GSEB Solutions Class 10 English Chapter 5 Playing with Fire

   

Gujarat Board GSEB Solutions Class 10 English Second Language Chapter 5 Playing with Fire Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

GSEB Class 10 English Textbook Solutions Chapter 5 Playing with Fire (Second Language)

GSEB Class 10 English Playing with Fire Text Book Questions and Answers

Read this newspaper report.

Sunday, April 10, 2016. 12:06 p.m.
THIRUVANANTHAPURAM, India-The Hindu temple in southern India was packed with thousands for a religious festival early Sunday when the fireworks began – an unauthorized pyrotechnic display that went horribly wrong.

Explosions and a massive fire swept rapidly through the Puttingal temple complex about 3 a.m. in the village of Paravoor, killing 102 people and injuring 380 others. Scores of devotees ran in panic as the massive initial blast cut off power in the complex, while other explosions sent flames and debris raining down, a witness said.

GSEB Solutions Class 10 English Chapter 5 Playing with Fire

Many people were trapped inside. “It was complete chaos,” said Krishna Das of Paravoor “People were screaming in the dark. Ambulance sirens went off, and in the darkness no one knew how to find their way out of the complex.” Das said the first deafening explosion occurred as the fireworks display was about to end and as he was walking away. It was followed by a series of blasts, he added.

Write True or False.

(1) The accident occurred on a Sunday evening. – False
(2) About 380 people were killed in the accident. -False
(3) The accident occurred because of fireworks. -True
(4) There were many blasts when the temple caught fire. -True
(5) The devotees ran in panic as there was no electricity. -True

Vocabulary

1. Circle the word which is an outsider and use it to make a meaningful sentence.
GSEB Solutions Class 10 English Chapter 5 Playing with Fire 1

Sentences :

(1) A light year doesn’t include years.
(2) A weapon is not a fuel.
(3) Notorious doesn’t mean popular.
(4) Substance cannot be in the group of fireworks.
(5) Emit doesn’t mean hit with force.
(6) Sam Pitroda was a pioneer of telecom revolution.

2. Replace the words in italics with a single word from the glossary that has the same meaning. Write them in the blanks.

(1) Have you collected all the items to prepare this delicious recipe ?
Have you collected the ingredients to prepare this delicious recipe ?

(2) I have been living in the same house for ten years.
I have been living in the same house for a decade.

(3) Many people saw apples falling, but Newton found out that the gravitation causes its falling.
Many people saw apples falling, but Newton discovered that the gravitation causes its falling.

GSEB Solutions Class 10 English Chapter 5 Playing with Fire

(4) The Time Shuttle -I took off with a big sharp sound from the launching station. ?
The Time Shuttle-I took off with a bang from the launching station.

(5) This diamond is not polished or processed so it is not much valued in the market.
This diamond is raw so it is not much valued in the market.

3. What is ‘it’ in each of these sentences ? The words in italics should help you to guess.

Question 1.
It spreads everywhere in the house and burns all the furniture.
Answer:
fire

Question 2.
It gives us information about past events and details of many things.
Answer:
history

Question 3.
It is used to kill enemies in a war.
Answer:
weapon / gun

Question 4.
It is a material / part of something.
Answer:
ingredient

Question 5.
It is that we use to run our vehicles.
Answer:
fuel

GSEB Solutions Class 10 English Chapter 5 Playing with Fire

Question 6.
It is what we use to heal our burnt skin.
Answer:
ointment

4. Strike off the incorrect word for each sentence.

(1) It is believed that India discovered ✗/ invented black powder.
(2) Scientists use shuttles / planes ✗ to conduct research in space.
(3 ) Do you know the art ✗/ formula of making carbon dioxide ?
(4) The person who works for the betterment of the society becomes famous / notorious
(5) We import / export ✗ rough diamonds from Brazil.

5. Complete each sentence using a more common word than the word in the brackets.

Example : He usually comes by train but sometimes he comes by taxi. (occasionally)
(1) His sharp memory to recite the Ramayana at the age of four surprised one and all. (amazed)
(2) When any firework is lit, it emits light and gas. (lets out)
(3) Once I came across a Buddhist monk who explained Buddhism to me. (saint)
(4) The president of the Blind institution explained the main objectives of the institution, (principal)
(5) If you take a mixture of milk and buttermilk, it will become less sour, (combination)

6. Circle the correct answer. There can be more than one correct answers.

Question 1.
Which can be used as a fuel ?
(A) coal
(B) petrol
(C) wood
(D) oxygen
Answer:
(A) ,(B) ,(C)

Question 2.
Which is an invention ?
(A) a T.V set
(B) a cell phone
(C) the Mars
(D) the law of gravitation
Answer:
(A), (B)

Question 3.
Which one is not a good quality ?
(A) famous
(B) polite
(C) notorious
(D) well-known
Answer:
(C)

GSEB Solutions Class 10 English Chapter 5 Playing with Fire

Question 4.
What are an arrow, a gun, a sword, etc called ?
(A) tools
(B) devices
(C) weapons
(D) instruments
Answer:
(C)

Question 5.
A pen, a pencil, a book… What else can be added to this list ?
(A) a compass box
(B) a ruler
(C) socks
(D) shoes
Answer:
(A), (B)

Question 6.
Water is a blend of oxygen and … ?
(A) nitrogen
(B) carbon dioxide
(C) ozone
(D) helium
Answer:
(B)

Question 7.
Which can be similar to ‘device’ ?
(A) tool
(B) weapon
(C) spade
(D) axe
Answer:
(A) ,(C) (D)

7. Some verbs have different meanings when they are used with different prepositions. They are called phrasal verbs. Read them carefully.

Word with preposition Meaning Sentence
get out to cause to leave I heard a big noise and got out.
come back return We came back from the fun fair at midnight.
wake up stop sleeping The little child wakes up several times during the night.
run off leave home The thief ran off with my laptop.
get in enter When the teacher got in, Rupal was doing sums.
shout out speak or call in a loud voice Jignesh shouted out when he sighted a snake near the pot.
get up arise My mummy always gets up at 5 a.m. sharp.

Now complete the story with the words given in the first column of the table.
Last night I left my bedroom window open and a burglar managed to get in. When he was near my bed, he made a noise and I woke up and shouted out. The burglar at once ran to the window to get out. I think he hurt himself as he fell on the path outside but he got up and ran off. I don’t think he will come back.

8. Read and understand the following root words and their meanings and add one or two more words in the example. (You may take help of a dictionary.)

Words Root Meaning More Examples
describe, transcribe scribe writing prescribe, subscribe, describe
transport, airport port carry deport, import, export
fluid, fluency flu flow flush, furry, flutter
audience, audio aud hear audible, audiogram, auditorium
primary, prime prim first Prime Minister, primal, primer
microphone, microscope micro small microwave, microprocessor, micron
telephone, television tele far off telescope, telepathy, telegram
autobiography, automobile auto self autograph, automatic, autonomy

GSEB Solutions Class 10 English Chapter 5 Playing with Fire

9. Match A with B to complete the sentences.

A B
(1) I consider a wrist watch
(3) I lit her to use my cell phone
(3) I imported him my ideal
(4) I allowed a cracker
(5) I applied my fingers
(6) I wonder different creams
(7) I burnt a good job
(8) I am looking for how he got the prize

(1) I consider him my ideal because he is honest and hardworking.
(2) I lit a cracker which entered my neighbour’s house and caught fire.
(3) I imported a wrist watch for my father to present him on his birthday.
(4) I allowed her to use my cell phone because she had no balance in hers.
(5) I have applied different creams but haven’t got rid of pimples on my face.
(6) I wonder how he got the prize though he didn’t perform well.
(7) I burnt my fingers and applied some ointment on it.
(8) I am looking for a good job which earns

Comprehension

Tick mark the correct option.

Question 1.
What do the fireworks release ?
A. shower of colours
B. excitement
C. loud explosion
D. sound and light
Answer:
D. sound and light

Question 2.
What is the gun powder a mixture of ?
A. heat and smoke
B. oxygen and nitrogen
C. potassium nitrate, charcoal, sulphur
D. charcoal, gas and magnesium
Answer:
C. potassium nitrate, charcoal, sulphur

Question 3.
Fireworks were imported to our country from
A. China
B. Japan
C. United Kingdom
D. the USA
Answer:
A. China

Question 4.
Roger Bacon was and he belonged to
A. a priest-China
B. a scientist – England
C. a priest – England
D. a historian – Japan
Answer:
C. a priest – England

GSEB Solutions Class 10 English Chapter 5 Playing with Fire

Question 5.
How do we feel when we see crackers exploding in the sky ?
A. fear of fire
B. surprise
C. thrill
D. respect for science
Answer:
C. thrill

Question 6.
When the firework is heated, it burns using
A. carbon dioxide
B. oxygen
C. nitrogen
D. helium
Answer:
B. oxygen

Question 7.
The art of firework is taught only to ………..
A. trained workers
B. reliable persons
C. the scientists
D. the monks
Answer:
B. reliable persons

(8) Write True or False.

