Our Revision Notes for GSEB Class 9 Social Science Notes Chapter 2 First World War and Russian Revolution summarises the key points of a chapter and useful resource to prepare effectively for the upcoming board exams.
First World War and Russian Revolution Class 9 GSEB Notes Social Science Chapter 2
First World War and Russian Revolution Class 9 GSEB Notes
→ European countries started expanding their empire and acquire new territories of Asia and Africa.
→ Thus arose competition between European nations to establish colonies.
→ This caused the economic, social and cultural ruin of the Asian-African countries.
Western Europe and Colonialism in Asia-Africa
- The Greed of establishing colonies of the Western European countries did not spare even their neighbouring countries.
- Spain controlled Netherland, Belgium and Luxemburg.
- When the Portuguese king died without an heir, Portugal came under the rule of the Spanish king because of his blood relation.
- Thus, monopoly of establishing colonies in non-European countries was with Spain.
- Italy and German states became the victim of the greed of France and Austria.
- Many European nations become free following the footsteps of England, made many of the Afro-Asian nations their colonies.
Colonies in Asia
- England expanded its empire to India, England, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Singapore and Malaysia.
- Due to Opium War between England and China England got control over five ports of China.
- Taking advantage of China’s weakness, Japan, Russia, Germany, France, Belgium and America also acquired trade and political rights.
- Due to enormous oil resources in the desert region of West Asia European nations established their colonies in Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Bahrain.
Colonialism in Africa
- England established its colonies in Cape, Egypt, Some provinces of East and south Africa
- France established its colonies in Algeria in North Africa, Tunisia, Morocco and some provinces of West Africa.
- King Leopold of Belgium seized the vast provinces of Congo and established his rule.
- Germany established its control over some provinces of East and West Africa.
- Mean while Germany and Italy had completed the process of its respective politically, economically and socially due to which their development had stopped. This had lead to the First world war.
Factors that caused First World War
- Frankfurt Treaty which France had to sign as France got defeated in Sedan War of 1871. France had to pay a war fine and had to give away two of its provinces, Lawrence and Abscess to Germany.
- France could not overcome this humiliation and thus cause First world war.
Factors which are responsible for the first world war are
→ Economic Factors:- Germany started the competition to procure the market in Asia and Africa by supplying cheaper good in comparison to England. It broke the market of England and France.
→ Militarism:- Military force was necessary and important for the expansion so European nation began expanding their military power. Japan, Italy and Germany gave compulsory military training.
→ Groupism and secret Treaties:- The world was divided into two groups on one side was the
group Germany, Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria and Turkey while on the other side was the group of England, France, Russia and Japan.
→ Feeling of Fierce Nationalism:-Aggressive and fierce nationalism had emerged in Europe.
→ German philosopher Nietzsche described War as a sacred work and other had used maxims like “only the
mighty deserve to live” and “War is national need.”
→ The Australian crown-Prince and his wife were assassinated by a member of the Serbian terrorist organization ‘Black Hand’. There upon Austria declared war on Serbia.
→ 24 Nations fought on the side of the Allied Power group and 4 on the side of the Central power group in the First World War.
→ Russia withdrew from the War after the Bolshevik Revolution in 1917.
→ Germany managed to drown Lusitania, and American steamer by led to America declaring war on Germany in April 1917.
→ Germany surrendered unconditionally and signed ‘Cease-Fire Treaty” on 11th November, 1918. There by the First World war came to an end.
→ Effects of the World war
→ 6.5 crore people took part in the First World War. Of these about 1 crore died, about 2 crores were injured and 701akh were permanently disabled.
→ During the war time women shouldered family and occupation responsibilities successfully.
→ There was large scale scarcity, unemployment, starvation as well as strikes by the workers and lockouts by the factory owners.
→ Treaty of Versailles declared Germany as responsible for the War and Reparation War compensation of 6.5 billion pounds was imposed. Alsace and Lorraine province were restored to France. The German empire was dissolved. There was a bitterness and desperations among Germans.
→ It can be said that the reasons for the second world war was in the peace process of the first world war.
→ Russia was ruled by Tsar who oppressed people. If anyone demanded they sent to Siberia.
→ Tsars were responsible for poverty and sufferings of the people.
→ Under the leadership of Father Gapon, a large rally was taken out to the Czar’s residence, Winter Palace on 22nd January, 1905, Sunday. The Czar’s army opened fire on these innocent people, because of which thousands of innocent people died and the snow in Petersburg, where the Czar’s palace was situated, turned red with blood. This day is known as Bloody Sunday.
→ Russia was defeated in the Russo- Japanese War
→ Russian got provoked and became restless.
→ In order to pacify the angry Russians, an announcement to call for a Duma Legislative Assembly which had not been called for years, was made. But before it can take steps to satisfy the citizens, it had been called off.
→ On 8th March, 1917, the oppressed workers of Petrograd called for a strike.
→ The Czar sent his troops to contain this event. But the army refused to shoot these people.
→ Thus revolution began. ON November 1917, final revolution fot the reins. This came to be known as the Socialist Bolshevik Revolution. Thus, the 300 years old Czardom came to an end and for the first time, Russia was without a Czar.
→ The American President Woodrow Wilson had contributed in the establishment of the League on Nations.
→ The League of Nations, established for world peace, did not manage to keep a control over the imperialist policies of the superpowers and in 1939, the Second World War began.