Gujarat Board GSEB Textbook Solutions Class 9 Social Science Chapter 8 Framing of Constitution and its Features Textbook Questions and Answers, Additional Important Questions, Notes Pdf.
Framing of Constitution and its Features Class 9 GSEB Solutions Social Science Chapter 8
Gujarat Board Class 9 Social Science Framing of Constitution and its Features Textbook Questions and Answers
1. Answer the following Questions Briefly:
Framing Of Constitution And Its Features Class 9 Solutions Question 1.
Which ideals are stated in the Preamble of Indian Constitution?
Following ideas are stated in the Preamble:
Go through these Social Science Chapter 8 Framing of Constitution and its Features GSEB Class 9 Notes to score well in your exam.
Framing Of Constitution And Its Features Question 2.
What is Adult Suffrage?
Any citizen who is above 18 years of age and above possesses right to vote in the election of Parliament, Legislative Assemblies or Local Self-Government Bodies, without any discrimination, and economic standard is Adult Suffrage.
GSEB Solutions For Class 9 Social Science Chapter 8 Question 3.
Indian Constitution is federal. Discuss.
- The Indian constitution has some federal characteristics. The dual system of the government i.e; Union Government and the state Governments.
- The Constitution has clearly marked areas of functioning for both the kinds of governments and marked the clear division of powers i.e; Union List, State List and Concurrent List.
- The key point of a federal constitution includes the compulsion of a written document as the constitution, rigid procedure of amendment, distribution of powers between state and centre and Supremacy of judiciary.
- Thus, all the characteristics that have included in Indian constitution Hence, Indian Constitution is federal.
Framing Of Constitution And Its Features Questions And Answers Question 4.
State the characteristics of Parliamentary Government.
- India has a Parliamentary system of government.
- In this system, the Parliament is supreme authority representing people.
- The highest legislature of country which is at the Union level is called the Parliament.
- The Parliament is bicameral which means it had two houses- the Upper House and
the Lower House.
- The Upper House is called the Rajya Sabha and the Lower House is known as the Lok Sabha.
- As per the Constitution, the governance is carried out in the name of the President at the Union and the Governor in the States.
- However, in really the actual administration at the Union level is carried by the Council of Ministers headed by the Prime Minister and at the State level is carried out by the Council of Ministers and the Chief Minister of the State.
- The Council of Ministers is responsible and answerable to the legislature formed of representatives of the people.
- The Rajya Sabha consists of 250 members, out of which 12 are nominated by the President from the field of art, science literature, etc.
- The Rajya Sabha is a permanent House and it cannot be completely dissolved. Members of the Rajya Sabha are selected for a term of six years out of which one- third members retire every two years.
- Lok Sabha consists more members than the Rajya Sabha and is more powerful, superior and decisive.
Framing Of Constitution Question 5.
What is Unified Judicial System?
- A judicial system in which all the courts of a country follow one common court laws and procedures is called unified judicial system. India has a unified judicial system.
- The Supreme Court of India is the highest court of our judicial system and hence, it is also called the Apex Court.
- The Supreme Court regulates the High Courts at different states and also all other lower courts.
- The Indian judiciary is independent of the Executive and Legislature and is also the defender and guardian of the Constitution.
Explain the provisions for Constitutional Amendments.
Constitutional provisions can be amended three ways-
- Amendments can be made by a simple majority of members present and voting in the parliament.
- Certain amendments require a special majority, that is g- (two-third) majority of members present and voting.
- Concerning the Union-State relations, the special majority that is J- and the concurrence not less that 50% of state Legislature is required.
Political equality is incomplete without social and economic equality. Why
- Political equality means that everyone is treated in the same way in the political sphere.
- This means that every citizen is considered equal under the law, every citizen gets the right to vote, contest election and demand justice.
- Unless all the citizens are treated equally irrespective of their caste, religion, economic status, education and gender, they cannot be considered as treated socially equal.
- Moreover, every citizen should get equal opportunity to work and share the resources of the nation. This refers to economic equality.
- Thus, we can say that political equality can only be attained only when a person is given social and economic equality too.
