nation in the world.
“We two have two”
In 1947, at the time of partition, the population of India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka was 53 crore. At present, the population of India alone is 105 crore. If the present growth continues, in the very near future man will face the scarcity of food, housing, drinking water, and other basic necessities. So we must follow the government policy “we two have two’.
China has passed a strict law that there will be one child from one couple. Anybody having a second child pays tax to the government for 18 years. Is it not possible that this law is to be passed in India also?
We one have one
The Planned Birth policy is the birth control policy of the government of the People’s Republic of China. It is known in western society as the one-child policy due to the required payment of a social ‘compensation fee’ for couples having more than one child in urban areas. China generally perceived the pandemic of the overpopulation problem. The associated social and environmental problems, stimulated the government to take strong unique measures in population planning policy, In the future, India also may change the policy from “we two have two” to “we one have one”.
Expand IVF, ART, ZIFT, GIFT, ICSI and IUI.
IVF – In Vitro Fertilisation
ART – Assisted Reproductive Technologies
ZIFT – Zygote Intra Fallopian Transfer
GIFT – Gamete Intra Fallopian Transfer
ICSI – Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection
IUI – Intra Uterine Insemination
MTP has a significant role in decreasing the population though it is not meant for the purpose.
a. Why is MTP done?
b. Has India legalized MTP?
c. Upto when is it safe to do MTP?
a. MTP (Medical Termination of Pregnancy) is to get rid of unwanted pregnancies.
b. Yes. India legalized MTP in 1971.
c. MTP is relatively safe during the first trimester i.e., upto 12 weeks of pregnancy.
Certain infections or diseases are transmitted through intercourse.
a. Name the term used for it.
b. Are the diseases curable?
c. Give examples.
a. STD (Sexually Transmitted Diseases)
b. Yes, if they are detected at the earliest.
c. Syphilis, gonorrhea, genital herpes, chlamydiasis, hepatitis B, etc.
STD is not panic. Prevention is in your hands. Justify your answer.
STD is not panic if these principles are followed.
- Avoid sexual relations with unknown partners.
- Use condoms during coitus.
- In case of doubt, consult a qualified doctor.
Various methods are now available to help infertile couples. The methods are collectively called ART (Assisted Reproductive Technologies).
a. What is IVF?
b. IVF is commonly called a Test tube baby programme. Give reason.
c. Name the first person who was born by this method.
a. IVF or In Vitro Fertilisation is an assisted reproductive technology.
b. In IVF, fertilization takes place inside the test tube, outside the body.
c. Louis Brown.
The ultimate aim of an infertile couple is to have a child. Do you know any other method for them to become a parent other than ART?
Yes, in India we have so many orphaned and destitute children. Our laws permit legal adoption. So those who are suffering from infertility, can opt adoption.
Name two surgical contraceptive methods.
Tubectomy and vasectomy.
What is periodic abstinence?
It is a method in which the couples avoid or abstain from coitus from day 10 to 17 of the menstrual cycle when ovulation could be expected.
How do the pills prevent pregnancy?
The oral contraceptive pills inhibit ovulation and implantation and alter the quality of cervical mucus to retard the entry of sperms.
IUDs are the ideal contraceptives for females. Do you agree with this statement? Why?
Yes. IUDs are ideal contraceptives for females who want to delay pregnancy or space children. It is one of the most widely accepted methods of contraception in India.
Mention the barriers used for contraception.
Condoms, diaphragm, cervical caps, and vaults.
Observe and identify the following diagram.
A. Vasectomy and B. Tubectomy
In the following figures, one is of the IUDs
a. C. CuT (Copper T).
b. The Cu ions released by the CuT suppress sperm motility and fertilizing capacity of sperms.
Mention the primary steps towards reproductive health.
Counseling and creating awareness among people about reproductive organs, adolescence and associated changes, safe and hygienic sexual practices, sexually transmitted diseases etc. are the primary steps towards reproductive health.
In what way, India achieved overall improvement in reproductive health?
Reduced maternal and infant mortality rates, early detection and cure of STDs, assistance to infertile couples, etc. have improved the reproductive health in our country.
A husband and wife came to an infertility clinic and consulted the doctor to know why they are infertile. The doctor tested them and gave a negative result saying that the sperm lacks sperm lysin secreted by acrosome.
a. Give the name of the sperm lysin.
b. Mention the function of sperm lysin.
b. To dissolve the membranes surrounded by ovum during fertilization.
Define reproductive health.
According to WHO, reproductive health means total well-being in all aspects of reproduction i.e., physical, emotional, behavioural, and social.
(a) What does gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT) represent?
(b) How do Cu-T and Cu 7 act as contraceptive devices?
(a) GIFT – It is the introduction of 2 unfertilized oocytes and 2-5 lac motile sperm into the fallopian tube of a woman who desires to have a child through the laparoscope. The egg may be of her’s or of a donor. The sperm maybe her husband’s or of a donor. Fertilization occurs inside the fallopian tube and the development of foetus takes place through a natural process.
(b) Cu-T, Cu 7 are intrauterine, contraceptive devices having ionized copper. The copper defuses into the uterus. It brings about the release of toxic cytokinins. They inhibit the sperm motility and therefore fertilization of the ovum. Other categories of IUDs are hormonal in nature. (Eg: LNG – 20).
After a successful in vitro fertilisation, the fertilised egg begins to divide. Where is this egg transferred before it reaches the 8-cell stage and what is this technique named?
At uterus, the egg is transferred before it reaches the 8 cell stage and this technique is named cleavage.
Differentiate between tubectomy and vasectomy.
The surgical operation involving the sterilization of females is called tubectomy whereas the surgical operation involving sterilization of males is called vasectomy.
A mother of year old child wanted to space her second child. Her doctor suggested CuT. Explain its contraceptive actions.
CuT is Intra Uterine Device’. It increases phagocytosis of sperms within the uterus and Cu ions released suppress sperm motility and the fertilising capacity of sperms. It makes the uterus unsuitable for implantation and the cervix hostile to the sperms. It is an ideal contraceptive for female.