Gujarat Board GSEB Class 11 English Textbook Solutions Writing Skills Essay Writing Questions and Answers, Notes Pdf.
Essay Writing GSEB Std 11 English Grammar
Introduction: An essay is a written composition expressing one’s personal opinion or ideas on a topic.
An essay comprises of three parts :
1. The Introduction
2. The Body of the Essay
3. The Conclusion
1. The Introduction: This should be brief and interesting. It could be a quotation, a definition or an explanation of the title. Sometimes it could begin with a general remark or a short illustration:
2. The Body of the Essay: This is the main part of the essay. It consists of facts, illustrations, reflections of the writer on the given subject. Each point should have a fresh paragraph and the paragraphs should be linked so that the essay forms a readable whole piece of the composition.
3. The Conclusion: The Ending like the Beginning, should be short and striking and should come naturally. Never end abruptly. The ending could be a simple sentence, a short summary of the ideas contained in the body, a quotation or a rhetorical question.
Some useful hints on Essay Writing :
- Do not begin writing at once. Think about the topic.
- Jot down your ideas.
- Select your ideas carefully.
- Arrange your ideas in a logical sequence.
- Divide your essay into paragraphs. The essay should be four to five paragraphs.
- Divide the paragraphs into the Introduction, Body and Conclusion.
- Use simple words and short sentences.
- Clarity and brevity should be strictly adhered to.
- Make it interesting, introduce humour wherever possible.
- Revise what you have written. Correct all mistakes such as spelling, capital letters, grammar, punctuations, etc.
Essays are classified into Argumentative, Reflective, Descriptive and Narrative Essays.
1. Argumentative Essay (on Controversies) is an essay consisting of an argument on some subject or the other of topical importance as – Are we Happier than our Forefathers? Is Science Blessing or Curse ? etc.
2. Reflective Essay is a reflection on subjects like –
(a) Institutions, Industries, Occupations, etc. (Press, (A Day in the Life of a Ragpicker/ Doctor / Policeman, etc.) Gardening, Photography
(b) Scientific Topics (Marvels of Modern Science, Global Warming, etc.)
(c) Literary Topics (Appreciation of an author or a book).
(d) Quotations or Sayings (‘Time is money, ‘Honesty is the best policy, etc.)
(e) Current or Burning Issues: Dowry System, Corruption, Sex Determination, etc.
3. Descriptive Essays consist of a description of some person, place or thing such as-
(a) Animals, Plants, Fruits, Minerals, Metals, etc. (Cruelty to Animals, Save Trees, Our Natural Resources, etc.)
(b) Towns, Ports, Ships, Buildings, etc. (My Favourite Restaurant, A Cinema House, N A Shopping Mall, etc.)
(c) Aspects and Phenomena of Nature
(d) Manufactured Articles (A Laptop Computer, A Cellphone, Computer)
(e) Character Sketches (My Favourite Sportsman / Politician / Actor, etc.)
4. Narrative Essays consist of narrating some events such as-
(a) Incidents (A Street Quarrel, A Festival, etc.)
(b) An Accident or A Natural Disaster (A flood, A fire, A storm, An earthquake, etc.)
(c)A Journey or A Voyage
(d)A Trip or A Walk
(e) A Visit to a Place of Interest
(f) Flights of Fancy- if I were the Chief Minister / Principal / a Superman, etc. or if there were no examinations. etc.
Write an Essay on the following topics in about 250 words: (any one out of two)
Patriotism Versus Internationalism
Patriotism Alone is not Enough
Points: meaning of patriotism – not being selfish – think in the interest of nation-making sacrifices when needed – healthy patriotism and patriotism for show-off – fanatic patriotism is also destructive – patriotism with internationalism – humanity and progress of the nation must be in focus.
“Who is here so vile that will not love his country ?”
“You’ll never have a quiet world till you knock the patriotism out of the human race’’.
Patriotism means love for one’s native land. . Just as we love our father and mother, so we love the land of our birth. This feeling is called patriotism. But we find some people who love themselves more than they love their parents. They think of their own happiness and comforts before the comforts and happiness of their father and mother. Similarly, some people love their country less and love themselves more. Such people are selfish.
This should not be the case. It shows a feelingless heart and a selfish nature. Just as it is the first duty of a child to love his home, so also it is the first duty of everyone to love the land of his birth. A man owes much to the land of his birth. Just as he grows up in the lap of his mother, he is brought from making any sacrifice for his motherland when he is called upon to do so.
Who can forget the great sacrifices of Bhagat Singh, Subhash Chandra Bose, Lala Lajpat Rai, Gandhi, Nehru and other freedom fighters who sacrificed their all for the freedom of their motherland? Such patriots are honoured everywhere and in all ages.
Patriotism is of two kinds: The first is a; healthy one and should be encouraged while the! second one is of an undesirable kind and should be condemned. Healthy patriotism teaches us to ‘
love our country with all our heart and to do everything in our power to make our country happy, great and glorious. It tells us to build our glory on the ruins and sufferings of other nations. The first kind of patriotism is good for our country and for the world. The second kind of patriotism is bad for the world and will, sooner or later, be bad for the country that oppresses others.
It is our duty to love the land of our birth. It is also our duty not to hate other nations. We must try to cultivate a healthy type of patriotism and to devote ourselves wholeheartedly to the uplift and prosperity of our own country. We must not have the perverted notion of patriotism that believes in the dictum: “My country, right or wrong.” Most of the crimes against humanity have been committed by people having this type of fanatic patriotism.
