Gujarat Board GSEB Textbook Solutions Class 9 Science Chapter 13 Why do we Fall Ill Textbook Questions and Answers, Notes Pdf.
Gujarat Board Textbook Solutions Class 9 Science Chapter 13 Why do we Fall Ill
Gujarat Board Class 9 Science Why do we Fall Ill InText Questions and Answers
Page – 178
State any two conditions essential for good health.
The conditions essential for good health are:
- Social harmony and equality for social and mental well-being.
- Availability of sufficient amount of nutritious food.
State any two conditions essential for being free of disease.
- Personal hygiene and clean surroundings
- Timely vaccination against diseases.
Are the answers to the above questions necessarily the same or different? Why?
The answers to the above questions are different because we think at an individual level when we talk of a disease whereas we think at society level and the interaction of the individuals in a society when we talk about health.
Page – 180
List any three reasons why you would think that you are sick and ought to see a doctor. If only one of these symptoms were present, would you still go to the doctor? Why or why not?
Symptoms which indicate that we are sick and ought to see a doctor are:
(i) Cough and cold
(iv) Feeling of nausea
(v) Loose motion
We should go to the doctor even if there is a single symptom of the above mentioned symptoms because each of these symptoms is a sign of a disease. Presence of any one of them is an indication for the presence of a disease which can lead to severe problems later on, if ignored.
In which of the following case do you think the long-term effects on your health are likely to be most unpleasant?
if you get jaundice,
if you get lice,
if you get acne.
Long term effects on our health are more likely to be most unpleasant in the case of Jaundice as it is a chronic disease which take as long time to get cured. It has a tendency to reoccur and its harmful effects are visible in whole body of the organism.
Page – 187
Why are we normally advised to take bland and nourishing food when we are sick?
When we are sick, it is better to take food which is easily digestible and nutritious because it will enable speedy recovery. The nutritious food if taken in sufficient amounts will also help to strengthen the immune system of the person.
What are the different means by which infectious diseases are spread?
Infectious disease can be spread from one person to another person by various means like air, water, sexual contact or through vectors.
(i) Air: Microbes are emitted by the coughing or sneezing of an infected person. These microbes can cause infection if inhaled or taken in by another person.
Example: Common cold, pneumonia, tuberculosis, etc.
(ii) Water: The disease causing microbes present in contaminated water can result in spread of infection to other persons.
Example: Cholera, typhoid, etc.
(iii) Sexual contact: Diseases can be transmitted from one partner to another during sexual contact.
Example: AIDS and syphilis
(iv) Vectors: Some diseases are transmitted from one person to another with the help of vectors.
Example: Female anopheles mosquito is the vector of malaria.
What precautions can you take in your school to reduce the incidence of infectious diseases?
The precautions which can be taken in school to reduce the incidence of infectious diseases are:
- Avoiding overcrowded places.
- Proper sanitation and cleanliness measures in schools.
- Provision of safe drinking water.
- Provision of separate and clean toilets for boys and girls in the school.
- Creating awareness among students for developing healthy habits like covering mouth with handkerchief while sneezing or coughing.
What is immunisation?
The process by which a person is made immune to an infectious disease by administering a vaccine containing weak or killed microbes of a disease. These microbes help to activate the immune system against disease causing infectious agent or microbes.
What are the immunisation programmes available at the nearest health centre in your locality? Which of these diseases are the msy’or health problems in your area?
The various immunisation programmes available at the nearest health centre are:
- Facility for BCG vaccination against tuberculosis
- Polio drops against polio virus
- Hepatitis vaccine
- Vaccine to protect from chicken pox
- DPT vaccine to protect from diphtheria, pertusis and whooping cough
- Vaccination against measles
The diseases which are the major health problems in our area are:
- Chicken pox
In-Text Activities Solved
(Textbook Page 176)
We have all heard of the earthquakes in Latur, Bhuj, Kashmir etc., or the cyclones that attack the coastal regions. Think of as many different ways as possible in which people’s health would be affected by such a disaster if it took place in our neighbourhood.
If a disaster like earthquake or a cyclone occurs, the health of the people can be adversely affected as they would lead to:
- large scale destruction of life and property.
- many people may become handicapped due to the loss of body parts like hands, legs, etc.
- people may suffer from mental shock and pain.
- many people would suffer from injuries, wounds, fractures, etc.
- people may lose their homes and would to be subjected to cold or hot weather conditions while living outside or in camps.
- the dead bodies and wastes may act as breeding ground for many diseases.
- problems related to hygiene, nutritious food, pure drinking water, etc., may also crop up.
