Our Revision Notes for GSEB Class 10 Social Science Notes Chapter 10 India: Agriculture summarises the key points of a chapter and useful resource to prepare effectively for the upcoming board exams.
India: Agriculture Class 10 GSEB Notes Social Science Chapter 10
India: Agriculture Class 10 GSEB Notes
→ Agriculture is an important resource of India. About 60% of labour power is engaged in agriculture.
→ In most of the areas in India, two or more crops annually can be taken due to the factors like fertile plains, favourable climate for round the year cultivation, irrigation, skilled and hard working farmers.
→ Agricultural production in India is decreasing compared to the world due to reasons like inadequate facilities of irrigation, irregular and uncertainty of rain, more population, large family, small farms, no interest in experimentation, less usage of chemical fertilizers, modern machinery and scientific approach for cultivation, educated mass opting away from agriculture, the so-called lower status for agriculture in the society etc.
→ Farming is classified according to irrigation methods, farm outputs, economic return, etc.
(i) Subsistence farming. Due to their weak economic condition, farmers cannot afford costly seeds, fertilizers and use of insecticides. The farm production is just sufficient for their family. This is called subsistence farming.
(ii) Dry farming: Where there is inadequate rainfall, irrigation facilities are less. Farming is dependent only on rain. Only one crop is. taken through the humidity accumulated within the land.
(iii) Wet farming. It is carried out in the regions of heavy rain and adequate facilities for irrigation. More than one crop is taken.
(iv) Shifting agriculture. Forests are burnt and cleared, and farming is carried out there. The farming takes place for two or three years. When soil fertility is reduced, that area is abandoned and the same method is applied to start farming at other place.
(v) Plantation agriculture. This is a special type of agriculture. It is necessary that there should be more capital investment, skill, technical knowledge, machines, fertilizers, protection on all sides, acquisition and transportation facilities.
(vi) Intensive farming. Farming is the mechanized way of farming through utilization of increased irrigation, use of chemicaf fertilizers, insecticides and other mechanical equipments. Cash crops grow more in this type of farming.
→ Organic farming, sustainable farming, mixed farming, etc. are some of the current methods of farming in India.
→ Organic farming: In this kind of farming area or any other chemical fertilizer and insecticides are not used. They contain natural taste, sweetness and fragrance. There are minerals, vitamins and life energizing elements in these crops biotic controls for insects and harvests, water conservation, etc.
→ Mixed farming. Cattle rearing, poultry, sericulture and fishery etc. are also carried out simultaneously along with farming.
→ As per the seasons, the agricultural crops of India can be grouped into three categories:
- Kharif crops. Crops which are taken during rainy season are called kharif crops.
- Rabi crops. Crops which are taken during winter are called rabi crops.
- Zaid crops. Crops which are grown during summer are called zaid crops.
→ Due to diversified geographical conditions, climate, variety of land, the amount of rainfall etc., different crops are grown in different parts of India.
→ Foodgrains. Grains are cultivated in about 75% of the total area sown and about 50% of the production comes from grains.
→ Paddy, wheat, jowar, millet, maize etc. are the grains grown in India.
→ Pulses. It is the main source of protein for vegetarian people. Tuver, mung, gram, peas, and math, udad etc. are considered as pulses.
→ Oilseeds. Groundnut, til, soyabean, castor, mustard, sunflower, etc. are considered to be oil seeds. They are an important in the Indian meal.
→ Beverages. Tea, coffee, cocoa are considered as beverage crops.
→ Cash crops. Cotton, sugarcane, jute, tobacco, rubber, etc. are cash crops.
→ Apart from all these crops we also grow different kinds of fruits, vegetables and flowers in India.
→ Technical Reforms. The changes which have taken place in seeds, fertilizers and farm implements in India are known as technical reforms.
→ Institutional Reforms. The reforms connected with land ownership, crop and subsidy and sale of farm produce are considered to be the institutional reforms in India.
→ Green Revolution. The extraordinary increase in the agricultural.production due to improved seeds, chemical fertilizer, intense fertilizers, enormous efforts of the farmers, improved facilities for electricity and irrigation etc. is known as ‘Green Revolution’.
→ Role of agriculture in Indian economy. Agriculture is the main occupation in India. It provides employment to about one-half of the population of the country.
→ Agriculture holds about 17% of the total gross domestic production.
→ India ranks second in the world in agrarian production.
→ Agriculture provides food to all.
→ If the demand for the foodgrains is increasing and they have to be imported, then the political independence of that country may be at a risk. The minimum, requirement of the country can be fulfilled today with available foodgrains. So it is necessary to maintain and increase buffer stock.
→ Impact of globalization on Indian agriculture. The production of cotton and maize has increased. Import has become smoother. Now domestic farm products have to face tough competition. Some products have gained global markets. Hence, it is necessary to register qualitative farm production as National Patent in the world market.
India: Agriculture Class 10 GSEB Notes Important Terms
• Subsistence farming: The farm production is just sufficient for his family which is consumed in the maintenance of the family. This is called subsistence farming.
• Dry farming: Where the rainfall is inadequate, irrigation facilities are less there Farming is dependent only on rain only one crop is taken through the humidity accumulated within the land. This is known as dry farming.
• Wet farming: It is carried out in the regions of heavy rain and adequate facilities for irrigation.
For example Paddy, Sugarcane, etc.
• Shifting (Jhoom) agriculture: Forests are burnt and cleared and farming is carried out there when soil fertility is reduced that area is abandoned and same method is applied to start farming at other place. This is called Jhoom cultivation.
• Plantation agriculture: In this, rubber, tea, coffee, cocoa, coconuts, apples, mangoes, oranges, grapes, amla, lemon, kharek, etc. are reared with great care. It is necessary that there should be more capital investment, skill, technical knowledge, machines, fertilizers, protection on all sides, acquisition and transportation facilities.
• Intensive forming: It is the mechanized way of farming through utilization of increased irrigation, use of chemical fertilizers, insecticides and other mechanical equipments. As more importance is given to economic returns in this type of farming. It is also known as commercial farming.
• Kharif crop: Crops which are taken during rainy season from June-July to October-November are called Kharif crops.
• Rabi crops: The crops which are taken during winter from October-November to March-April are called Rabi crops.
• Zaid crops: The crops which are grown during summet from March to June are called Zaid crops.
• Nagli (Ragi): It is extremely nutritious grass, food crop grown in Gujarat. It is known as Bavta in Gujarat.
• Cash crop: The crops Which are sold directly in the market is obtained called Cash crops.
• ICAR: Indian Council of Agricultural Research and Education. A national level institute does research in the field of agriculture at national level.
• DARE: Department of Agricultural Research and Education. A national level institute does research in the field of agriculture.
• NAFED: National Agricultural Cooperative Marketing Federation of India.
• GROFED: Gujarat Cooperative Oil Seeds Growers Federation, Gujarat Oil Seed Production Union.
• NDDB: National Dairy Development Board.