Patriotism must go hand in hand with internationalism. One should never forget one’s duty towards humanity in general. Such patriotism as encourages narrow, parochial fanaticism is a bad type of patriotism which has no place in a fast progressing civilization of today. We are today suffering the consequences of this type of patriotism, which in turn gives birth to terrorism.
Make in India
Points: P.M. launched the programme – aim to provide India an economic global recognition – more employments – attracting foreign capital – providing more opportunities to industries and business- houses – bringing development and growth-oriented employment-feeling proud.
The Prime Minister of India, Shri Narendra Modi launched an initiative named Make in India on 25th of September, 2014 in New Delhi. The aim of this campaign is to provide India an economic global recognition. While launching the programme, P.M. said that investors should take it as an opportunity and not as market in India. This campaign aimed to renew an Indian economy from a services-driven growth model to labour-intensive manufacturing-driven growth. A successful implementation of the programme will be the reason of employment for more than 10 million people in India.
This is an effective plan which will attract top foreign companies to set up their business here in India.
In order to attract foreign capital, huge changes have been made in defence, the manufacturing and insurance sectors, however, according to the analyst, they need to do in more effective manner. More employments in the country will boost the purchasing power of common man. India is a country having unique combination of demography, democracy and demand which can benefit the investors.
Because of the lack of resources and wider clarity on policy issues, Indian businessmen too were planning to quit India and set up their businesses somewhere else. If this continued, it would have caused more poor economy. Make in India campaign with various effective resources will draw the attention of worldwide top businessmen to invest in India for any related business. In order to avoid the compulsion of Indian businesses to another country, the government has launched this attractive plan.
The dream of P.M. Narendra Modi is to make this country free of unemployment by bringing development and growth-oriented employment through his effective governance. Poverty in India can be reduced to a great level by solving the unemployment issue for youths which in turn may solve various social issues.
Start-up India Stand-up India
Points: Initiative launched by P.M. – gift to youth of India – aim: economic growth and career growth of the youth – Start-up India and Stand-up India – high-level inter-ministerial panel – opportunity for new business ventures with innovative ideas and skills – promoting entrepreneurs – connect IIMs, NITs and others.
Start-up India Stand-up India is an initiative launched with its complete action plan on 16th of January, 2016. However, this scheme was announced earlier by the Prime Minister Narendra Modi during his Independence Day speech in 2015. This programme is a new gift of year 2016 to the young people by the Indian government. It will help them to set up their new businesses or innovative projects. In this way, almost all the youths of country will be encouraged and use their new innovative ideas to create job. It will be proved much helpful in improving the economic growth of the country and career growth of the youths.
This initiative seeks the participation of almost all the major higher educational institutions in India through the online connectivity in order to be successful. This programme will help India to be a Start-up capital of the world. The complete action plan of this scheme has been launched with the launch of Start-up India Stand-up India campaign. Establishing a high-level, inter-ministerial panel has also been planned to create a friendly ecosystem to look after the innovation as well as evaluate Start-up proposals to ensure that whether they are qualified for incentives or not.
This initiative is an effective effort by the government to assist Startups in starting new business ventures especially those with innovative ideas and skills. It will help in improving the status of small and new entrepreneurs as well as creating new job opportunities for others. P.M. Modi has requested each bank’ to support at least one dalit and one woman entrepreneur in opening their business ventures.
There is no lack of talented and skilled youths with innovative plans in India, however, they need some effective financial support to be encouraged and go ahead without fear of getting failed. All the IITs, central universities, IIMs, NITs and other institutions of India were lively connected to each other for the successful launch of this campaign.
Points: a great menace – people seek pleasure in consuming drugs – youngsters fall easy victim-spoil their money and health – responsibility to be fixed – an evil to be eradicated or society and nation will have weak generation. ‘
Our age is an age of anxiety. So today’s society presents a very strange picture. An overall view can make someone assured of pleasures, success and all comforts of life. People have more money to spend for luxuries. It makes the youngsters feel that they can bag high rewards for their efforts. So they don’t bother to maximise their efforts. As a result, when they have to face some failure or disappointment they get heartbroken and the easiest way to overcome it is drugs.
Drugs provide easy, quick relief from mental agony. The mounting temptation is too difficult to handle. As a result, thousands of young lives are ruined during their budding state of life by the cruel effects of various drugs. Young students and unemployed rural and urban youths fall prey to drug addiction. They escape at least temporarily, the mental agony. Smack, Bhang, Ganja, Charas, certain injections, syrups and even painkillers also cause addiction. Alcohol is also very commonly used in one class of society.
The drugs require money. As a result, the addicts harass their family members. If they fail to get money from family members, they take to stealing and live a life of slavery and misery. They can become criminals also.
The addictive drugs are strong and when used regularly cause damage to brain cells. The addicted person becomes aggressive, violent and emotionally disturbed. His personality gets distorted.
Who is responsible for this pathetic situation? The society is under the grip of the newly spread western culture. Parents toil blindly to maintain their acquired high status. But they forget to spare some quality time for their children. Educational institutions should share their responsibility and guardians have to co-operate with them. Drugs shouldn’t be sold without prescriptions. Strictness and vigilant attitude is a must for health authorities.
We have to make the youth strong – mentally and physically. We need to take all the necessary precautions today. Tomorrow may be too late.
Points: Vital role in business – it is an industry now wherein students can look forward to their career-print media, electronic media-TV, radio play major role in forming people’s minds – they may mislead too – consumer needs to be judicious.