Question 1.
The Japanese were the first people to invent fireworks.
Answer:
False

Question 2.
An Australian monk revealed the secret of fireworks.
Answer:
False

Question 3.
The ancient text describing fireworks is Shukranti.
Answer:
True

Question 4.
Sivakasi is the major producer of fireworks in India.
Answer:
True

Question 5.
On getting a burn due to fireworks, you should first apply oil on it.
Answer:
False

Question 6.
Incandescent light is produced by heating an object till it glows.
Answer:
True

Question 7.
The formula of gun powder is perfect and need not be changed.
Answer:
True

GSEB Solutions Class 10 English Chapter 5 Playing with Fire

Question 8.
The household match is a special pyrotechnic device.
Answer:
True

Question 9.
The greatest danger of pyrotechnics is sound.
Answer:
False

Question 10.
One must light a firework wearing long, loose nylon clothes.
Answer:
False

3. Find out sentences from the Read that have nearly the same meanings as these.

Question 1.
According to some historians, India invented ‘black powder’.
Answer:
Some historians say that ‘black powder’,the basic material used in fireworks, was invented in India.

Question 2.
For thousands of years, there has been no change in the basic formula of gun powder.
Answer:
The basic formula of the black powder, or gun powder, has remained unchanged for centuries.

Question 3.
Modern chemistry has made light and colour effects more common in fireworks.
Answer:
However, with the development of modern chemistry, light and colour effects have become common in fireworks.

Question 4.
Burning of aluminium, magnesium and titanium at a high temperature emits bright light.
Answer:
In the last century, the discovery of aluminium, magnesium and titanium, which burn at high temperatures emitting bright light dramatically improved the brilliance of fireworks.

Question 5.
If the mixture is kept cool and dry, it is stable, but it can catch fire if heat is accidently applied.
Answer:
Though the mixture is stable if kept cool and dry, it can catch fire if heat is accidently applied, through too much friction sometimes, or from a spark or an impact.

Question 6.
In India, even children play with fireworks. We must observe certain safety rules.
Answer:
However, since even children are allowed to play with fireworks in India, it is important to observe certain safety rules.

Question 7.
During the Second World War the safety match producers started manufacturing fireworks for Diwali.
Answer:
During the Second World War, these imports were stopped, and the safety match producers of Sivakasi in Tamil Nadu began manufacturing fireworks for Diwali.

4. Answer these questions in one sentence each.

Question 1.
What does the word ‘pyro’ mean ?
Answer:
The word ‘pyro’ means fire.

Question 2.
Why is the household match considered a special pyrotechnics device ?
Answer:
The household match is considered a special pyrotechnics device because all the pyrotechnics effects – heat, smoke, light, gas and sound – are present in it.

GSEB Solutions Class 10 English Chapter 5 Playing with Fire

Question 3.
Why did Roger Bacon write the formula of pyrotechnics in a code language ?
Answer:
Roger Bacon wrote the formula of pyrotechnics in a code language because he considered ‘black powder’ a dangerous substance.

Question 4.
What is the basic formula of ‘black powder’ ?
Answer:
The basic formula of the black powder is a blend of potassium nitrate, charcoal and sulphur in the ratio of 75 :15 :10 by weight.

Question 5.
What is the principle behind any firework ?
Answer:
The principle behind any firework is that when heat is applied to fuel (the gunpowder), it burns using oxygen.

Question 6.
Why do fire accidents take place in Sivakasi ?
Answer:
Fire accidents take place in Sivakasi because there are hardly any safety measures in force there.

Question 7.
Why are only a few reliable persons taught the art of manufacturing fireworks ? .
Answer:
Only a few reliable persons are taught the art of manufacturing fireworks because it is not considered safe to give everybody the details.

5. Answer these questions in two to three sentences.

Question 1.
Which are the different pyrotechnics effects in a household match ?
Answer:
The different pyrotechnics effects in a household match are : heat, smoke, light, gas and sound.

Question 2.
Describe the development of black powder in India.
Answer:
Some historians say that ‘black powder’, the basic material used in fireworks, was invented in India. Shukranti, written more than two thousand years ago, has references to weapons similar to guns and projectile weapons.

Question 3.
Who introduced ‘black powder’ in the West ? What was his opinion about it ?
Answer:
An English monk, Roger Bacon, introduced ‘black powder’ in the West. He considered it such a dangerous substance that he wrote of it in a code language.

Question 4.
How have light and colour effects improved ?
Answer:
The discovery of aluminium, magnesium and titanium, which burn at high temperatures s emitting bright light have improved the light and colour of fireworks.

Question 5.
How is incandescence light produced ?
Answer:
Incandescent light is produced when a substance is heated so much that it begins to glow.

Question 6.
What are the dangers of pyrotechnics ?
Answer:
Though the mixture is stable if kept cool and dry, it can catch fire if heat is accidently applied, through too much : friction sometimes, or from a spark or an impact.

Question 7.
Describe fireworks production in Sivakasi.
Answer:
In Sivakasi, fireworks are manufactured in a number of small units. Fireworks are manufactured three months before Diwali and transported to every nook and corner of the country. But there are very few testing facilities for quality or uniformity, and hardly any safety measures in force.

6. Write short notes with help of the given points.

Question 1.
Pyrotechnics
(science of fireworks – root word and meaning-a whole range of devices – safety matches – solid fuel rocket boosters of the space shuttle – pyrotechnic effects – heat, smoke, light, gas and sound)
Answer:
The science of fireworks is technically called, ‘pyrotechnics’ – from the Greek word ‘pyr’ meaning fire and ‘technics’ meaning an art. Pyrotechnics includes not only fireworks but also a whole range of devices that use similar materials and principles, from safety matches that we use every day to solid fuel rocket boosters of the space shuttle. The household match is considered a special pyrotechnic device, as all the pyrotechnics effects – heat, smoke, light, gas and sound-are present in it.

GSEB Solutions Class 10 English Chapter 5 Playing with Fire

Question 2.
Safety Precautions
(fireworks should be stored, handled and lit with care-never to be stored or unpacked near a flame, gas cylinder or heater-one should never wear long, loose clothes, or nylon clothes when lighting crackers – never ever be lit inside a house – never bend over a firework-if you get a burn, go to a doctor instead of applying oil or ointment)
Answer:
Fireworks should be stored, handled and lit with care. They should never be stored or unpacked near a flame, gas cylinder or – heater. One should never wear long, loose clothes or nylon clothes when lighting crackers. And since the powder in crackers is poisonous, they should never be carried loose in your pocket or your hand.

Also, fireworks should never ever be lit inside a house. Never bend over a firework when you are lighting it and never use fireworks to frighten people. If in spite of being careful, you do get a burn, go to a doctor instead of applying oil or ointment.

Question 3.
Gun powder
(‘black powder’ or gun powder, the basic material used in fireworks – was invented in India – Shukranti – more than two thousand years ago – in 1242, an English monk, Roger Bacon, revealed the formula for ‘black powder’-the basic formula of ‘the black powder’ or gun powder has remained unchanged for centuries)
Answer:
Some historians say that ‘black powder’, the basic material used in fireworks, was invented in India. Shukranti, written more than two thousand years ago, has references to weapons similar to guns and projectile weapons. However, the Chinese are said to have developed ‘black powder’ more than one thousand years ago.

It was only in 1242 that an English monk, Roger Bacon, revealed the formula for ‘black powder’.The basic formula of the black powder, or gun powder, has remained unchanged S for centuries. It is a blend of potassium nitrate, charcoal and sulphur in the ratio of 75:15:10 by weight.

7. Reflect your views on these questions. (Individual / Classroom Activity)

(1) How do you dress up while bursting crackers ?
(2) Did you ever have a bad experience during bursting crackers ? Share it with class.
(3) Do you think your parents should remain present when you burst crackers ?

