GSEB Solutions Class 12 Organization of Commerce and Management Chapter 6 Directing

   

Gujarat Board GSEB Textbook Solutions Class 12 Organization of Commerce and Management Chapter 6 Directing Textbook Exercise Important Questions and Answers, Notes Pdf.

Gujarat Board Textbook Solutions Class 12 Organization of Commerce and Management Chapter 6 Directing

GSEB Class 12 Organization of Commerce and Management Directing Text Book Questions and Answers

1. Select the correct alternative and write answer to the following questions :

Question 1.
What does direction includes other than order, instruction and guidance?
(A) Suggestion
(B) Control
(C) Supervision
(D) Training
Answer:
(C) Supervision

Question 2.
At which level of management, direction is required more?
(A) Bottom
(B) Middle
(C) Top
(D) All of them
Answer:
(D) All of them

Question 3.
In which element of direction does supervise, rules and analysis is included?
(A) Supervision
(B) Motivation
(C) Leadership
(D) Training
Answer:
(A) Supervision

Question 4.
In directing process, by giving objectives are achieved.
(A) Motivation
(B) Supervision
(C) Training
(D) Guidance
Answer:
(A) Motivation

Question 5.
Which is the first need as per Maslow’s hierarchy of needs?
(A) Physical needs
(B) Safety needs
(C) Social needs
(D) Esteem needs
Answer:
(A) Physical needs

Question 6.
Which of these is related to financial incentives?
(A) Promotion
(B) Appreciation
(C) Job security
(D) Appreciation of work and reward
Answer:
(A) Promotion

GSEB Solutions Class 12 Organization of Commerce and Management Chapter 6 Directing

Question 7.
Which among the following is needed for the existence of leadership?
(A) Supervisors
(B) Planners
(C) Sub-ordinates
(D) Managers
Answer:
(C) Sub-ordinates

Question 8.
What do you mean by passing clear information from one person to another?
(A) Communication
(B) Correspondence
(C) Courier
(D) Reporting
Answer:
(A) Communication

Question 9.
The process of sending information in the form of report from bottom level
to upper level is
(A) Communication
(B) Reporting
(C) Correspondence
(D) Postal services
Answer:
(B) Reporting

Question 10.
In which form is informal communication carried out?
(A) Oral
(B) Written
(C) Written and oral
(D) Formal
Answer:
(A) Oral

2. Answer the following questions in one sentence each :

Question 1.
Define Direction.
Answer:
In layman language, direction means to guide the workers, make them aware of the work, supervise them and to maintain their enthusiasm for the work.

Question 2.
Which needs are included in physiological needs?
Answer:
The basic needs a human body seeks such as food water, clothing and shelter are known as physiological needs or primary needs.

Question 3.
Who implements the decision taken at the stages of planning and organising?
Answer:
Direction i.e. the one who directs.

Question 4.
Which function is referred/compared as a supervision function?
Answer:
Supervisior’s function is compared as that of a friend, philosopher and guide of the employees.

Question 5.
Which need is considered to be the most preferred need according to Maslow’s hierarchy?
Answer:
Food, clothing and shelter i.e. physiological need.

Question 6.
What do you mean by profit-sharing?
Answer:
When workers get a definite proportion of profit in the form of money other than their salary, it is called profit-sharing.

Question 7.
What is the effect of distrust and fear on communication?
Answer:
Every messege of communication is perceieved with doubt.

GSEB Solutions Class 12 Organization of Commerce and Management Chapter 6 Directing

Question 8.
What are the modem means of communication?
Answer:
Messeges over telephone, fax, internet, mobile phone, SMS, telex, etc.