Modern age is the age of advertisements. Business plays a vital role in the economic progress of the country and the advertisements help the business prosper. Though it is an expensive means to sell goods. It is highly effective if skillfully handled. Creativity of the advertiser can make ads and posters catchy.
Advertising is an industry. As an industry, it requires professionals. So many institutions offer standard courses in advertising and mass communication. A candidate can apply for this course after graduation and in some cases even after 12th.
We find that ads on TV channels create great impact and temptation. They impress children and housewives to great extent. That of course results in good initial sale. If the ad is authentic, sales graph goes higher and higher. Otherwise, customer stops responding to the ad. Ads sell dreams-dream kitchen, dream bedrooms, dream houses, dream gardens and what not! They bring the dream in reality and it results in luxurious lifestyle.
Newspaper/magazine ads also have great impact. Circulation of handbills also creates awareness. People forget that all things that shine are not gold. They spend money wastefully – sometimes for fashion, sometimes for craze. Advertiser tries to take advantage of this psychology. However, code of ethics for advertising in India issued by Advertising Standard Council of India, regulates and controls the advertiser and advertising agencies from publishing offensive and misleading advertisements. Advertisers may reap benefits to some extent. They advertise more, they sell more. It gives more business to ad agencies. And people may shop till they drop.
However, wisdom says that consumer has to be judicious and responsible. He has to control excessive expenditure. One shouldn’t go beyond his means to satisfy his craze for accumulating the latest products. Money needs to be utilized to get its full return because we have to save our future.
Students and Social Service
Points: man, a social animal – man receives from society, so he should think to give something back – students, teachers, doctors, engineers, etc. can give a lot to society – outlook should be non-prejudicial and non-communal – ‘service to humanity is service to God’-aim to make world a better place for every human being to live in.
Man is a social animal. He cannot live in isolation. There is interdependence between man and his environment. Man receives much from society. Therefore, he must render service to the society, which gives him existence and relevance. Students, particularly, are ideally suited for social service as they are young, energetic and enthusiastic and have plenty of time on their hands.
Students can involve themselves in different types of activities. They can begin some activity in or around the building where they live and then extend it gradually. For example, students can organize story-telling or newspaper reading sessions in their neighbourhood or they can help local bodies in conducting pre-primary or adult education classes. They can also organize cleanliness campaigns and tree plantation programmes, conduct first aid, classes or instruct people about cleanliness and hygiene.
Organizing blood donation camps or giving aid in the form of money, food or clothes to the victims of floods or droughts are other ways in which students can render social service. In fact, with the co-operation of local doctors mental and physical health awareness programmes can be organized. Mental health is as important as physical health. Therefore, it is said ‘A sound mind in a sound body.
Social service enables students to come into contact with people who belong to various strata of society. This brings about a humanitarian outlook. Social service also teaches students to work in co-operation with a group and to organize themselves to achieve predetermined goal. Students get this experience through NCC or NSS camps. India is a land of diversities, communities, creeds, religions and languages – there is such a confusing multitude that it becomes difficult to achieve harmony.
Our students can make a substantial contribution by developing a non-communal outlook. They are young. Their minds are yet uncontaminated by religious fanaticism or communal or provincial prejudice. They retain the recognition of basic human values. They can really reconcile diversities and work for national integration.
The knowledge of various problems that the people around us have a genuine desire to help the needy will go a long way in making the world a better place to live. All that one needs for this type of service is a willingness to work for the common good, a generous heart and freedom from personal greed and ambition.
It is necessary that the youth of India come forward and dedicate themselves to the noble task of working for the upliftment of others since India’s teeming millions are in dire need of such selfless help. Students should know ‘God helps those who help their fellowmen’. Indian youth know well that service to man is service to God.
If There were no Newspapers
Points: newspaper-our morning nourishment – always eager to know what happens in our town, city, state, country or in foreign countries – various columns feed our interests and needs – keep us updated – it they are not there, we lose contact with the world and get deprived of knowledge and other things – not being standstill.
What a pleasure it would be to wake- up and have a steamy cup of tea on the table inviting to enjoy sip after sip without the slightest disturbance from the hustle of routine newspaper. This may sound little queer for those who are habituated to go through the same array of news in the press every day. What we read from the newspapers is almost trash vividly magnifying the instances of accidents, rapes, robbery, gang wars, intrigues, conspiracies, political degradation, murders, scandals and terrorism and whatnot.
There is hardly any place for human values in today’s newspapers. In spite of this situation, modern educated public cannot think of a morning without newspaper. Because what is said above is only one, side of a coin. The other side is much more important and has become an unavoidable part of human life. The newspaper today is as necessary as food and clothing.
Basically, in the absence of newspapers, the position of every individual would be precarious. Everyone would be groping in the dark because of the ignorance about the world around. No news would be known to anybody. A politician would not know the latest developments both in the party he belongs to or in the opposition parties. A businessman would be unaware of the market conditions making him blind about all his business strategies.
Scientists will not know the latest development in science and technologies. Young people would not know what entertainment programmes are waiting for them. General public would also feel a vacuum in the absence. of entertaining news about accidents, murders, scandals, criticism, gossips about leaders, film stars, sportsmen and such others. The life would in a way become very stale, dull and static without the newspapers and society would come to a standstill position. This is not the sign of a progressing society.