Language Practice

1. Read the following carefully.

Sharan : Mummy, can we make popcorn at home ?
Mummy: Yes, dear! We can make it in a few minutes. Let me show you.
Sharan:Wow! That’s great! Yeyyy… Let’s do it fast. ?
Mummy: For making popcorn, we need edible oil, corn, butter, salt and a pot.
Sharan: Do we mix the corn with oil and heat it ?
Mummy: No, first of all we will take this large pot and put three tablespoon of oil in it with a kernel of corn . Now, s let’s heat the oil on a high flame.
Sharan :Why did you put only one kernel of corn ?
Mummy: By putting it, we come to know when to pour the rest of corn in it. See, this kernel of corn has popped up. Now, let’s pour the rest and cover the pot with a lid and reduce the flame.
Sharan: But when will you add butter and salt ? then ?
Mummy :We need to shake the pot gently until all kernels of corn pop up. I think it’s done. Give me that large bowl. We will empty the popped up corn into it and mix melted butter and salt to taste. Your popcorn is ready!

2. Now, read the instructions from a recipe book to make popcorn at home. Work in pairs and notice the difference in the way of showing / telling how to make popcorn in L. 1 and L. 2. Underline the verbs in L. 2 that tell you what to do. Some are already done for you. (Classroom Activity)

Popcorn is something you often eat when you watch a movie at a cinema. It is very easy to make perfect popcorn at home by following simple steps:
(1) Take a large pot and put three tablespoon of oil in it.
(2) Heat the oil on a high flame.
(3) Put a kernel of corn. When it pops up, pour a quarter cup of corn and cover the pot with a lid.
(4) Reduce the flame and shake the pot gently until the corn has popped up.
(5) Empty the popcorn into a large bowl.
(6) Mix melted butter and salt to the taste.

3. (A) Complete the instructions for making aaloo poha with appropriate verbs from the brackets. You may use a verb more than once.

(heat, roast, pick, rinse, use, keep, sprinkle, pour, add, saute, remove, allow, stir, cover, steam, switch off, garnish)

[2] Heat up a pan and add 2 tablespoons of peanuts. Roast the peanuts till they become crunchy and keep aside.
[3] Pour 2 tablespoons of oil in a pan or kadai. Add to the pan, 1 large potato which has been chopped in small cubes. Saute the potatoes till they become light golden and crisp.
[4] Pick them with a soft spoon and keep aside.
[9] Cover the pan tightly with a lid and steam the poha for a minute or two on a low flame. Steam softens the poha. Switch off the flame and keep the lid covered on the pan for a further 4 to 5 minutes. Remove the lid and garnish the poha with chopped coriander cilantro leaves and grated fresh coconut.
[8] Sprinkle 1/2 teaspoon turmeric powder,1 teaspoon sugar and salt in the poha. Gently mix with your hands.
[5] In the same pan or kadai, add 1 teaspoon mustard seeds to the hot oil. When they splutter, add 1 teaspoon cumin seeds. Allow the cumin seeds to change the color and crackle. Then add about 1/2 cup finely chopped onions. Saute the onions till they become translucent and soften.
[6] Now add the 7 to 8 curry leaves, 1 teaspoon chopped green chilies. Keep for half a minute. Add the roasted peanuts and stir well.
[7] Add the poha. Stir gently, but very well till everything is mixed evenly. Then add the sauteed potatoes. Again mix gently with the rest of the mixture.
[1] Pick 1.5 cups of poha. Rinse the poha in clean running water. Use a strainer to rinse the poha. Keep the poha in the strainer and rinse it in running water. Make sure that you do not rinse it too much or else it breaks and gets mushy. While rinsing, the poha absorbs enough water and it becomes soft. The poha must become soft, ‘ but remain intact, whole and separate. If the poha does not become soft, sprinkle few drops of water on the poha in the strainer.
[10] Serve aloo poha hot with chopped lemon pieces.

GSEB Solutions Class 10 English Chapter 5 Playing with Fire

(B) The above instructions are not in proper order. Put them in right sequence for making the aaloo poha. Write the correct number of the instruction in the box.

4. Arrange the jumbled words/phrases to make meaningful instructions. Use capital letters where necessary. Arrange them in the correct sequence to talk about the process of cleaning a refrigerator.

No. Instruction No. Instruction
6 shelves properly wipe the drawers or and them dry let.

Wipe the shelves or drawers properly and let them dry.

2 all food from take out the refrigerator the.

Take out all the food from the refrigerator.

5 detergent mixed with clean the interior water in.

Clean the interior with detergent mixed in water.

8 switch on the refrigerator and plug the power supply in.

Plug in the power supply and switch on the refrigerator.

1 the refrigerator switch off and power supply unplug the.

Unplug the power supply and switch off the refrigerator.

7 them place back and attach properly.

Place them back and attach properly.

4 warm water soak them in mixed with soap / detergent.

Soak them in warm water mixed with soap / detergent.

3 drawer shelves detach the or.

Detach the shelves or drawers.

5. Complete the steps in the process of washing clothes using the appropriate clues from the brackets.

(bucket – water / rinse – clean water / sort /separate – type of fabric/colour:light/bright or dark/stir dilute washing powder/soak four- five clothes-half an hour / dry – air)
(1) Check the pockets of the clothes that you select for wash.
(2) Separate the clothes on the basis of their fabric and colour. Keep the white and light coloured clothes separate.
(3) Fill a bucket with water. Add washing powder.
(4) Stir well to dilute the washing powder
(5) Soak four to five clothes in the bucket for half an hour.
(6) Start washing each item. Knead and twist the clothes so they get a thorough wash.
(7) Now rinse the clothes with clean water.
(8) Dry them in open air, in the sun.

6. You have got a new phone and you are eager to start it. But wait. You will have to fill in the blanks using appropriate action words to start it. All the best!

Open the box carefully. Remove the phone, battery and other accessories from the box. Hold the phone from the top front-side down and carefully slide the back cover. Insert the battery. Insert the SIM and the Memory card one by one. Close the back cover. Connect the charger. Switch on the power supply. Look  for ‘100% Charged’ on the screen. Press the ‘Switch On’ button to start the phone. Enjoy,your new phone is ready to use.

GSEB Solutions Class 10 English Chapter 5 Playing with Fire

7. Avni has some problems as listed. Write a set of instructions for Avni to solve her problems using appropriate words from the table. You can use a word more than once.

Shut down Switch off Search Rub
Open Wash Put Join
Grate Click Read Dry
Pick up Run Insert Press
Wipe Put it Select Open
Problems Your instruction/advice for solution
1. She dropped chatni on her white dress. Wash it immediately, rub the stain, rinse with clean water and put it in air to dry.
2. She wants a print using a pen drive. Connect the printer with the laptop using a cable, insert the pen drive in the laptop, open the file, click on the Print command, select the necessary options and click on the Print button in the dialog box.
3. Her hands are wet and the phone rings. Wipe them dry with a cloth or a tissue, run to the phone and pick it up.
4. She has finished working but doesn’t know how to turn off the computer. Right-click on the Windows icon on the Taskbar, click on Shut down option.
5. She wants to call Sushmita using her cell phone. Search for Sushmita’s number from the list of contacts, select her name, press the green button to call.
6. She wants to put ginger in tea. Take a small piece of ginger, wash it, grate it and then put it in the boiling tea.

Now, work in pairs. A will frame two problems using the words given in the table. B will advise / instruct using the words from the table. Take turns to repeat the exercise.
(Classroom / Pair Activity)

8. Prepare a list of processes that your group will show as a challenge to the other group. One student from the group will come forward and do the action and the other group will describe it step by step. Take turns. For each successful description, the team will get 10 points. (Classroom Activity)

Example : A student from Team A will act to wash hands using soap. Team B will try to describe the process as: “Wet hands. Take soap and apply it on both palms. Put the soap back and take some water in hands. Rub the hands. Rinse them with clean water. Wipe them with a napkin.”

Writing

Question 1.
Read the information and prepare a paragraph about Sivakasi.
(a town – district Virudhunagar – Tamil Nadu -established in the 15th century during the reign of Pandya king Harikesari Parakkirama Pandian – had been a part of Madurai empire – Bhadrakali Amman Temple – very famous – known for firecrackers, matchsticks and printing industries – over 25000 people employed in them – has 520 registered printing industries, 53 match factories, 32 chemical factories, 7 soda factories along with a number of firecracker manufacturers – combined estimated turnover is about 20 billion rupees – sometimes fire accidents due to negligence of safety standards)
Answer:
Sivakasi is a small town in the districts of Virudhunagar in Tamil Nadu. It was established in the 15th century during the reign of Pandya king Harikesari Parakkirama Pandian. It had been s a part of the Madurai empire. Sivakasi is famous for the Bhadrakali Amman Temple. This town became well-known because of its industries s manufacturing firecrackers.