2. Explain the statements:
Preamble is an extract of Indian Constitution.
- Preamble is the soul of the Indian Constitution.
- It is the key to understand the Indian Constitution.
- Preamble verbalize the fundamental objectives of the Constitution.
- Aims, ideas and principles of the Preamble give a clear insight of the ‘Rule of Welfare’.
- The ideals of justice, equality liberty fraternity, dignity of individual and unity and integrity of the nation are expressed in the Preamble.
- Therefore, it is said that the Preamble is the extract of the Indian Constitution.
Preamble is the key to understanding of the amendments of the Constitution.
- Preamble means introduction of our Constitution.
- It is the core and important part of the Constitution.
- It highlights the comment of the Constitution.
- Whenever amendments are made to the Constitution they can be referred at the Preamble. Moreover based on the amendments made in the Constitution at times even the Preamble is amended.
- For example, in 1976, the words ‘Socialist’, ‘Secular’, ‘Unity’ and ‘Integrity of the Nation’ were added to the Preamble.
- Thus, Preamble is the key to understand of the amendments of the Constitution.
Preamble serves as compass.
We the People of India having Solemnly resolved To Constitute India Into a Sovereign Socialist Secular Democratic Republic and to Secure to all It’s Citizen
Justice, Social, Economic and Political
In Our Constituent Assembly The Twenty-Sixth Day of November, 1949, do. Hereby Adopt, Enact and Give To Ourselves This Constitution
- Preamble means introduction.
- There is an introduction or say Preamble at the beginning of our Constitution.
- Preamble is the core and important part of Constitution.
- The words written in the Preamble highlight the soul of the Constitution.
- The Preamble consists of clear ideas about aims and ideals of the Constitution.
- Therefore, it gives a clean insight of the ‘Rule of Welfare’.
- It depicts the mind and objective of the Constitution makers.
- Thus, by reading and studying the Preamble one can get a clear idea about the Constitution of India.
- Hence, the Preamble serves as compass.
Indian Constitution is the inclusion of federal unitary.
- The constitution of India has components of both federal and unitary constitution.
- The unitary nature of the Indian constitution can be stated through various facts. The state governments are ruled by the central government when it comes to the derivation of powers.
- The states do not have separate constitutions of their own.
- The state governors are appointed by the President.
- The union low prevails in case of conflicts. There exists a single judiciary system in India. The greatest power lies with the supreme court.
- The Indian constitution also has federal characteristics. The dual system of the government and the division of powers is a federal characteristic.
- Thus, Indian constitution is the inclusion of both federal and unitary, that makes it quasi federal. It has been done for a common goal of creating of fair governance.
India is a secular country.
- India is a secular country. It can never become one particular religious country as per the provision of the Constitution.
- India cannot involve any secular activity with religious activity.
- The citizen of the country has a freedom to choose his/her religion.
- The country cannot discriminate a citizen on religious basis.
- Equal job opportunities and political rights to the citizens are given without any religious discrimination.
India is a democratic republic country.
- In a democratic country, the power of country does not lie within a group of people but lies within the people i.e., entire population of the country.
- Thus, democracy means by the people, for the people and of the people.
- According to Indian Constitution, the ultimate sovereignty of power lies with its people.
- People elect their desired candidate and that candidate runs the administration of India. This means that India is a republic country.
- The country does not function as per the regime of any one particular person but it functions as per people.
- Indian, administration is truly democratic i. e. irrespective of the social, economic or political status of a person, he is treated equal in the eyes of law.
- Moreover, each citizen enjoys equal right of participation in the activities of the country.
- In India the Constitution gives its people the power to cast their vote according to their free will and hence instill their belief in the Constitution.
- Moreover, Parliamentary system, right to hold election, selection of members of assembly, independent and impartial justice and existence of the Election Commission are provisions which truly make our country a democratic and a republic country.
India is a integral and indivisible federation.
- A federal system of government is a system in which several states form a unity but remain independent in internal affairs.
- India is a Union of states. The word ‘Federal’ is actually not present anywhere in our Constitution. Thus, India calls itself ‘Union of States’.