Newspapers have powerful influence in the modern days that they are almost regarded as the ‘Fourth Estate’. Newspapers not only provide information but possess literacy value, work as a powerful means of propaganda, influence public opinion, extend incentive to business world, expose various opportunities of jobs, attract suitable people for employment and also entertain people through news on movies, drama, sports and other columns.
If all this were stopped, what would remain in the life of a country? It will become stagnant and remain backward. If one has to enjoy the fruits of modern developments brought about by science and technologies, one has to keep abreast with all the news about all the matters around. One cannot, therefore, afford to stop having newspapers. This would mean the death of the society. Newspapers are the life force of every dynamic society. No one can survive in this world without newspapers. It is not; therefore, fair even to think of the society where there are no newspapers. Without newspapers the world would become standstill.
Time is Money
Points: in this hectic world time is as precious as money – time can also buy or purchase certain things – it time is invested, there is sure gain – if wasted, we lose a lot – time does not wait for anyone – it should be spent advantageously
There is no need to dwell on the truth of this maxim in the present day. The rush of the hurrying throng, the shriek of the railway whistle, the throb of the steamer’s engine, the click of the telegraph needle, and the sharp peal of the telephone call, are daily and hourly telling the same tale “Time is money”. In a literal sense in the business of life of the present day, ‘Time is money. Opportunities of acquiring money have increased to such an extent that for the worker time means money. The struggle for wealth has become so keen, education has fitted so many more to join in the struggle that time becomes the capital of trading, professional or businessmen.
So many new avenues of enjoyment have been opened up in recent years, and have been rendered so cheap, that the only requirement for their enjoyment is time, but to the busy man, “Time is money” and so they cannot enjoy. Distances too that have to be traversed, make delay such a vital matter that here again “Time is money”.
Metaphorically, too, the maxim is true.
Time can be spent, it can be squandered, and it can be put out at interest. Man may be rich in it or he may be poor. Youth is rich in it and can spend it lavishly, while old age is poor in it, having to count the days and use it thriftily.
Like money, too, time, when once spent, will not return. It is a talent which if rightly used, bears rich interest, if wasted, renders its owner poor indeed. But time is unlike money, in the fact that it cannot be circulated. Money passes from one to another, and one man’s loss becomes another man’s gain. But lost time is utterly lost, and gone forever.
It is on our own to use or to waste, and it cannot be used by another, neither can it be accumulated because ‘Time flies’. Its importance, cannot be estimated properly because it cannot be seen, hence its losses cannot be measured and we are inclined to waste time as we should never waste money. At such times this little commonplace maxim is of great service, “Time is money”.
My Favourite Game OR
The Game I Like Most
Points: one of the hobbies to be pursued – name of the game -features of the game – reasons that attract you most – how you participate in it – your gain from its pursuit – compliments sought
It is said by one of the thinkers, ‘A sound mind in a sound body, if our health is good only then we can do something in life. Everyone likes to play games. Even in modern education, sports have occupied an important place at all levels.
Today the games have become a matter of national spirit and pride. We play different types of games. There are many indoor games like carrom, chess, table tennis, badminton and playing cards. And there are outdoor games like football, hockey, volleyball, basketball and cricket. There are also Indian games like kho- kho and kabaddi.
We play games because they are very important part of our life. They are necessary to keep us in good health. We know that ‘health is wealth’. We also play games for pleasure and entertainment. Games and sports are a matter of joy and happiness; in playing games, there is a thrill and adventure in all games. I like the game of cricket the most.
Two teams play cricket. Each team consists of eleven players. After the toss of the coin one team starts with batting. The players of the other team, fielders as are called, take their appointed places. In the centre of the pitch, there are stumps. The bowler tries to hit the stumps by bowling the ball fast. The object of the fielding side is to get the batsman out. Every team plays two innings. There are many rules and regulations. There are different terms like LBW, caught, run out, byes, no balls, boundaries, sixes, etc. One should know all these terms.
Cricket is a popular sport. It gives refreshing and healthy exercise. It strengthens the body and trains the mind. It makes players alert, watchful and fleet-footed. It brings them imagination and judgement. It gives mental and physical agility, skill and pleasure. It teaches the value of co-operation, obedience, patience, discipline, team spirit and sportsmanship.
It is exciting and interesting. It is full of suspense, surprise, joy and sorrow. It gives full enjoyment to all players as well as spectators. And it is also a matter of great enjoyment to listen to the commentary of a cricket Test Match. Nowadays, cricket has become the most popular game in India. And the recent record-breaking form of Virat Kohli has made it more so in India.
By playing games we learn how to struggle and opt for self-help. The spirit of struggling and self¬help is quite essential for personality development. In a game, the spirit of sportsmanship is much more important than winning a prize. Where there is a friendship there is leadership. Those who play games in the right spirit, become happy and make others also happy.
The Importance of Sports
Points; needed for all-round development – contribute a lot to health – keep balance between mind and body – lessen stress – keep cheerful, fine and fit-other qualities like sportsmanship, patience, fairness, etc, can make life blissful
A sound mind in sound body’ is an expression so familiar and so often quoted that its meaning is likely to have lost something of its edge and appeal. Yet it expresses a profound truth and formulates an ideal which every individual should set before himself. Bodily ailments stunt the growth of mind, just as mental maladies affect the health of the body.
The education that is imparted in our schools and colleges is mainly intellectual. It is true that every school and college has a playground and offers facilities for sports like cricket and football, basketball and badminton, but participation in games is not compulsory and littie account is taken of it while awarding certificates and degrees. Besides, there is acute shortage of playgrounds in large cities. Our educationists should realize the organic connection between mind and body and pay more attention and importance to the physical training of the young.