GSEB Solutions Class 10 English Chapter 5 Playing with Fire

Basically, Sivakasi had industries manufacturing matchsticks only. But when India stopped importing firecrackers from China, these industries started manufacturing fireworks. Sivakasi also has many printing industries. More than 25000 people are employed in these industries.

There are more than 520 registered printing industries,53 match factories,32 chemical factories, 7 soda factories along with a number of firecracker manufacturers. The combined estimated turnover is about 20 ? billion rupees. Sivakasi, though, is also in news for fire accidents due to negligence of safety S standards in the firecrackers units.

Question 2.
Describe any two of these processes. You can meet/ask the concerned people or search on the Internet. Find out the required English words from a dictionary or take help of your teacher. [One in class, one as homework]
Answer:
(1) Preparation of pots and other pottery items.
(2) Preparation of any recipe (from TV show or ask your mother).
(3) Process of any production in your village / town / city.

Preparation of Pots
(1) Take some clay (about a half pound) and start squishing it. Knead the clay well. Do not fold it over itself, as that would create air bubbles. Knead your clay until it’s workable. You can check your clay by cutting it in half with a wire. When you cut it and don’t see any air bubbles it is good enough to make a pot.
(2) Gently make it into a round ball.
(3) Dry the surface of the wheel.
(4) Put the ball of clay as close to the middle (of the wheel) as you can.
(5) Put the clay down into a cone shape.
(6) Start spinning the wheel and wet your clay.
(7) Now begin to center your clay Center the clay by placing one hand on the side and the other on top of the clay cone. The hand on the side should push towards the middle of the wheel and the hand on top should just keep the clay from pushing up into a mess. You will know it is centered when the clay looks like it is not moving but the wheel is moving.This step is extremely important. If your clay is not centered, it will be difficult / impossible to make a nice pot.
(8) Wet your hands, and raise the clay into ) a cone, then squish it down into a thick hockey puck. You can do this a couple of times. It is called wheel wedging and it helps condition the clay. Make sure it is still centered when you are done.
(9) Stick your thumb slowly into the middle (spinning of course) until it leaves about 1/2 of an inch for the bottom. Also until it makes a round hole in the clay.
(10) Place your fingers on the edge of the hole. Place one hand on the outside and the other on the inside of the clay wall. Make sure they are directly in line with each other so that if you remove the clay from between them, your finger tips would touch.
(11) Pull up the walls by starting at the base of the pot and pulling towards the top with even pressure on you finger tips. Continue this until you reach your desired height or until the walls are about a centimetre thick.
(12) If you want the top to be a bit wider than the neck, slowly pull it out a bit.
(13) When you’re finished, get a wire and use it to cut the bottom off the wheel.
(14) Stop the wheel and wet the wheel (not the pot).
(15) Slowly pull the wire towards you until the pot is off the wheel.
(16) Dry it for about two days.
(17) Put in a kiln to make it strong. Then you glaze it and fire it in the kiln once more.

Question 3.
You are Mr Suresh Raval, the secretary of Royal Apartment. Draft a notice for the members of your housing society about the compulsory installation of Fire Safety Equipment in every house. (Sample is given below.)
Answer:

Shree Mahatma Gandhi Vidyamandir,
Anand (Name of the institute)
NOTICE
Science Exhibition (heading /subject / event)

20th June, 2018 (date in full).

This is to inform all the students of class IX to XII that the Science Centre of our school is organizing a Science exhibition from 7 to 9 July, between 9 a.m. and 6 p.m. at the Exhibition Gallery near Babuben Parikh Hall. All the students of class IX to XII can participate in the exhibition by creating their own working-models on any topic of science subject and display them. The projects must be submitted latest by 4th July. Only the selected projects will be displayed in the exhibition. Students can take help and guidance of their parents, friends and their science teachers in making projects. The projects can be individual or team projects. As this exhibition is going to be visited by schools from our district, students are requested to take part whole-heartedly. The last date of project submission is 4th July. For any further help or for project submission, please meet Mr G. R. Gauswami either during the first period or during the long recess.
(Signature)
Mr P. T. Modh, (name)
Teacher-in-Charge, Science Centre (designation)

Answer:

Royal Apartment
Notice
Installation of Fire Safety Equipment in all units

12 June, 2018

This is to inform all the members of the society that as per the resolution passed ? in the working committee meeting held on 10 June, 2018, we will begin the work of installing the fire safety equipment in each i house from 20th June, 2018. It will take one day to complete the work on one floor. We will being with the last – fifth floor. This decision has been taken in view of the rising fire accidents in high-rise buildings in the city. For any information or queries, please contact the secretary, Mr Viraj Shah.
Signature
Mr Jay Verma (Chairman)

GSEB Solutions Class 10 English Chapter 5 Playing with Fire

Question 4.
Write a letter to your uncle living outside Gujarat about how you celebrated Diwali this year. You may use these points,
(great celebration and enthusiasm in ; Gujarat – festival of lights lasting for five days 5 – lamps – new clothes fireworks – sweets and other ? food items – meeting and greeting relatives and friends – getting blessings from elders – missed uncle and his family a lot) ?
Answer:
12, Teerth Bhumi
Near Sardar Baug,
Bhavnagar – 364 004.
25 November, 2018
Dear Uncle,
How are you and all at home ? I received your Diwali card, but I am sorry, I could not reply earlier, as I was completing my project.

As you know, Diwali is the biggest festival here. It is celebrated with great enthusiasm not ” only in Gujarat, but all over the country. Diwali is a festival of five days. Preparations for Diwali begin much earlier. We cleaned our house and bought many new clothes. We also bought many crackers. Mother prepared many special snacks and sweets for Diwali.

During Diwali, the house was decorated with colourful rangolis and festoons. The house was lit up with beautiful earthen lamps at night. We enjoyed bursting crackers every evening. On the day of Diwali, we performed Lakshmi Pooja at our home. We prayed for the prosperity ‘ and success for all the members of the family. We burst crackers almost throughout the night.

It was great fun. :
The next day, on the New Year Day, we got up early and wore our new clothes. First we took blessings of my father, mother and grandparents. Then we all went to the temple. We spent the whole day meeting and greeting friends and relatives. Uncle, we really missed you all a lot. Please be with us the next Diwali.
Your loving nephew,
Uday

Exam-Oriented Study Material

1. Read the extracts and answer the questions.

(1) One of our favourite festivals in India is Deepavali or Diwali, as it is known in the North. There is nothing to match the excitement when crackers go off in the night sky with a loud bang and a brilliant shower of colours. Many of us might wonder how these fireworks are made, and what goes into them. The physics and chemistry of fireworks is as interesting as the sound and the light they emit.

Question 1.
Nothing can match the excitement when
Answer:
Nothing can match the excitement when crackers go off in the night sky with a loud bang and a brilliant shower of colours.

Question 2.
The physics and chemistry of fireworks is as interesting as
Answer:
The physics and chemistry of fireworks is as interesting as the sound and the light they emit.

(2) The science of fireworks is technically called, ‘pyrotechnics’ from the Greek word ‘pyr’ meaning fire and ‘technics’ meaning an art. Pyrotechnics includes not only fireworks but also a whole range of devices that use similar materials and principles, from safety matches that we use every day to solid fuel rocket boosters of the space shuttle. The household match is considered a special pyrotechnic device, as all the pyrotechnics effects – heat, smoke, light, gas and sound-are present in it.

GSEB Solutions Class 10 English Chapter 5 Playing with Fire

Question 1.
What is pyrotechnics?
Answer:
Pyrotechnics is the science of fireworks.

Question 2.
What does the word ‘pyr’ mean?
Answer:
The word ‘pyr’ means fire.

Question 3.
What does pyrotechnics include?
Answer:
Pyrotechnics includes not only fireworks but also a whole range of devices that use similar materials and principles, from safety matches to solid fuel rocket boosters of the space shuttle.

Question 4.
Why is the household match a special pyrotechnic device ?
Answer:
The household match is a special pyrotechnic device because all the pyrotechnics effects – heat, smoke, light, gas and sound – are present in it.