- India is a Union of States and no states have right to separate itself from the union. This means that the states of India are not divisible or separable from the country India.
- Although, India is a Union of States, yet it has some elements of federal government too. For example, in Indian federation, there are two sets of governments – the Union Government and the States Governments.
- Every state and union territory has their own will to accept a policy or not. Hence, India is also called a country with integral and indivisible federal structure.
Constitution of India is the most extensive and detailed written document in the world.
- Members of the Assembly has discussed threadbare, each and every detail of its provisions keeping in concern the matters of Constitution of different countries.
- In this Constitution there are 295 Articles and 8 Appendices after amendments with 395 Articles and 9 Appendices, the Constitution was framed.
- The Constitution provides for citizenship, rights and duties of the people directive principles of the state polity, union- state relations, election and emergency provisions.
- Thus, the Constitution of India is the most detailed and elaborated national document.
3. Explain the below-given terminology of words:
It is a person’s citizenship status, in which a person is concurrently regarded as a citizen of more than one state under the laws of those states. For example USA.
In India there is only single citizenship irrespective of any region or state of the country. Only citizens of Jammu and Kashmir have dual citizenship; one for India and another for the state of Jammu and Kashmir.
In a parliamentary system, the Parliament is a supreme authority representing people. The Legislature at the Union is the Parliament in India. It is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislature, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that Parliament. In a parliamentary system, the head of state is usually a person distinct from the head of government.
It refers to a government that is responsible to the people. It is a parliamentary form of government, where the executive is responsible to the legislature for its policies and act. For example; the council of Minister in India is responsible to the Legislature for its policies and acts. Ultimately responsible to the people, because council of Ministers is responsible to lok sabha.
It is a list which include subject of national importance such as defense of the country, such as foreign affairs, banking etc. It is comprises of 100 subject (earlier 97 subjects)
It contains subject of state and local importance. It contains 61 items or subjects (earlier 66 subjects) subjects like law and order, state government institutions, agriculture and irrigation, health, land, etc are included.
The constitition of India provides for a third list that is called the concurrent list. It contains 52 subjects eartier 47 subject that of common concern of both centre and state Governments. The centre and the state can pass the laws on these subjects. The list includes subjects like criminal and civil procedure, marriage and divorce, education, economic planning, trade union, etc.
The subjects which are not specifically alloted to Union or state are included in Residuary Power. The central government is given the power to legislate on these residuary subjects. The financial distribution of resources is done between Union Government and State Governments are included.
The constitution of India added the term socialist by 42nd Amendment, 1976. The principle of socialistic pattern directs social, economic and political equality for citizens as given in the Pareamble. It is regarded as a prime feature of the state.
It is the chief characteristic of the constitution. Judicial review administers the working of Union and State within jurisdiction. Without disrespecting the powers of parliament, the constitution has made an effort to harmonize the principles of Judicial Review. Parliamentary amendments, external orders, ordinance or judicial judgment are given for judicial review.
The word democracy is derived from Greek word ‘Demos’ means people and Kratos means power. It means people power. In other wood democracy is a system in which the government of a country is elected by the people. Democracy is such an arrangement in which there is equal justice for people to social, economical and political and having equal rights of participation.
4. Choose the correct option from the given below:
When was the Indian constitution framework completed?
A. In the year 1948
B. In the year 1949
C. In the year 1950
D. In the year 1947
B. In the year 1949
How many subjects are there in Central List?
How many Articles and Appendices are there in Indian Constitution?
Who was the Chairman of Constitutional Framework Committee?
A. Kaniyalal Munshi
B. Rajendra Prasad
C. Shyama Prasad
D. Sardar Patel
B. Rajendra Prasad
When Indian Constitution came into existence?
A. 26th Nov, 1949
B. 26th Jan, 1950
C. 15th August, 1947
D. 9th Dec, 1946
B. 26th Jan, 1950
How many members were there in the formation of constitutional committee?