Outdoor games like cricket, hockey, football and tennis are the best means of ensuring physical health and mental development. They have several advantages over other forms of exercise. They provide not only exercise for the body but recreation to the mind. Exercising one’s limbs at home or in a gymnasium calls for some effort of the will, but boys and girls have natural inclination for sports and they derive exercise from them in an agreeable way, without specially exercising themselves. They return to their studies feeling refreshed and energetic.
Sports also inculcate valuable qualities in young people. They learn how to co-operate with one another and to subjugate their selfish desires in the interest of the team. They learn to play the game, practising fair play and showing generosity towards their opponents. They cultivate the quality of sportsmanship which consists in playing a game according to its rules and accepting defeat in good spirit. They are likely to follow the ideal of sportsmanship in life also, showing honest and uprightness in their dealings with others and never using unfair means for personal ends.
We Live in Deeds not in Years
Points: living long is not the parameter of good life – deedful life counts – constructive deeds make life worth-living and useful – appreciating beauty in the world, helping humanity and living beyond self is true living.
Longevity of life does not necessarily indicate greatness. A short life, lived to the hilt in working for the betterment of mankind, or spent in constructive work is definitely better than a long unproductive life. Ben Johnson rightly stated “In short measures life may perfect be”. He compares and contrasts a short-lived lily and an oak which lives for a hundred years. A lily offers nonpareil beauty for a day, with which it captivates the hearts of the beholders but an oak is ugly and despite living for a long period of time, ends as a wooden log, devoid of charm and beauty.
Its long life and immense proportions are a poor substitute for a lily’s beauty. Similarly, a rainbow is a joy to behold, but it is there for a very short period of time. The same is the case with dewdrops, sunrise, sunset, etc. but they leave an indelible impression upon the heart. It is only then that we realize the truth of the proverb “A thing of beauty is a joy forever” Beauty is no doubt a nine days’ wonder. But its impression on the mind is everlasting. Perhaps that is what prompted William Wordsworth to immortalize the beauty of the daffodils in a poem when he tells us “Ten thousands saw I at a glance. Tossing their heads in sprightiy dance”.
Later on, he goes on to tell us how he stored the sight of the beauty of the daffodils in his memory bank to be recalled at will, for he tells us-
“For oft when on my couch I lie In vacant or in pensive mood,
They flash upon the inward eye,
Which is the bliss of solitude”
Thus, we see the permanent effect of Beauty on the mind, despite its short mortal duration.
Most of the great men of the world led short but fruitful lives. They left behind a rich heritage to posterity. Men like Madhav Rao, Swami Vivekanand and Guru Gobind Singh, poets like Byron, Shelly, Keats died early but even today, almost a century later they continue to live on in their poems. Shakespeare and Alexander Pope too did not enjoy a long life but through their works, they have become immortal.
Man like Bhagat Singh, Udham Singh and many other historical personalities were cut off in the flower of their youth, but the heroic deeds they did, the sacrifices they made by giving up their lives for the nation gives them a permanent place in the hearts of men which neither age can corrupt nor wars can destroy their memories. Hence, I can conclude by reiterating that a short life spent in the service of humanity is better than a long life spent in a self-centred sequestered corner.
My Aim in Life
Points: aimless life is useless – chances of distraction – cannot reach destination or achieve anything in life – your aim – inspiration – reason to set the aim – prospective gains – leading a worthy life
My aim in life is to be a doctor. My father does not agree with me. He is a merchant. He wants me to take a degree in commerce. His desire is to make me a rich businessman, but I have no liking for business. I hate the job of buying and selling. Business would fill my pocket, but it would leave my soul empty. I would never accept that.
I love the medical profession. This is not because it means status but because it means service to humanity. To serve humanity is to serve God. My ideal hero is Dr Hilbert Schweitzer. He lived and died for the suffering, people of French Equatorial Africa. My father is kind, I am sure that he will let me be a doctor.
I shall take my degree. Many young doctors go away to America to make money. I shall consider it my duty to serve my motherland, which made me a doctor. I shall start practice in Mumbai. I shall charge my patients according to their incomes. Treatment will be free for every poor person. I shall never squeeze anyone. I shall be very careful about my examination, diagnosis, and treatment of patients.
Wealth will come to me. Then I shall visit selected villages at regular intervals. There is greater need of healthcare in rural India than in advanced cities of India. If the educated sons of India do not serve their own less fortunate brothers and sisters, who will? W Beran Wolfe has said that our’ duty is to put back into the world what we take from it. Free treatment of villagers will be my way of doing this. As a doctor I shall have the following motto.
‘Service before self’ Life is a dream. We should realize it. Life is a challenge we should accept it. Life is a promise we should fulfil it. Life is an opportunity we should utilize it.
The Value of Discipline
Points: first law of nature – man being a part of nature, should observe discipline – discipline avoids chaos – helps live smoothly – boosts up growth – avails success – brings freedom – self¬discipline leads to self-progress – consequently nation progresses
The first law of nature is Discipline. We see that the sun rises and heralds the dawn of a new day. The sunsets and there is night with its star-spangled sky and the dim light of the moon keeping the earth from total darkness. Thus, day and night follow each other. The months and seasons come by rotation. There is not scramble for outmanoeuvring one another. The elements and compounds all follow their natural properties.
