This GSEB Class 12 Organization of Commerce and Management Notes Chapter 6 Directing covers all the important topics and concepts as mentioned in the chapter.
Directing Class 12 GSEB Notes
The decisions taken by the managers are implemented through directing. It implements decisions taken by planning and organization.
Meaning of Directing:
In general terms, “Direction means to guide the workers, make them aware of the work, supervise them and to maintain their enthusiasm for the work.”
According to Koontz and O’Donnell, “Direction is the executive function of guiding and observing subordinates.”
Characteristics of Directing:
- Goal-Oriented Activity
- Function at every level of Management
- Continuous Process
- Observation on Functions
- Wide Scope
- Flow of Direction and
- Managerial Function.
Importance of Directing:
- Increase inefficiency
- Assessment of Efficiency
- Motivation to Employees
- Effective Planning
- Effective Organization
- Co-ordination and Co-operation
- Function of Control
- Increase in Enthusiasm and
- Finding out Deviation.
Elements of Directing:
- Leadership and
To supervise work done by workers means supervision. The function of supervision is found more at the bottom level of management. One who executes the function of supervision is called supervisor.
According to R. C. Davis, “Supervision is the function of assuring that the work is being done in accordance with the plan and instructions.”
Functions of Supervisor:
- To plan the functions and remove the hurdles.
- To provide necessary guidance and direction to complete the work in time.
- To supervise the functions constantly.
- The function of integration of employees’ personal objectives with the objectives of entire organization.
- To provide motivation and encouragement for increasing efficiency.
- To maintain group spirit among the employees.
- To make communication work faster.
- To give guidance regarding use of new technology.
- To maintain discipline among employees.
- Supervision does not keep control but provides training.
- Supervisor is a friend, philosopher and guide of the employee.”
Motivation is the internal feeling which encourages a person to work. Motivation includes financial incentives, non-financial incentives, amenities, unsatisfied needs, etc.
Meaning of Motivation:
In ordinary terms. “Motivation means the process of stimulating people to perform action and to make jLt possible to have maximum work satisfaction.”
As per Jucious, “Motivation is the act of stimulating someone or oneself to get desired course of action.”
Characteristics of Motivation:
- Internal Inspiration
- Psychological Concept
- Increase in Efficiency of Employees
- Continuous Process
- Reduction in Labour Turnover Rate
- Achievement of Goals
- Wider Scope,
- Adapting changes in an organization
- Tool to get Co-operation
- Positive Attitude and
- One of the Function of Management.
Hierarchy of Needs by Maslow:
Humanitarian psychologist Abraham Maslow presented the Principle of Hierarchy of Needs. Such five needs are presented in hierarchy of its intensity:
- Physiological or Primary needs
- Safety needs
- Social needs
- Esteem and Status needs and
- Self-actualization and Self- r.ealization needs.
Financial and Non-financial Incentives:
The thing which inspires employees to work more is called Motivation. There are two types of Motivation:
- Prizes and
- Suggestions and Advices.
- Security of Employment
- Appreciation of Work and Reward
- Assignment of Responsibility,
- Welfare Activities and Amenities and
- Other Incentives.
Wherever a group of people are working, the group is required to be provided with leadership. Leadership is a process of encouraging others.
Meaning of Leadership:
Leadership is the quality which influences the people to do efforts willingly in achieving goals.
According to Dr George R. Terry, “Leadership is the quality of influencing others to work willingly for the realization of specified goals.”
Characteristics of Leadership:
- Existence of Followers
- Continuous Process
- Acceptance of Leadership
- Creates Informal and Effective Relationship
- Ideal Personality
- Harmony of Interest and
- Effect of Situation.
Qualities of a Good Leader:
- Physical Qualities
- Intellectual Qualities and
- Psycho-logical Qualities.
Communication is an important part of management. Because of progress in the field of communication all the countries of the world have come closer to each other and entire world is converted into global market.
Meaning of Communication:
Communication is the process of exchange of words, letters, instructions and opinions.
According to New Mann and Summer, “Communication is an exchange of facts, ideas, opinions or emotions by two or more persons.”
Characteristics of Communication:
- Goal Oriented Process
- Clear Words and Language
- Two Way Process
- Continuous Process,
- Many Equipments
- Many Types and Methods
- Motivating Activity
- Relation with Administrative Process and
- Human Process.
Methods of Communication:
- Audio-Visual and
Formal and Informal Communication:
There are two types of forms of communication:
- Formal Communication and
- Informal Communication.
1. Formal Communication:
The communication which is meant for achievement of business objectives and based on rules and regulations of organization; is called formal communication. In this type of communication superior and his subordinates are linked formally. The objective behind is controlling and co-ordination.
Characteristics of Formal Communication:
- Superior and Subordinates are formally related.
- Clear’ objective of control and co-ordination.
- Formal communication is generally in written form.
- It is accepted as policy of the organization.
- It is based on organization structure.
- It is formed for the accomplishment of business objectives.
- It is easy and clear to understand.
2. Informal Communication:
The communication system which is dependent upon human relations and friendship among employees of an organization is called informal communication. It is dynamic and simple. It does not require any control or order.
Characteristics of Informal Communication:
- It depends on the human relations.
- Control or Order is not required.
- It can be explained orally or through symbolic language.
- It depends on human and friendly relations.
- It is flexible and simple.
- There is no importance to procedure.
- It gives more co-ordination and credibility to organization.
- It is not supplementary but complementary to formal communication.
Points of Difference Between Formal and Informal Communication:
- Control and supervision
- Information in advance.
Barriers of Effective Communication:
- Lack of Planning
- Faulty Translation
- Unclear Messages
- Unclear Assumptions
- Shortage of Time
- Overburden of Information,
- Ignorance Towards Messages
- Improper Selection of Media and
- Distrust and Fear.
Measures to Overcome Barriers of Effective Communication:
- Communication system should be arranged suitable to organizational structure and it should not obstruct the information.
- Information should be clear so as to enable the receiver to understand it correctly.
- An Appropriate medium of communication should be selected.
- Communication is a two way process. Information should flow in both the direction easily.
- There must be feeling of mutual trust and co-operation among both the parties.
- Communication channel should be shorter so as to avoid stoppage in flow of information and avoid delay in communication.
- Communication system should be quick.
- Communication system should be goal oriented.
- The broadcasting of information should be proper.
- There should’ be evaluation of communication system from time to time.
- During the entire process of communication there should not be personal interest of the sender.