India is a republic country because
A. It is a sovereign country
B. It is a democratic country
C. Prime Minister is elected for certain tenure
D. People have religious freedom
B. It is a democratic country
Gujarat Board Class 9 Social Science Framing of Constitution and its Features Additional Important Questions and Answers
Preamble works as compass. How? Explain.
- The Preamble provides proper guidance to understand the framing of any law or to interpret a law.
- It helps one to understand the objective behind the framed laws.
- It helps in avoiding any misinterpretation of the Constitution.
- It helps in understanding and interpreting the law in case there a arises a conflict in the opinions of people or if the law is unclear.
- It serves as a compass to understand the provisions of the Constitution.
Describe the features of Indian Constitution.
Features of Indian Constitution are as follows:
1. Written document:
- Except Britain and Israel, India along with other nations of the world have their Constitution in written form.
- Considering the social, geographical diversified circumstances and pre-historical notions, the Constituent Assembly has kept the drafted Constitution in written form.
2. Size of the Constitution:
- The Indian Constitution is divided in 22 sections comprising 395 Articles and 9 Appendices.
- The Indian Constitution comprises provisions for State Administration and States inter-relations, fundamental rights, principles for political policies, judiciary, election, government institutions, minorities, scheduled caste and deprived groups.
- Therefore, our Constitution of India is the largest, extensive and detailed written document, compared to other Constitutions.
3. Single Citizenship:
- In India there is only single citizenship irrespective of any region or State of the country.
- Only citizens of Jammu and Kashmir have dual citizenship, one for India and another for the State of Jammu and Kashmir.
4. The Centre with Strong Federal Structure:
- India is a union of States.
- By the use of word, ‘Union’, a permanent and irreversible relationship between Union and component States is indicated.
- India is a Union of States and no State has right to secede it.
- Thus, India is a union of states yet it has some elements of Federal Government.
- In Indian Federation, there are two sets of Government – the Union Government and the State Governments.
5. Unified Arrangement during crisis:
- Though India is a Union of States, at the time of emergency and crisis India is almost turned into a unitary system.
- At such times, the union i.e. The central government takes more power in its hands to deal with national emergencies and crisis.
- The India Constitution has divided its crisis into three types of emergencies. They are:
- National Emergency: A country can declare national emergencies at the time of war, external attack, or armed rebellion.
- Constitutional Emergency: Due to law and order breakdown, the state cannot function according to the constitution, so constitutional emergency is declared.
- Financial emergency: When prices increase, it leads to erosion of monetary value. Under such situation financial emergency is declared.
- These emergencies can be declared only by the President of the country.
6. Parliamentary System:
- India has a parliamentary system of government. In this system, the Parliament is supreme authority representing people.
- The highest legislature of country which is at the Union level is called the Parliament.
- The Parliament is bicameral means it has two Houses – the Upper House and Lower House.
- The Upper House is called the Rajya Sabha and Lower House is called the Lok Sabha.
7. Independent and Impartial Judiciary:
- As per the Constitution, the Judiciary is an independent body which works impartially.
- There is the Supreme Court at the top, High Courts at states and under their jurisdiction are the District Courts at district level the Tahika level there are Local and Special Courts.
- The Judgements of Supreme Court are binding to all the Subordinate Courts of the nations.
- In case of conflict between the Union and State Governments, matters relating to Constitution and interpretation of laws, the final decision is vested with the Supreme Court.
- The Supreme Court of India is the highest court of our judicial system and so it is also called the Apex Court.
- The Indian Judiciary is independent of the Executive, and Legislature and is also the defender and guardian of the Constitution.
8. Amendments in the Constitution:
- Amendments can be made to the Constitution as per the need and so it is considered dynamic and a live document.
- This is not the case with all the countries.
- However, Indian Constitution can be amended as and when required. Amendment can be made in three special methods.
- It can be made by a simple majority of members present and voting in the Parliament.
- Certain amendment requires a special majority along with 2/3 majority of members present and voting.
- Amendment by 2/3rd majority of the Parliament plus Ratification by atleast 50% State Legislatures.
- If there is any amendment to be made in the inter-relations between states, central or in supreme judiciary, then held of the states from the total states should give consent.