The earth revolves around the sun unfailingly and the Law of Gravitation and other such natural laws hold their ground eternally. Man is part and parcel of nature. He is also a unit, an entity in the social fabric. If there were no strict adherence to laws by objects of nature, there would be complete chaos, so also if human beings do not observe discipline, the entire social structure would fall apart like a house of cards. For instance, we can break traffic rules and regulations only at a great risk to our life and limbs and that of other people as well.
A disobedient child may have to face the ire of his parents by being deprived of his paternal inheritance. A disrespectful and disobedient student assimilates nothing from his school teachers and lives to repent his actions in the long run. A disobedient public servant may lose his job. In the armed forces, an errant soldier can be court-martialled.
Hence, it follows that discipline is essential for an individual’s personal success. However, discipline is also necessary for a nation’s success. Those nations which lack discipline make no progress, they may even lose their freedom. Countries like Japan, Germany, the USA and France have made tremendous progress only through the observance of discipline.
A nation’s discipline has not only to be social and political in the form of hard and honest work by its citizens and leaders alike but also fiscal and economic in the form of discarding wastage and lavish spending. Discipline includes patriotic thoughts and patriotic deeds for the defence and progress of the nation. Even population cannot be controlled without self-discipline by the citizens. It is said that discipline is unavoidable for every nation.
Those nations which do not or cannot observe internal discipline will, ultimately, are ruled by some external power which is capable of enforcing discipline. This is a lesson taught to us by history and if we fail to learn from it we will be forced to relive history again. Discipline for an individual can be broadly classified into two types of discipline, i.e., external and internal discipline. External discipline is observed in the form of obedience to superiors like parents, teachers, bosses, etc. and in strict adherence to daily routine for efficient work and excellent results in our mundane activities.
But internal discipline is a higher form of discipline which pertains to the mind and the soul. This form of discipline necessitates a high character and high ideals of truth and honesty in the face of all temptations, allurements and coercions. To adhere to this notion one has to be a man of principles and a man who keeps his word at all costs. In doing this one may have to face many privations, tortures, desertion and opposition, sometimes even by near and dear ones.
This spiritual discipline has been observed most avidly only by the greatest messiahs of humanity who are the eternal beacon-lights guiding man’s destiny. So let us encourage youngsters, the future citizens of India, to join hands in promising to emulate these messiahs to the best of their ability so that we can build a better tomorrow for us and for the generations to come.
My Responsibility as a Student
Points: part and parcel of human life – today students seem to be irresponsible – tomorrow’s nation is their responsibility – to be carried out in various aspects of day-to-day life – observing cleanliness – obeying traffic rules, etc. – positive attitudes to be cultivated for a strong nation tomorrow.
Knowing that I should be responsible,
Is just the battle half won,
Proving that I can live up to that,
Is where lies all the fun!
Responsibilities have and will always be a part and parcel of human life. Man, by nature, is a social animal, who depends on others to satiate his basic needs. Without society, even his basic abilities of speech and civilised behaviour would be but a distant dream.
Hence, human beings depend on each other for survival. Shouldering one’s responsibilities well is what the cycle of give and take, mutual cooperation and the very edifice of human society stands on. Realising these responsibilities is the first step in improving society as a whole.
A student’s responsibilities start at school by putting his best foot forward academically and at the same time preparing to take on his responsibilities as a model citizen by taking care of school property and conscientiously contributing to the cleanliness of the classroom, school and the environment in general.
The real test of fire comes when you step out of the portals of your school into a larger world where your responsibilities increase by leaps and bounds, with no kind hand of a mentor in the background steering you away from the pitfalls of life or quietly encouraging you to soar to greater heights.
Students are ambassadors of knowledge. ‘True happiness’, they say, lies not so much in the taking, but in the sharing and spreading of it. Hence, it is not sufficient to bid ‘adieu to our schools and forge ahead with our lives, traversing the road of success. It is the responsibility of each of us to share the knowledge gleaned in school with our less fortunate brothers, who have been deprived of the light of knowledge by circumstances beyond their control.
It is only when you see your illiterate brother read aloud his own handwritten sentence, and see his face glow with happiness at his achievement, the result of your painstaking efforts,, in sharing your knowledge, will your success at school become meaningful. Hence, our schooling will become meaningful and successful only when we follow the maxim ‘each one teach one and share the responsibility “of removing illiteracy from our teeming millions.
The students of today are the architects of tomorrow. It is on their shoulders that the destiny of India rests. If these intelligent youngsters are enticed by the lure of money to sell their talents to distant and different lands, then how will we see our beloved motherland progress through the years to come? It is for the students to realise their duty towards their motherland for they are and always will be Indians. Hence, no matter what field of life one chooses to work in, the service of our people should feature as top priority on our schedule.
Our country with its untapped potential is like a sleeping giant at present. All it needs is good leaders and responsible people. We, as students on the threshold of youth, should channelise our zeal and enthusiasm towards awaking this dormancy, there will be no better way of fulfilling our responsibility towards our motherland. Hence, we would do well to keep this tiny verse in mind, when we lose hope and think of ourselves as tiny droplets in the vast ocean of humanity.
“I might be just a tiny little drop
In this vast ocean of mankind
But if I can make its waters sweet
Where else will I, such satisfaction find ?”