Question 5.
Which are the different pyrotechnics effects in a household match ?
Answer:
The different pyrotechnics effects in a household match are : heat, smoke, light, gas and sound.

(3) Some historians say that ‘black powder’, the basic material used in fireworks, was invented in India. Shukranti, written more than two thousand years ago, has references to weapons similar to guns and projectile weapons.

Question 1.
Which is the basic material used in fireworks ?
Answer:
The basic material used in fireworks is black powder.

Question 2.
Shukranti has references to
Answer:
Shukranti has references to weapons similar to guns and projectile weapons.

(4) However, the Chinese are generally considered the pioneers of pyrotechnics. They are said to have developed, ‘black powder’ more than one thousand years ago. It took at least two hundred years for the knowledge to spread to the west, and it was only in 1242 that an English monk, Roger Bacon, revealed the formula for “black powder”. He considered it such a dangerous substance that he wrote of it in a code language.

Question 1.
Who are said to be the pioneers of pyrotechnics ?
Answer:
The Chinese are said to be the pioneers of pyrotechnics.

Question 2.
Who developed black powder ? When ?
Answer:
The Chinese developed black powder more than one thousand years ago.

Question 3.
Who revealed the formula for black powder ? When ?
Answer:
Roger Bacon, an English monk, revealed the formula for black powder in 1242.

Question 4.
Why did Roger Bacon write about black powder in code language ?
Answer:
Roger Bacon wrote about black powder in code language because he considered it a very dangerous substance.

Question 5.
What was Roger Bacon’s opinion about black powder?
Answer:
According to Roger Bacon, black powder was a very dangerous substance.

(5) The basic formula of the black powder, or gun powder, has remained unchanged for centuries. It is a blend of potassium nitrate, charcoal and sulphur in the ratio of 75:15:10 by weight. It is almost the perfect combination as it is and no further improvements or alternations need be made. Experts say that this might be the only chemical product still using the same age old proportions and manufacturing techniques.

Question 1.
has remained unchanged for centuries.
Answer:
The basic formula of black powder has remained unchanged for centuries.

Question 2.
What is the formula for black powder?
Answer:
Black powder is a blend of potassium nitrate, charcoal and sulphur in the ratio of 75:15:10 by weight.

Question 3.
What do the experts say about the formula of black powder ?
Answer:
Experts say that black powder might be the only chemical product still s using the same age old proportions and manufacturing techniques.

(6) However, with the development of modem chemistry, light and colour effects have become common in fireworks. In the last century, the discovery of aluminium, magnesium and titanium, which burn at high temperatures emitting bright light dramatically improved the brilliance of fireworks. Similarly, colours too are a recent development. The principal colour emitters in pyrotechnics were identified after decades of research. These colours are formed in one of two ways : luminescence and incandescence.

Question 1.
What is the result of the development of modern chemistry?
Answer:
As a result of the development of modern chemistry, light and colour effect have become common in fireworks.

Question 2.
What has improved the brilliance of fireworks ?
Answer:
The discovery of aluminium, magnesium and titanium, which burn at high temperatures emitting bright light has improved the brilliance of fireworks.

Question 3
were identified after decades of research.
Answer:
The principal colour emitters in pyrotechnics were identified after decades of research.

Question 4.
Name the two ways in which colours are formed ?
Answer:
Colours are formed in one of two – ways : luminescence and incande-scence.

(7) Incandescent light is produced when a substance is heated so much that it begins to glow. Heat causes the substance to become hot and glow, initially emitting infra red, then red, orange, yellow and white light as it becomes increasingly hotter. When the temperature of a firework is controlled, the glow of its metallic substances can be manipulated to be a desired colour at the proper time.

GSEB Solutions Class 10 English Chapter 5 Playing with Fire

Question 1.
How is Incandescence light produced ?
Answer:
Incandescent light is produced when a substance is heated so much that it begins to glow.

Question 2.
When the substance becomes hot, initially it emits
Answer:
When the substance becomes hot, initially it emits infra red light.

Question 3.
When the substance becomes increasingly hotter, it emits
Answer:
When the substance becomes s increasingly hotter, it emits white light.

Question 4.
Why is the temperature of a firework controlled ?
Answer:
The temperature of a firework is controlled so that the glow of its metallic substances can be manipulated to be a desired colour at the proper time.

(8) The principle behind any firework is that when heat is applied to fuel (the gun powder), it burns using oxygen. However, because the fuel is packed tightly to keep the heat in, the burning takes place all of a sudden and it causes s the characteristic loud noise. The actual manufacturing process of firework is simple. The raw materials required are fuel, binders, oxidisers (to make it burn), and a few other materials. The ingredients are ground and mixed well, the mixture is pushed through a machine from which s it comes out as long rolls or strips,and then rolled in cardboard or old s newspapers with a fuse.

Question 1.
What is the principle behind any firework ?
Answer:
The principle behind any firework is that when heat is applied to the gun powder, it burns using oxygen.

Question 2.
What happens when the fuel is packed tightly ?
Answer:
When the fuel is packed tightly, b the heat is kept in and the burning takes place all of a sudden and it S causes the characteristic loud noise.

Question 3.
Which raw material are required to manufacture fireworks ?
Answer:
The raw materials required to manufacture fireworks are fuel, binders, oxidisers and a few other materials.

GSEB Solutions Class 10 English Chapter 5 Playing with Fire

Question 4.
How are fireworks manufactured ?
Answer:
The ingredients are ground, mixed well, pushed through a machine from which it comes out as long rolls or strips, and then rolled in cardboard or old newspapers with a fuse.

(9) The greatest danger of pyrotechnics is that it deals with fire. The industry is notorious for its accidents, whether in the U.S.A., Japan or India. Though the mixture is stable if kept cool and dry, it can catch fire if heat is accidently applied, through too much friction sometimes, or from a spark or an impact. Scientists are looking for ways of making fireworks safer.

Question 1.
What is the greatest danger of pyrotechnics ?
Answer:
The greatest danger of pyrotechnics is that it deals with fire.

Question 2.
What are the dangers of pyrotechnics ?
Answer:
The mixture is stable if kept cool and dry, but it can catch fire if heat is accidently applied, through too much friction, or from a spark or an impact.

(10) In India, fireworks used to be imported from China. During the Second World War, these imports were stopped, and the safety match producers of Sivakasi in Tamil Nadu began manufacturing fireworks for Deepavali. In 1992, the country used about 60 crores worth of firework and 60 to 70 per cent of this came from Sivakasi.

Question 1.
From which country were fireworks imported ?
Answer:
Fireworks were imported from China.

Question 2.
When was the import of fireworks stopped ?
Answer:
The import of fireworks was stopped during the Second World War.

Question 3.
Who started manufacturing fireworks in India ?
Answer:
The safety match producers of Sivakasi in Tamil Nadu began manufacturing fireworks in India.

Question 4.
About came from Sivakasi.
Answer:
About 60 to 70 per cent of fireworks in the country came from Sivakasi.

(11) In Sivakasi, fireworks are manufactured in a number of small units. Three months i before the festival is the busiest time for l these units. Fireworks are transported to every nook and corner of the country. The working conditions of these units are however far from satisfactory. There are very few testing facilities for quality or uniformity, and hardly any safety measures in force. This is why we hear of accidents in Sivakasi year after year. It is very difficult to get information on how to manufacture fireworks because it is not considered safe to give everybody the details. Only a very few reliable persons are taught this art.

Question 1.
Why do fire accidents take place in Sivakasi ?
Answer:
Fire accidents take place in Sivakasi because there are hardly any safety measures in force there and there are very few testing facilities for quality or uniformity.

Question 2.
Why are only a few reliable persons taught the art of manufacturing s fireworks ?
Answer:
Only a few reliable persons are taught the art of manufacturing fireworks because it is not considered safe l to give everybody the details.

Question 3.
In Sivakasi, fireworks are manufactured
Answer:
In Sivakasi, fireworks are manifactured in a number of small units.

Question 4.
Which is the busiest time for the units ?
Answer:
Three months before the festival of Diwali is the busiest time for the units.

(12) In many countries, fireworks are not allowed to be used by individuals. Only community displays, specially organized with the help of experts, are allowed. A great deal of care is taken for safety at these displays. However, since even children are allowed to play with fireworks in India, it is important to observe certain safety rules.

GSEB Solutions Class 10 English Chapter 5 Playing with Fire

Question 1.
In many countries are allowed.
Answer:
In many countries, only community displays, specially organized with the help of experts, are allowed.

