Our Revision Notes for GSEB Class 10 Social Science Notes Chapter 9 Forests and Wildlife Resources summarises the key points of a chapter and useful resource to prepare effectively for the upcoming board exams.
Forests and Wildlife Resources Class 10 GSEB Notes Social Science Chapter 9
Forests and Wildlife Resources Class 10 GSEB Notes
→ A general meaning of forest is the accumulation of trees, scrubs or heaps of grass.
→ Vegetation which can be raised naturally without the help of man is called virgin vegetation.
→ Forests can be classified in different criteria, like administration, ownership and management.
→ According to administration, forests can be classified as reserved forests, protected forests, unclassified forests.
→ Forests can also be classified according to ownership, administration and management as state forest, communal forest, and private forest.
→ Deforestation: It means the destruction of forest. It is a global problem.
→ Impact of deforestation: Quality of carbon dioxide increases in the atmosphere. Greenhouse . effects become more intense. Soil is eroded and the problem of farm fertility decreases. Many living organisms have lost their abodes.
→ Remedies for forest conservation:
Research should be carried out to find the option of wood.
- Industries which receives raw material should be compelled for afforestation.
- Public awareness programmes should be organized.
- Social forestry and Agro-forestry should be developed. ‘
- Alternative option of energy should be implemented.
- The pollution in the forests should be controlled.
- An area should be demarcated and reserved for animal pasture.
→ Wildlife diversity: There are about 15 lakh species of birds and animals in the world. Out of these 81251 species are found in India.
→ India stands 12th in the world in terms of bio-diversity.
→ Wildlife extinction: Today tigers are almost extinct from Gujarat forest areas. Cheetah is also becoming extinct from the Indian forests. Many birds, fishes, and sea animals are also on verge of extinction. Now it is a time to think about it seriously.
→ Reasons for the destruction of wildlife: Due to the human interference in grasslands, destruction of forests, hunting of animals, overexploitation of forests made by man to fulfil his needs. Forestlands are being encroached for grass, fuel or for grazing.
→ Measures of preservation of wildlife:
Attitude should be changed towards the preservation of forests.
→ Steps should be taken for maintaining the water sources in forests and restriction on grazing of domestic animals.
→ There should be strict laws to ban hunting.
→ Programmes should be arranged to bring widespread awareness in the society.
→ Wildlife Protection Scheme: Some schemes are implemented in India to protect the wildlife. The government has started some projects for those animal species which are in danger.
→ Project Tiger: To save tigers this project was started in 1971 .Their natural habitat are protected and ecological balance at national level are maintained. Still this project is implemented in about 44 regions.
→ Project Elephant: This project was started in 1992. It provides protection to the elephants protection in their natural habitats and their migratory corridors. There are about 26 protection zones.
→ Project Rhino: This project is started for the protection of one-Horned Rhino of India. Rhinos are found in Assam state. According to the strategy of ‘Rhino Vision 2020’, the next target is 3000 rhino.
→ Project Crocodile: This species of alligator found in fresh water was on the verge of extinction in 1970s.
→ Project Vulture: This project was started is 2004. There are about 9 sub-species of vulture in India.
→ Project Snow Leopard: This project was started in 2000 with the purpose to increase the knowledge about snow-leopard among the local people.
→ Sanctuary: Wildlife sanctuary is established for the protection of some species. Domesticated animals can be allowed to graze after due permission from the authorities.
→ National Park: Compared to the sanctuary this is more protected zone. More than one ecosystem included here. There is a complete ban on animal grazing.
→ Bio-reserve zone: It is formed according to international norms. The purpose is to protect the physical and cultural diversity of any region. Besides the vegetation, insects and land of that area, the lifestyle of the people living there is also protected.
→ Development process is inevitable. Those environmental dangers which we are occurring are the result of carelessness development. If we have a planned development there will not be any problem. Friendly approach towards the environment is the need of today.
Forests and Wildlife Resources Class 10 GSEB Notes Important Terms
• Forests: A general meaning of forest is the accumulation of trees, scrubs or heaps of grass.
• Virgin vegetation: In natural vegetation only that vegetation is included which can be raised naturally without the help of man. This is called virgin vegetation.
• Reserved forests: The forests which are under the control of the Government directly. There is restriction on lumbering, collection of woods or for pasturing.
• Protected forests: These forests are looked after by the administration. Local people are permitted to collect the wood and to graze their animals without causing any harm to the trees.
• Unclassified forests: There is no restriction on tree feeling or animal grazing in this type of forests. Such forests are still not classified. Such forests are called unclassified forests.
• Communal forests: Local Self-government controls such forests, e.g. ” Gram Panchayat, Municipalities, Municipal Corporations, District Panchayat.
• Private forests: These forests are found mostly in hapazard condition or some of them are totally barren. Such a forests is owned by individuals, e.g.: Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Odisha and Meghalaya possess such forests. They are called private forests.
• State forests: Central or State Government controls such forests. Most of the forests of the country fall under this category.
• Deforestation: It means the destruction of forests.
• Greenhouse effect: When the proportion of carbon dioxide increase in the atmosphere at the time due to heat of the Sun the effects of whose become strong around the air, around the Earth is called Greenhouse effect.
• Social forestry: By planting trees on barren or useless soil the proportion of forests is increased through plant cultivation/nature programme with the participation of people is called social forestry.
• Wildlife: Various animals, birds, insects, reptiles and fishes living in forest on the land or under water moving freely in nature are called wildlife or wild animals.
• Extinct Wildlife: There is no doubt about the death of lost animal of a apsiece such an animal is called extinct animal.
• National Park: The protected zone which is established through the coordination of the State and the Central Government. There is complete ban on animal grazing in it. It possesses more than one eco-system. It is called National Park, e.g. Kaziranga, Dachigam, etc.
• Sanctuary: It is established for the protection of some species. It can be established by the Government after certain process. Human activities are permitted within certain limit here. Domesticated animals can be allowed to graze permission from the authorities. Such a place is called Sanctuary, e.g. Periyar, Chandraprabha, etc.
• Bio-Reserve Zones: The average area of such zone is larger than 5000 sq. kilometres. It is formed according to international norms. Besides all vegetation, insects and land of that area, the lifestyle of the people living there is also protected. It is called bio-reserve zone.