The Importance of Value Education
Points: education without values may lead to destruction – examples are same highly educated terrorists – values like cleanliness, honesty, patriotism, compassion, service to humanity should be taught and imbibed – respect for elders, women – sympathy for children and old-age people – scientific temper – dignity of labour – values will make people and nation strong
What do we understand by the term ‘Value Education’? As I understand it, value education would mean inculcating values in young minds through education. But do our youngsters need this kind of education? Of course, they do! Take a look at the daily newspapers, which are filled with depressing news like scams, clandestine deals, strikes, murders in broad daylight, extortion, bomb blasts, house collapses, etc. the list is endless.
What is the root cause of all this? Dissatisfaction one would say, but I feel the root cause of all these social and political maladies is lack of sound values. The only way we can tackle this problem is by attacking it at the grass-root level. The children of today are the citizens of tomorrow, so let us use education to inculcate in them sterling values which will prepare them to face the challenges and the temptations of the future. The next question that naturally springs to mind is what values should we stress on? There are innumerable values that need to be imbibed but today there seems to be a greater need of some values more than the others.
Take, for example, the value of patriotism. In days gone by, people sacrificed their lives for their country. Mahatma Gandhi, Babu Genu, Vasudev Balwant Phadke, Chandrashekhar Azad and a host of others. Today our youngsters find it difficult to show their loyalty by standing respectfully when the national anthem is being sung. The need of the hour today is to nurture this feeling of patriotism in our youngsters, not only by respecting our national flag and singing patriotic songs but by going a step further such as collecting, memorizing and even writing patriotic songs.
Thus, our patriotism will be nurtured and developed and respect for the national anthem and the national flag will come as naturally as day follows night. Encouraging the narration of patriotic stories gives birth to patriotic thoughts and goes a long way towards fostering the spirit of nationalism. In such circumstances, protection of public property would then undoubtedly be the actions of a true patriot.
Another value, very essential in a diversified country like ours is Integration. We have many diversities like language, culture, dress, food, etc. from state to state, yet it is imperative for us to develop unity in that diversity so that our country will gain in strength and be in a position to weather any storm be they internal or external. To do this effectively we must, at all times, keep in mind the pledge ‘India is my country and all Indians are my brothers and sisters -If this be our attitude we will stretch a helping hand to all our Indian fellowmen, regardless of colour, caste or creed.
This would also imply a justifiable pride in the achievements of our sportspersons, surgeons, artists, etc. This will go a long way in cementing our unity, Yet another value which is absolutely essential in this materialistic world of ours is religiosity. We today use religion as a political stepping stone, uncaring about the seeds of division. We are sawifig and fragmenting our country on a religious bias. Hence, respect for all religions is what we should inculcate in ourselves. After all, all religions are but different paths to the same God.
Respect for women is yet another value which seems to be lacking amongst our people. We Indians have double standards where our women are concerned while mouthing phrases like the mother is a goddess who should be respected within the confines of her home, but whom we treat with scant respect in public, by depriving her of equality, education and a chance to develop her personality.
A scientific temper would be another appropriate value to be developed in modern times. This would teach our youngsters to be aware of the environment and to preserve its purity by taking active part in environmental programmes and helping to further the progress of science as we step into the twenty-first century.
Our beloved Bapu taught us the dignity of labour which today we seem to be forgetting. Surrounded by material luxuries we tend to look down on menial tasks forgetting the advice of sages, “if you want to be great in the eyes of the Lord, you have to be a servant of all.” This maxim, if followed to the letter, would result in the eradication of the Dalits and untouchables and we would be progressing by leaps and bounds towards a classless and casteless society.
These are but a few of the innumerable values we need to cultivate for a better tomorrow. The values like courtesy, protection of national property, punctuality, neatness and cleanliness are a few other pertinent values which need to be inculcated in the formative years. If we succeed in making these values a part of the child’s mental and moral characteristics, we can rest assured that the Indians of the twenty-first century will be perfect citizens worthy of emulation.
Textbook Activity Pg No. 106
Here are a few topics for essay writing. Follow the steps listed above to write on these topics.
Himalayan Quake 2005
The mesmerising beauty of the Himalayan mountain range was put to question on 8th of October 2005, when a massive earthquake rocked some parts of the Himalayan region. The earthquake, measuring 7.6 on the Richter scale, was devastating. According to the seismologists, the epicentre of the earthquake was in Muzaffarabad, Pakistan. The worst-hit areas were Pakistan- administered Kashmir, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa and western parts of the Kashmir valley in the Indian- administered Kashmir. A fairly large number of people died in the quake. Many of them were school children who got buried under the rubble of their school buildings.
There was a huge national and international humanitarian response to the crisis. The UN and the US were criticised for not taking practical steps and focussing on training and seminar costing millions.
To conclude, the 2005 Himalayan quake will never be erased from our memories. Though it has taught many lessons to the planners, architects, disaster managers and the policymakers, the suffering of the victims will always invite sympathy of the mankind worldwide.
Those who can bear all, can dare all
Those who can bear all, can dare all. This holds good at all levels – individual, social, economic and organisational. The ability or attitude to endure in a given situation or environment is of utmost importance. In a given situation, one’s response is either reactive or proactive. One may have positive or a negative response towards a situation. But for becoming effective in life, one should cultivate a balanced or neutral attitude. A balanced attitude promotes development of endurance.
Thomas Alva Edison, the inventor of electric bulb, owes his success to his ability to bear hardships. He once commented that genius is ninety per cent perspiration and ten per cent inspiration. Though he had to perform hundreds of experiments to invent the electric bulb, he did not let the failures overpower him. This attitude ultimately brought him success. Napoleon, the famous French leader, regarded endurance as the most important quality of leadership. He said that losing a battle does not mean losing the war. Lord Buddha once said that the world we live in is in a state of ux. There is no certainty as situations do not always remain the same. In other words.