Question 2.
Why should we observe safety rules in India ?
Answer:
We should observe safety rules in India because even children are allowed to play with fireworks.

(13) Fireworks should be stored, handled and lit with care. They should never be stored or unpacked near a flame, gas cylinder or heater. One should never wear long, loose clothes or nylon clothes when lighting crackers. And since the powder in crackers is poisonous, they should never be carried loose in your pocket or your hand. Also, fireworks should never ever be lit inside a house. Never bend over a firework when you are lighting it and never use fireworks to frighten people. If in spite of being careful, you do get a burn, go to a doctor instead of applying oil or ointment.

Question 1.
Fireworks should be with care.
Answer:
Fireworks should be stored, handled and lit with care.

Question 2.
What care should be taken to store and unpack fireworks ?
Answer:
Fireworks should never be stored or unpacked near a flame, gas cylinder or heater.

Question 3.
What kind of clothes should we not wear while lighting fireworks ?
Answer:
While lighting fireworks, we should not wear long, loose or nylon clothes.

Question 4.
Why should we not carry crackers in our hand?
Answer:
We should not carry crackers in our hand because the powder in them is poisonous.

Question 5.
What care should we take while lighting fireworks ?
Answer:
Fireworks should never be lit inside a house and we should never bend over a firework when we are lighting it.

Question 6.
If you do get a burn,
Answer:
If you do get a burn, go to a doctor instead of applying oil or ointment.

2. Frame sentences using the given set of words. You may change the forms of the words.

(1) at least – a century
This fort was built at least two centuries ago.

(2) transport – every nook and corner
Ramjibhai’s trucks transport goods to every nook and corner of the country.

(3) facility – in spite of
The students are grumbling in spite of all the good facilities in the hostel.

(4) monk – spread
The Buddhist monk travelled all over the world to spread the message of Buddha.

GSEB Solutions Class 10 English Chapter 5 Playing with Fire

(5) dramatically – recent
The use of mobiles has dramatically increased in recent times.

(6) desired – manipulate
The teacher has manipulated the marks to give the desired result.

(7) organize – community display
The sarpanch of our village has organized a community display of fireworks.

3. Fill in the blanks selecting the correct words from the brackets.

(1) (present, quality, reveal, reliable)
The quality of the product will be tested by a reliable person. I cannot reveal his name to you. However, you can be present during the testing.

(2) (excitement, decades, developing, research)
Our scientist have succeeded in developing surface to surface missile. There is excitement all over the country. It is a result of decades of hard work and research.

(3) (art, allowed, organized, experts)
Our school has organized drawing competition. All students are allowed to participate in it and show their art. The competition will be judged by experts.

(4) (emits, improvement, decades, considered)
Over the decades, there has been a marked improvement in lights. Today most of us use LED lights. An LED bulb emits more light than any other bulb. It is considered the best today.

(5) (effect, stable, satisfactory, condition)
The doctor said that the condition of the patient was quite satisfactory. “His condition is stable. The medicines are having a good effect.”

(6) (details, alteration, perfect, at least)
Have you given your shirt for alteration ? Please go to the tailor and explain the details of your requirement. He needs at least one day to alter the shirt. But he will do a perfect job.

(7) (common, handle, device, recent)
In recent times, the use of mobile phones is very common. It is a device that anyone can easily handle.

(8) (basic, similar, invented, reference)
Some historians say that black powder,the basic material used in fireworks, was invented in India. ‘Shukranti’ has reference to weapons similar to guns.

(9) (safety, observe, measures, control)
The police has taken all the measures for the safety of the people during the procession. They will also control the traffic. People have been asked to observe all the traffic rules.

(10) (dramatically, produce, modern, facilities)
The farmers in India use modern equipment and technology to produce crops. The quantity and quality of crops has improved dramatically. But farmers do not have good facilities to store their I crops.

GSEB Solutions Class 10 English Chapter 5 Playing with Fire

(11) (developed, revealed, pioneers, spread)
The Chinese are considered the pioneers of pyrotechnics. They developed ‘black powder’ more than thousand years ago. The knowledge spread to the west also. An English monk revealed the formula of ‘black powder’.

(12) (temperature, proportion, ingredients, process)
Meena was telling me the process of baking a cake. She showed me how all the ingredients have to be mixed in the right proportion and then put in the oven and baked at the right temperature.

4. Write short notes using the given questions points.

(1) Pyrotechnics
(What is pyrotechnics ? – What is the root word and its meaning ? – What does pyrotechnics include ? – Why is the household match a special pyrotechnic device ? – Who are the pioneers of pyrotechnics ?-What is the greatest danger ;of pyrotechnics ?)
Answer:
The science of fireworks is called, ‘pyrotechnics’. It is derived from the Greek word ‘pyr’ meaning fire and ‘technics’ meaning an art. Pyrotechnics includes not only fireworks but also a whole range of devices that use similar materials and principles, from safety matches that we use every day to solid fuel rocket boosters of the space shuttle.

The household match is considered a special pyrotechnic device, as all the pyrotechnics effects – heat, smoke, light, gas and sound-are present in it. The Chinese are considered the pioneers of pyrotechnics. The greatest danger of pyrotechnics is that it deals with fire.

(2) Black Powder
(black powder or gun powder-basic material used in fireworks – was invented in India – Shukranti – more than two thousand years ago – Chinese developed black powder more than one thousand years ago-in 1242, an English monk, Roger Bacon, revealed the formula for black powder – written in code language – the basic formula of ‘the black powder or gun powder – ratio – remained unchanged for centuries)
Answer:
Black powder, also known as gun powder, is the basic material used in fireworks. Some historians say that it was invented in India. Shukranti, written more than two thousand years ago, has references to weapons similar to guns and projectile weapons. However, the Chinese are said to have developed black powder more than one thousand years ago.

GSEB Solutions Class 10 English Chapter 5 Playing with Fire

In 1242, an English monk, Roger Bacon, revealed the formula for black powder. He considered it such a dangerous substance that he wrote of it in code language. The basic formula of the black powder has remained unchanged for centuries. It is a blend of potassium nitrate, charcoal and sulphur in the ratio of 75:15:10 by weight.

(3) Safety Precautions
(fireworks should be stored, handled and lit with care – never to be stored or unpacked near a flame, gas cylinder or heater-never wear long, loose clothes, or nylon clothes while lighting crackers – never light inside a house-never bend over a firework-if you get a burn, go to a doctor instead of applying oil or ointment)
Answer:
Fireworks should be stored, handled and lit with care. They should never be stored or unpacked near a flame, gas cylinder or heater. One should never wear long, loose clothes or nylon clothes when lighting crackers. And since the powder in crackers is poisonous, they should never be carried loose in your pocket or in your hand. Fireworks should never be lit inside a house. Never bend over a firework when you are lighting it. If you do get a burn, go to a doctor instead of applying oil or ointment.

(4) Sivakasi
(From where were fireworks imported ? -When were these imports stopped ?-Who started manufacturing fireworks in India ?-Where are they manufactured in Sivakasi ?-Which is the busiest time ?-Why are there many accidents every year ?)
Answer:
In India, fireworks used to be imported from China. But these imports were stopped during the Second World War. The safety match producers of Sivakasi in Tamil Nadu began manufacturing fireworks. In Sivakasi, fireworks are manufactured in a number of small units. Three months before Diwali is the busiest time for these units.

Fireworks are transported to every nook and corner of the country. But the working conditions of these units are not satisfactory. There are very few testing facilities for quality or uniformity. There are hardly any safety measures in force. That is why there are many accidents in Sivakasi every year.