- economic problems may be faced by people due to which they may not be able to maintain good health.
How many of these ways we can think of are events that would occur when the disaster is actually happening?
The events that would occur when the disaster is actually happening are given above from point (i) to point (iv).
How many of these health-related events would happen long after the actual disaster, but would still be because of the disaster?
The events that would occur when the disaster is actually happening are given above from point (v) to point (viii).
Why would one effect on health fall into the first group, and why would another fall into the second group?
The points mentioned from (i) to (iv) are the immediate results of the disaster and people get directly affected by them.
The next group of effects from point (v) to point (viii) are the effects which are produced after the disaster has occurred because the havoc caused by the disaster leads to pile up of a large amount of organic wastes, decaying bodies of animals and human beings which contaminate the soil and water resources. This may lead to widespread incidence of several diseases, large scale pollution, soil erosion, decaying wastes acting as breeding ground for mosquitoes, etc.
(Textbook Page 177)
Find out what provisions are made by your local authority (panchayat/municipal corporation) for the supply of clean drinking water.
The local bodies and the Municipal Corporation of our area ensure the supply of pure drinking water through Jal board and other government agencies. They clean, treat and chlorinate the water before sending to our homes so that we get a supply of pure drinking water.
Are all the people in your locality able to access this?
No, only the people who have piped network connected to the Municipal corporation pipelines or collect water from the roadside taps have access to the water supplied. Other people have to rely on the water in the wells or tube wells or the underground water drawn with the help of hand pumps.
(Textbook Page 177)
Find out how your local authority manages the solid waste generated in your neighbourhood.
Are these measures adequate?
If not, what improvements would you suggest?
What could your family do to reduce the amount of solid waste generated during a day/week?
The solid wastes generated in the homes is collected by the local authority of the area i.e., Municipal Corporation and is then disposed off at landfill sites. These measures are not adequate because the landfill sites are getting filled up very fast and the area near such sites are forced to inhale the polluted air having foul smell of decomposing garbage. Such sites also act as breeding grounds for many disease causing organisms which then spread diseases at a faster rate.
The measures which can be taken to reduce such wastes are; the waste should be reused or recycled. The organic wastes can be subjected to composting or vermicomposting. My family is highly concerned about the problems caused due to the wastes generated at homes. So, they either reuse the substances which can be used or send them to recycle units for getting recycled. We have made a small composting pit in our garden where we put the peels of fruits, vegetables etc., to make organic manure which helps in nourishing the plants growing in our garden.
(Textbook Page 178)
Survey your neighbourhood to find out:
1. How many people suffered from acute diseases during the last three months,
2. How many people developed chronic diseases during this same period,
3. And finally, the total number of people suffering from chronic diseases in your neighbourhood.
The survey can be carried out by the student(s) themselves.
Are the answers to questions 1 and 2 different?
The answers to the questions 1 and 2 given above would be different as more number of people would be found who have suffered from an acute disease rather than a chronic disease.
Are the answers to questions 2 and 3 different?
The answer to questions 2 and 3 would be the same because the chronic diseases occur for a long duration, so the probability of finding people who had developed chronic disease and are not suffering from it is very less.
What do you think could be the reason for these differences? What do you think would be the effect of these differences on the general health of the population?
The reason for the difference is that:
The acute diseases occur for a short time as either our immune system responds to them or through proper medication they get cured in a short time. On the other hand, the chronic diseases are caused due to infection, degeneration of organs or metabolic disturbances and thus last for a long time. The ill effects of chronic diseases can be seen in people in the form of poor health, loss of weight, tiredness etc., for a long time.
(Textbook Page 182)
Find out how many of you in your class had cold/cough/fever recently.
Only a few students suffered from cold/cough.
How long did the illness last?
The illness lasted for around 3-4 days only.
How many of you took antibiotics (ask your parents if you had antibiotics)?
Most parents replied that no antibiotics were given. Some replied that antibiotics were given.
How long were those who took antibiotics ill?
How long were those who didn’t take antibiotics ill?
Is there a difference between these two groups?
If yes, why? If not, why not?
There is no difference as the common cold and cough are usually the symptoms of a viral disease. Antibiotics can kill bacteria but not viruses because the virus does not follow the chemical pathways followed by the bacteria. Virus can be countered only by the immune system of the person to whom it has affected.
(Textbook Page 186)
Conduct a survey in your locality. Talk to ten families who are well-off and ten who are very poor (in your estimation). Both sets of families should have children who are below five years of age. Measure the heights of these children. Draw a graph of the height of each child against its age for both sets of families.