In the era of globalisation and market economy, the quality of endurance is a prerequisite for the entrepreneurs. There are ample growth opportunities as well as uncertainties due to the play of market forces. In fact, one can take risk or bear uncertainty only when one has developed the quality of endurance. There may be ups and downs in business but one has to bear all.
To conclude, endurance is not the virtue of the weak rather it is the source of strength. That is why it is said “Those who can bear all can dare all.”
Fascinating facts about water
What is it that gives earth a unique place in the Universe? Undoubtedly, it is the availability of water, due to which existence of life is possible on earth. Biologists opine that life on Earth originated in water. In fact, water has been the subject of study for a number of disciplines. All these studies have generated many fascinating facts about water. The scientific study of water is called Hydrology.
Poets of all literary traditions have composed wonderful poems in praise of water. Leonardo da Vinci, the great Renaissance artist, produced many paintings on water. Moreover, almost all the religions of the world have given exalted positions to water. Water is regarded as a symbol of purity in all the religions.
Interestingly, water is considered as a standard of ‘measurement by scientists and a standard of excellence by philosophers. It is a symbol of motion and UX. According to a school of Chinese philosophy, the highest excellence is like water. Besides, in alternative medicine systems, water is very useful in treating many diseases.
In view of the importance of water, the United Nations has declared March 22 as the Day for Water. There are numerous other fascinating facts about water, which is a vital necessity for any living being.
Public Health in Transition
The present era shows that there has been tremendous progress in the public health scenario. There has been considerable progress in the development of vaccines for a number of communicable diseases. Illnesses like smallpox have almost been wiped out from the world. The use of laser, microsurgery and synthetic components are on the rise.
Over the last few years, W.H.O. together with major international academic institutions has organized several consultations and seminars on the issue of public health. The future success of the public health institutions will depend largely on how academic institutions prepare health personnel to link meaningfully with other sectors and with decision-makers.
The major challenge, however, is how to produce a proper mix of health care personnel, capable of fulfilling effectively the health needs of the people. The health personnel need to be trained using a more holistic approach, including a team approach, in health care and development. Another challenge is to reorient those already in workforce with the new concepts, knowledge and skills.
Finally, global action and cooperation is a must to secure the benefits of globalisation for health for all, on ‘an equitable basis. This is essential to prevent or minimise threats to health and well being. We need to foster global public health action through full utilisation of international and intergovernmental organizations involved in health and health development. Such global public health action will include active surveillance on the global burden of disease, support for research on poverty and health, and the development of scientific norms and standards.
Human Population Grows Up
The study of human population as a phenomenon yields many interesting trends and patterns. Human population has never been static. Malthus, a famous classical economist, observed that human population grows at geometric proportion whereas food grows at arithmetic proportion. The dynamics of human population is influenced by many factors – social, cultural, economic, environmental and technological factors.
According to demographers, between 1965 to 1970 the growth rate of human population was 2.1 per cent per annum, which is recorded as the highest. The coming generation will look back at the event as the most significant event in the history of human population. Human population never grew with such speed before 20th century and is never again likely to grow in future.
Demographers like astronomers keep on observing interesting trends and patterns in human population. As of now human population has been showing inflationary trend, that is, it is growing in size.
Success begins in the mind
The concept of success is integral in our lives. History is replete with examples to demonstrate success and failure. The conquest of the Everest, man’s landing on the surface of the moon, the invention of information technology and so on and so forth; the list is unending.
The secret of success lies in proper thinking. Success means attaining a specific goal within a specific time frame, in a particular situation. Thus, attaining success depends on understanding the situation and setting the right goal in the right situation.
To be successful in any domain, one needs to assess one’s strengths and weaknesses. One has to apply strength, weakness, opportunity and threat analysis before venturing into any activity. This holds good for an individual as well as a team or an organisation. In other words, our thinking and knowledge plays a key role in attaining success. Moreover, failure in one situation may lead to success in the other. It all depends on one’s attitude. Failure prepares the way for success.
To conclude, success which we all wish to attain comes as a result of proper thinking and attitude. T. S. Eliot, the famous poet once said: “Success is relative. It is what we make of the mess we have made of things.”
Think before you shop
Though shopaholics adhere to the slogan ‘shop till you drop’, policymakers, the ecologists, the economists, the philosophers, the medical experts and many others do not buy the thought. Interestingly, Gandhiji used the adage ‘Think before you shop’ during the Swadeshi Movement. He gave the clarion call to boycott foreign-made goods to promote indigenous industries. In the present scenario, ‘Think before you shop’ has been advocated by ecologists to warn that indiscriminate behaviour on our part may affect the environment adversely. In fact, the market is flooded with products made from animal parts making the animals vulnerable. In other words, we should think twice before buying any product.
We should consider the possible environmental effects before buying any product. Economists want us to think before shopping as our shopping behaviour has many economic implications affects local, regional, national and international economics. If, for example, we start buying imported goods then this will gradually deplete our foreign exchange reserve.
Medical experts and psychiatrists advise us to think before we shop as the products we buy may have negative effects on our health. On the other hand, social activists advocate us to be very cautious while shopping, as the products we are going to buy might have been produced by child labourers. To conclude, the adage ‘Think before you shop’ is loaded with implications. It is indeed a very important directive for all of us as our shopping behaviour has a multidimensional impact on the world we live in.