5. Select the title of the Read related with each sentence.

(Note: Important sentences of this Read are given here.)
(1) There is nothing to match the excitement when crackers go off in the night sky with a loud bang and a brilliant shower of colours.
(2) The physics and chemistry of fireworks is as interesting as the sound and the light they emit.
(3) The science of fireworks is technically called, ‘pyrotechnics’
(4) The household match is considered a special pyrotechnic device, as all the pyrotechnics effects
(5) Some historians say that ‘black powder’, the basic material used in fireworks, was invented in India.
(6) Shukranti, written more than two thousand years ago, has references to weapons similar to guns and projectile weapons.
(7) The Chinese are generally considered the pioneers of pyrotechnics.
(8) An English monk, Roger Bacon, revealed the formula for “black powder”.
(9) He considered it such a dangerous substance that he wrote of it in a code language.
(10) The basic formula of the black powder, or gun powder, has remained unchanged for centuries.
(11) Experts say that this might be the only chemical product still using the same age old proportions and manufacturing techniques.
(12) However, with the development of modem chemistry, light and colour effects have become common in fireworks.
(13) Incandescent light is produced when a substance is heated so much that it begins to glow.
(14) Heat causes the substance to become hot and glow.
(15) The principle behind any firework is that when heat is applied to fuel (the gun powder), it burns using oxygen.
(16) The greatest danger of pyrotechnics is that it deals with fire.
(17) The industry is notorious for its accidents,whether in the U.S.A., Japan or India.
(18) Scientists are looking for ways of making fireworks safer.
(19) In India, fireworks used to be imported l from China.
(20) During the Second World War, these imports were stopped,
(21) The safety match producers of Sivakasi in Tamil Nadu began manufacturing fireworks for Deepavali.
(22) Three months before the festival is the busiest time for these units,
(23) Fireworks are transported to every nook and corner of the country.
(24) There are very few testing facilities for quality or uniformity, and hardly any safety measures in force.
(25) Only a very few reliable persons are taught this art.
(26) In many countries, fireworks are not allowed to be used by individuals.
(27) Only community displays, specially organized with the help of experts, are allowed.
(28) They should never be stored or unpacked near a flame, gas cylinder or heater.
(29) Since the powder in crackers is poisonous, they should never be carried loose in your pocket or your hand.

6. Fill in the blanks selecting the correct words from the brackets.

(appreciation, anything, ran off, but, ran after)
The thief ran off with that lady’s purse. A young man ran after the thief and caught him. The lady offered the young man some money as an appreciation of his help, but the young man refused to take anything for his help.

7. Arrange the jumbled parts to make meaningful sentences.

(1) who has won / is the boy / the gold medal / Raj
(2) go to bed / how often / at 9 p.m. /do you
(3) of Sivakasi / began manufacturing the match producers / fireworks
Answer:
(1) Raj is the boy who has won the gold medal.
(2) How often do you go to bed at 9 p.m. ?
(3) The match producers of Sivakasi began manufacturing fireworks.

8. Complete the sentences using the functions given in the brackets.

(1) Pour some oil in the pan and heat it on a low flame for five minutes. (describing process)
(2) The children enjoy playing chess. (describing action)
(3) Add some sugar and stir the mixture for a few minutes, (describing process)
(4) Wet the cloth and use a liquid soap to clean the glass, (describing process)
(5) Mrs Mehta is at home now. (specifying location)
(6) Mrudula likes to draw rangolis. (describing action)
(7) Mash the potatoes and add salt and pepper to it. (describing process)
(8) Unplug the mixer and wash the vessel with water, (describing process)

GSEB Solutions Class 10 English Chapter 5 Playing with Fire

9. Complete the dialogue using the functions given in the brackets.

Rohan: Mother, can you help me to make tea ?
Mother: Sure. Take a cup of milk, add some water, sugar and tea leaves and boil it on a low flame, (describing process)
Rahul: How long should I boil it ?
Mother : About five minutes (Specifying time)

Playing with Fire Summary in Gujarati

ભારતમાં દીપાવલી અથવા ઉત્તર ભારતમાં જેને દિવાળી કહેવાય છે, તે તહેવાર સૌથી વધુ મનગમતો (તહેવાર) છે. રાતના આકાશમાં ફૂટતા ફટાકડાના અવાજ અને તેજસ્વી રંગોથી થતી ઉત્તેજનાની તોલે આવે એવું કંઈ નથી. આપણામાંથી ઘણાને – વિચાર આવતો હશે કે આ ફટાકડા કેવી રીતે બનાવવામાં આવે છે અને તેમાં શું ભરેલું હોય છે. ફટાકડાનું પદાર્થવિજ્ઞાન (physics) અને રસાયણશાસ્ત્ર (chemistry) તેમના અવાજ અને પ્રકાશ જેટલું જ રસપ્રદ છે.

ફટાકડા બનાવવાના વિજ્ઞાનને pyrotechnics (પાયરોટેકનિક્સ) કહેવામાં આવે છે – જે એક ગ્રીક શબ્દમાંથી ઉદ્ભવ્યો છે – pyr એટલે અગ્નિ અને technics એટલે કલા. પાયરોટેનિક્સમાં માત્ર ફટાકડા જ નહિ પણ જેમાં તેના જેવાં જ પદાર્થો અને સિદ્ધાંતોનો ઉપયોગ થાય છે, તેવાં સાધનોની વિશાળ શ્રેણીનો સમાવેશ થાય છે – આપણે રોજ વાપરીએ છીએ તે દીવાસળીથી માંડીને અવકાશયાનમાં સૉલિડ ફ્યુઅલ રૉકિટ બૂસ્ટર્ઝ સુધી. ઘરવપરાશની દીવાસળી એક વિશિષ્ટ પાયરોમેનિક્સનું સાધન ગણાય છે, કારણ કે તેમાં ગરમી, ધુમાડો, પ્રકાશ, વાયુ અને અવાજ જેવા પાયરોટેનિક્સનાં બધા જ ગુણ હોય છે.

કેટલાક ઇતિહાસકારોનું માનવું છે કે ફટાકડામાં વપરાતો મૂળભૂત પદાર્થ black powder(બ્લેક પાઉડર)ની શોધ ભારતમાં થઈ હતી. બે હજાર વર્ષ પહેલાં લખેલા શુક્રાન્તિ નામના ગ્રંથમાં બંદૂક અને તોપ જેવાં શસ્ત્રોનો ઉલ્લેખ છે. તેમ છતાં, સામાન્ય રીતે ચીનને પાયરોટેનિકના સંશોધક માનવામાં આવે છે. એક હજાર વર્ષ પહેલાં તેમણે બ્લેક પાઉડર બનાવ્યો હોવાનું કહેવાય છે. પશ્ચિમમાં આ જ્ઞાન ફેલાતા ઓછામાં ઓછાં બસો વર્ષ લાગ્યાં અને 1242માં રૉજર બૅકન નામના એક અંગ્રેજ સાધુએ બ્લેક પાઉડર બનાવવાનો નુસખો જાહેર કર્યો. તે આને ખૂબ જ જોખમકારક પદાર્થ માનતો હોવાથી તેણે તેના વિશે સાંકેતિક ભાષામાં લખ્યું. બ્લેક પાઉડર અથવા ગન પાઉડર બનાવવાના મૂળભૂત નુસખા(રીત)માં સદીઓથી કોઈ પરિવર્તન આવ્યું નથી. તે એક

GSEB Solutions Class 10 English Chapter 5 Playing with Fire

મિશ્રણ છે, જેમાં પટસિઅમ નાઇટ્રિટ, કોલસો અને સલ્ફરના વજનનું પ્રમાણ 75: 15: 10 હોય છે. આ પ્રમાણથી બનતું મિશ્રણ લગભગ ચોક્કસ છે અને તેમાં કોઈ સુધારો કે ફેરફારની જરૂર નથી. નિષ્ણાતોનું કહેવું છે કે કદાચ આ એકમાત્ર એવું રાસાયણિક ઉત્પાદન છે, જે હજુયે એ જ જૂના પ્રમાણ અને ઉત્પાદનની પ્રક્રિયાનો ઉપયોગ કરે છે. પણ આધુનિક રસાયણશાસ્ત્રના વિકાસથી ફટાકડામાં પ્રકાશ અને રંગો એક સામાન્ય બાબત બની ગઈ છે. છેલ્લી એક સદીમાં ઍલ્યુમિનિઅમ, ઍગ્નિસિઅમ અને ટાઈટેનિઅનની શોધ થઈ.

આ (પદાર્થો) ઊંચા તાપમાન પર બળીને તેજ પ્રકાશ ફેલાવે છે, જેથી ફટાકડાના પ્રકાશમાં (પણ) નાટ્યાત્મક સુધારો થયો છે. તેવી જ રીતે રંગો પણ હાલમાં જ વિકસ્યા છે. દર્શકોના સંશોધન બાદ પાયરોટેનિસમાં રંગો ફેલાવનાર મુખ્ય ઘટકો શોધી કાઢવામાં આવ્યા. આ રંગો બે રીતે બને છે લૂમિનેસન્સ અને ઈકૅડેસન્સ.