Students can collect the data and draw the graph accordingly.
Is there a difference between the groups? If yes, why?
Yes, a difference would be seen between the groups because the children for the well- off families are more likely to get a balanced diet, proper exercise, clean and hygienic conditions, better clothes and living conditions due to which they would have proper growth and development.
If there is no difference, do you think that your findings mean that being well-off or poor does not matter for health?
It matters a lot whether a family is well off or very poor because well off families have a better access to resources which results in their higher chances of leading a healthier life.
(Textbook Page 187)
Rabies virus is spread by the bite of infected dogs and other animals. There are anti-rabies vaccines for both humans and animals. Find out the plan of your local authority for the control of rabies in your neighbourhood. Are these measures adequate? If not, what improvements would you suggest?
The local authorities of our area have provisions to provide free anti-rabies vaccine at the near-by health centres and dispensaries.
These measures are adequate but a lot more can be done to prevent the incidents of stray dog or any other dog biting someone. The measures which can be taken are:
The pet owners should be advised to get their dogs vaccinated from time to time as per the instructions given by their veterinary doctor.
People should be educated and made aware of the availability of the anti-rabies vaccines at the nearby health centres. The stray dogs and other animals should be administered anti-rabies vaccine.
Awareness should be created among people regarding the rabies disease and the ways of its treatment.
Gujarat Board Class 9 Science Why do we Fall Ill Textbook Questions and Answers
How many times did you fall ill in the last one year? What were the illnesses?
(a) Think of one change you could make in your habits in order to avoid any of/most of the above illnesses.
(b) Think of one change you would wish for in your surroundings in order to avoid any of/most of the above illnesses.
I fell ill once during the last one year. The illness was due to common cold which led to cough and a sore throat.
(а) I avoided drinking cold water during the infection and took more of vitamin C containing food.
(b) The surroundings should be clean and with more green trees. Proper waste management system should be there to avoid spread of diseases.
A doctor/nurse/health-worker is exposed to more sick people than others in the community. Find out how she/he avoids getting sick herself/himself.
Though a doctor/nurse/health-worker is exposed to more sick people than others in the community, he/ she avoids getting sick herself by following the practices like:
- Using sterilised equipment.
- Washing hands after examination of each patient.
- Wearing gloves and using sanitizers to prevent contact with harmful germs.
- Use of phenyl and other disinfectants at the place of work to keep it free of infections.
- Eat nutritious and nourishing food.
Conduct a survey in your neighbourhood to find out what the three most common diseases are. Suggest three steps that could be taken by your local authorities to bring down the incidence of these diseases.
The three most common diseases are:
- Cough and cold
The three steps which can be taken by the local authorities to bring down the incidence of these diseases
- Removing the breeding grounds of mosquitoes like stagnant water, ditches, etc. This can also be done by spraying chemicals which kill mosquitoes.
- Ensure clean surroundings with proper waste management system and garbage disposal system.
- Ensure supply of clean drinking water and starting awareness programmes to educate people regarding prevention of diseases.
A baby is not able to tell her/his caretakers that she/he is sick. What would help us to find out
(a) that the baby is sick?
(b) what is the sickness?
The various symptoms which can help us find out –
(a) that the baby is sick are vomiting, fever, cough and cold, loose motions, continuous crying, not taking sufficient food, etc.
(b) The sickness can be decided by looking for the signs of disease on the basis of symptoms produced. Like vomiting and loose motions point to some stomach infection. Also, laboratory tests can be done to confirm the presence of a disease.
Under which of the following conditions is a person most likely to fall sick?
(a) When she is recovering from malaria.
(b) When she has recovered from malaria and is taking care of someone suffering from chicken-pox.
(c) When she is on a four-day fast after recovering from malaria and is taking care of someone suffering from chicken-pox. Why?
A person is more likely to fall ill when she is on a four-day fast after recovering from malaria and is taking care of someone suffering from chicken-pox because after recovering from malaria it takes time for all the organs to function properly again. Moreover, due to lack of proper, sufficient and nutritious food, the person becomes more prone to infections like chicken pox and other diseases. So, the chances of her getting infected increase due to the above reasons.
Under which of the following conditions are you most likely to fall sick?
(a) When you are taking examinations.
(b) When you have travelled by bus and train for two days.
(c) When your friend is suffering from measles. Why?
We are most likely to fall sick when we visit a friend suffering from measles because measles is an infectious disease which can spread through air by droplets released by the infected person during coughing, sneezing, etc. If this happens then the disease can infect you too.