- Judicial verdict can also bring amendment in the Constitution.
- However, it does not allow to change the basic provisions of the Constitution.
9. Universal Adult Franchise:
- According to the Constitution of India, any adult citizen of India, i.e., over the age of 18, holds the right to vote without discriminating on the basis of caste, creed, religion, language, gender education, income or birth place.
- The citizens possess right to vote in the elections of the Parliament, Legislative Assemblies or local self-government bodies.
- India has been declared as a secular State.
- No citizen can be given special rights or cannot be deprived with certain rights.
- Secularism means that the state remains absolutely impartial, neutral and away in matters of religion.
- Followers of any religion are free to follow and practice their own religion.
11. Judicial review:
- It review is the chief characteristic of the Constitution.
- Judicial review matters such as amendments made in the parliament by Parliamentary members, external orders, ordinances and judicial judgements, etc.
- If the court finds any in discrepancy in the external orders, ordinances or judicial judgments, it can stop it by declaring it unconstitutional and hence void.
12. Fundamental Rights and Duties:
- Those rights, which are necessary for every human being in order to achieve an all-round development, are known as Fundamental Rights.
- The Constitution provides various Fundamental Rights to each citizen.
- It also lists various duties that every citizen of India must fulfill.
- The most valuable asset of our country lies in the overall development of nation.
- It includes rights such as Right to Freedom, Right against Exploitation, Right of Equality, Right to Education for children between 6 to 14 years of age, etc.
13. Directive Principles for State Policies:
- The Directive Principles are directions given by the Constitution to the Central and the State Governments in order to adopt proper policies for establishing a better country.
- The principles say that the state should protect its people, provide them security and welfare.
- The Constitution has provided certain specific provisions to uplift and includes backward sections and tribes bring them in the mainstream.
- Discussions are held for providing reservation for backward sections and tribes in the policies.
- These people are provided seats that are reserved for them in Legislature and Local Self-governing bodies.
- Reservation quota has also been provided to such people in fields of education and employment.
- Children of backward sections and tribes are also given scholarships, basic amenities and waiver of fees under Optimistic policies of the Constitution.
State the types of emergencies as mentioned in the Constitution and explain them briefly.
This Indian Constitution has divided its crisis into three types of emergencies. They are:
1. National emergencies:
- A country can declare national emergency at the time of war, external attack, or armed rebellion.
2. Failure of Constitution emergency:
- This refers to Constitutional breakdown in cases when laws and order breaks down to some states, it is called emergency arising due to failure of Constitution.
3. Financial emergency:
- When prices increase, it leads to erosion of monetary value. Under such situation financial emergency is declared.
- These emergencies can be declared only by the President of the country.
Explain the division of powers among three different lists as mentioned in the Constitution.
The Constitution of India has divided the powers of the central and the state governments into different lists of subjects. They are:
- The Union List
- The State List and
- The Concurrent List.
1. Union List:
- There are 100 such subjects in the Union list (earlier 97 subjects).
- It mainly consists of subjects of national importance such as defence, foreign affairs, atomic energy, banking, railway, communication, post and telegraph, etc.
- Only the Union government can make laws or pass the law for subjects in the Union list.
2. State List:
- The State list comprises 61 subjects (earlier 66 subjects).
- It mainly consists of subjects like law and administration, state government institutions, police, local government, agriculture, health, land, inter-state trade and commerce, etc.
- The respective State governments have the power to make the laws for the subjects in the State List.
- The Union Government feels occurrence of disturbances in the law and order of the State, then it can send Reserved Police Force (RPF) to the State to control it.
3. Concurrent List:
- In addition to the two lists, the Constitution has provided for a third list called the Concurrent list. This list contains subjects that are a common concern to both i.e., the center and the state governments.
- Both the Union as well as State government can make laws on these subjects. However, if there is a conflict between the two, the law passed by the union government will be considered as valid.
- The Concurrent list had 52 subjects (earlier 47 subjects).
- This list includes subjects like criminal and civil procedure marriage and divorce, education, economic planning, trade union, etc.