એક પદાર્થને ગરમ કરવાથી બહાર ફેંકાતા પ્રકાશને ઇન્કૅન્ડેસન્ટ લાઇટ કહે છે. ગરમીથી પદાર્થનું તાપમાન વધે છે અને તે પ્રકાશને બહાર ફેંકે છે; શરૂઆતમાં ઇનફ્રા-રેડ અને જેમ તે વધુ ને વધુ ગરમ થતો જાય તેમ લાલ, નારંગી, પીળો અને પછી સફેદ પ્રકાશ (બહાર ફેંકે છે). ફટાકડાનું તાપમાન નિયંત્રણમાં હોવાથી, તેમાં રહેલા ધાતુના પદાર્થો યોગ્ય સમયે મનગમતા રંગનો પ્રકાશ બહાર ફેંકે તેવું કરી શકાય છે.

કોઈ પણ ફટાકડાનો મૂળભૂત સિદ્ધાંત એ છે કે જ્યારે બળતણ(ગન પાઉડર)ને ગરમ કરવામાં આવે છે, ત્યારે તે ઑક્સિજનનો ઉપયોગ કરીને બળવા લાગે છે. પણ (ફટાકડામાં) ગરમીને અંદર જ રાખવા માટે બળતણ એટલું સજ્જડ રીતે ભરેલું હોય છે કે બળવાની (ફૂટવાની) પ્રક્રિયા અચાનક શરૂ થાય છે, અને તેથી જ તેનો લાક્ષણિક મોટો અવાજ આવે છે. આમ તો ફટાકડા બનાવવાની પ્રક્રિયા સરળ છે. તેમાં બળતણ (ગન પાઉડર), બાંધવા માટેની સામગ્રી, ઑક્સિડાઇઝઝ (બાળવા માટે) અને બીજા અમુક કાચા માલની જરૂર પડે છે. બધી જ સામગ્રીને વાટીને તેનું મિશ્રણ તૈયાર કરવામાં આવે છે. આ મિશ્રણ એક

યંત્રમાં નાખવામાં આવે છે, જેમાંથી તે લાંબા વીંટા અથવા લાંબી પટ્ટીઓના સ્વરૂપમાં બહાર આવે છે પછી તેને પૂંઠામાં અથવા જૂનાં છાપાંમાં દિવેટ સાથે વીંટાળવામાં આવે છે. પાયરોટેનિક્સનું સૌથી મોટું જોખમ એ છે કે તેમાં અગ્નિ સાથે કામ કરવાનું હોય છે. USA હોય, જાપાન હોય કે ભારત હોય, આ ઉદ્યોગ તેના અકસ્માતો માટે કુખ્યાત છે. જો આ મિશ્રણ ઠંડું અને સૂકું રાખવામાં આવે, તો તે સુરક્ષિત છે પણ જો કોઈક વાર વધુ પડતા ઘર્ષણથી,

તણખાથી અથવા અથડાવાથી આકસ્મિક રીતે ગરમી ઉત્પન્ન થાય; તો તેમાં આગ લાગી શકે છે. ફટાકડાને સુરક્ષિત બનાવવા માટે વૈજ્ઞાનિકોના પ્રયત્નો ચાલુ છે. – ભારત ચીનમાંથી ફટાકડા આયાત કરતું, પણ બીજા વિશ્વયુદ્ધ દરમિયાન આ આયાત બંધ કરવામાં આવી, અને તમિલનાડુના સિવાકાસિમાં દીવાસળીના ઉત્પાદકોએ દિવાળી માટે ફટાકડાનું ઉત્પાદન શરૂ કર્યું. 1992માં દેશમાં લગભગ 60 કરોડના ફટાકડા વેચાયા, જેમાંથી 60 % – 70 % સિવાકાસિમાં બનાવેલા હતાં.

સિવાકાસિમાં ફટાકડા નાનાં નાનાં એકમોમાં બનાવવામાં આવે છે. તહેવાર (દિવાળી) પહેલાંના ત્રણ મહિના આ એકમો ખૂબ જ વ્યસ્ત હોય છે. દેશના દરેક ખૂણે ફટાકડા પહોંચાડવામાં આવે છે. પણ આ એકમોમાં કામ કરવાની પરિસ્થિતિ બહુ સંતોષજનક નથી. ગુણવત્તા અથવા એકસરખું ધોરણ જાળવવા (માટે) ચકાસણીની સાધનસામગ્રી બહુ ઓછી છે, અને સુરક્ષા લગભગ નહિવત્. એટલે દર વર્ષે આપણે સિવાકાસિમાં થતા

GSEB Solutions Class 10 English Chapter 5 Playing with Fire

અકસ્માતો વિશે સાંભળીએ છીએ. ફટાકડાનું ઉત્પાદન કેવી રીતે થાય છે તેની માહિતી મેળવવી બહુ મુશ્કેલ છે, કારણ કે બધાને આ વિગતો આપવી તે સુરક્ષિત ગણાતું નથી. બહુ જ થોડાં વિશ્વાસપાત્ર લોકોને આ કલા શિખવાડવામાં આવે છે.

ઘણા દેશોમાં વ્યક્તિગત રીતે ફટાકડાનો ઉપયોગ કરવા દેવામાં આવતો નથી. નિષ્ણાતોની મદદથી ખાસ આયોજિત સાર્વજનિક પ્રદર્શનોને જ પરવાનગી આપવામાં આવે છે. આ પ્રદર્શનોમાં સુરક્ષાની ખૂબ જ કાળજી લેવામાં આવે છે. પણ ભારતમાં તો બાળકોને પણ ફટાકડા સાથે રમવા દેવામાં આવતાં હોવાથી, અમુક ચોક્કસ સુરક્ષાના નિયમોનું પાલન કરવું મહત્ત્વનું છે.

ફટાકડાનો સંગ્રહ અને ઉપયોગ ખૂબ કાળજીપૂર્વક કરવો જોઈએ. હીટર, ગેસનો બાટલો અથવા અગ્નિ હોય તેવી જગ્યામાં કદી પણ ફટાકડાનો સંગ્રહ અથવા ઉપયોગ કરવો ન જોઈએ. ફટાકડા ફોડતી વખતે લાંબાં, ઢીલાં કપડાં અથવા નાઇલોનનાં કપડાં પહેરવાં નહીં.

અને ફટાકડામાં વપરાતો પાઉડર ઝેરી હોવાથી, તેને તમારા ખિસ્સામાં અથવા હાથમાં રાખશો નહીં. અને ઘરમાં કદી પણ ફટાકડા ફોડવા નહીં. ફટાકડા ફોડતી વખતે તેના પર નીચા નમીને જોવું નહીં અને લોકોને ડરાવવા માટે ફટાકડાનો ઉપયોગ કરવો નહીં. અને જો સાવધ રહેવા છતાં, તમે દાજી જાઓ તો તેલ અથવા મલમ લગાવવાને બદલે ડૉક્ટર પાસે જ જવું. કાળજીપૂર્વક અને સાવધાનીપૂર્વક આપણે આપણો મનગમતો તહેવાર ઘણો સુરક્ષિત કરી શકીએ.

Word Meanings
GSEB Solutions Class 10 English Chapter 5 Playing with Fire 2

GSEB Solutions Class 10 English Chapter 5 Playing with Fire
GSEB Solutions Class 10 English Chapter 5 Playing with Fire 3
GSEB Solutions Class 10 English Chapter 5 Playing with Fire 4
GSEB Solutions Class 10 English Chapter 5 Playing with Fire 5

Idioms And Phrases

(1) to go off
The crackers went off showing brilliant colours.

(2) at least
There were at least ten students in the play.

(3) age old
Hemant’s family still follows their age old tradition of performing pooja on Diwali day.

(4) to push through
The sugarcane is pushed through the machine to obtain juice.

(5) to deal with
The police deals with many cases of theft every day.

GSEB Solutions Class 10 English Chapter 5 Playing with Fire

(6) every nook and corner
India’s performance in the Olympic Games was celebrated in every nook and corner of the country.

(7) in force
The law to punish those who drink and drive has been in force for many years, but it has not been effective.

(8) a great deal
My parents’ opinion matters a great deal to me.

(9) in spite of
In spite of having fever, Mohan appeared for the exam.

(10) instead of
Can I buy some mangoes instead of apples ?

I feel… (Classroom / Individual Activity)

(1) What attracts you the most about the festival Diwali ?
(2) What safety measures do you take while bursting fire-crackers ?
(3) Have you ever experienced any fear while bursting big fire-crackers ?
(4) What did you feel when you got injured while firing crackers ? How did your parents help you in such circumstances ?

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