3. Answer the following questions in short :

Question 1.
Give the list of elements of direction.
Answer:
Elements of Directing:

  • Supervision
  • Motivation
  • Leadership
  • Communication

Question 2.
What do you mean by supervision?
Answer:
Supervision:

  • Supervision means to supervise the function or work done by employees.
  • As per R. C. Davis, “Supervision is the function of assuring that the work is being done in accordance with the plan and instructions.”
  • Supervision function is mostly related with the internal processes of the business. Moreover, it is required more at bottom level of management.
  • Supervisor is a person who does the observation of the work done by the workers and foremen. It is his responsibility to see that the workers and foremen complete their work as per the standards set by the organization and the instructions and orders.
  • Supervisor is the key person between the top level management and the workers.
  • It is supervisor who sees the resources of the organization are used up to the optimum level.

Question 3.
What do you mean by motivation?
Answer:
Motivation:

  • The process of stimulating people to perform action and to make it possible to have maximum work satisfaction is called motivation.
  • Motivation is an internal feeling which encourages a person to work.
  • A person may be capable of doing but may not be willing to do. The objective of motivation is to see to it that the person’s willingness towards work is maintained and increased.
  • Among all the factors of production, only man is the factor which can increase ‘ production. But, the problem is that man is a living factor of production.
  • Whether to increase production or productivity depends upon his willingness.
  • As a result, he needs constant motivation to work.
  • Motivation can be of various forms. It can be financial incentives, non-financial incentives, amenities, unsatisfied needs, etc.

Question 4.
Explain the meaning of incentives.
Answer:
Incentive:

  • Incentive means that which ‘incites’ or has a tendency ‘to incite action’.
  • In the terminology of commerce, the inspiration that the business units give their workers to maintain their work aptitude, continuously increase efficiency, maintain high quality standards, etc. is called incentives.
  • Incentives increase enthusiasm of workers.
  • Incentives inspire employees to achieve their objectives.

There are two types of incentives. They are:
GSEB Solutions Class 12 Organization of Commerce and Management Chapter 6 Directing 2

Question 5.
Explain the meaning of leadership.
Answer:

  • The quality that influences people to make efforts willingly f6r achieving goals is called leadership.
  • Leadership is the art and skill of creating the desire in others, for achieving objectives.
  • According to Dr. George R. Terry, “Leadership is the quality of influencing others to work willingly for the realization of specified goals.”
  • A leader is an influential person of the group who without any pressure provides guidance and inspiration and thus gets the expected work willingly done.

Need of leadership in industries:

  • Several people work in industrial units. Even after paying wages and incentives and motivating them, the desired results may not be obtained if they are not led well. A good leader can lead the unit and extract work smoothly.
  • Leadership is a process of encouraging in a mutual way.
  • It is a base for efficient organization.
  • Leader with his attitude and behaviour channelizes the efforts of the group members in a proper direction.
  • He provides guidance to achieve decided targets, motivates to achieve objectives, inspiration, faith, etc. Thus, leadership is a source of motivation for others.

GSEB Solutions Class 12 Organization of Commerce and Management Chapter 6 Directing

Question 6.
Explain formal communication in short.
Answer:
Formal communication:

  • Communication that depends on the structure of an organization and its rules and regulations and is implemented for the accomplishment of business objective is called formal communication. Generally, formal communication is in writing.
  • This type of communication has a formal link between the superior and the subordinate. Its objective is to control and co-ordinate.
  • Formal communication is clear and easy to understand.
  • Here, who will send information to who is decided before communicating. Moreover, the form of information is also pre-decided.

Example:

  • Notice or Memo is given as warning to the employees who are irregular and remaining absent without prior permission.
  •  A letter given by superior to subordinate for his transfer or promotion.

Characteristics:

  • In formal communication, superior and subordinates are formally related
  • Its main objective is control and co-ordination
  • Formal communication is generally in written form
  • This type of communication system is accepted as policy of organization
  • It is based on organization structure
  • Formal organization is formed for the accomplishment of business objectives
  • It is easy and clear to understand

Question 7.
‘A supervisor’s work is similar to that of a teacher.’ Explain the statement.
Answer:

  • Directing is an extremely important function of management.
  • It includes several functions such as supervision, giving orders and instructions ‘ and providing active leadership to the subordinates.
  • Unless these functions are done well other management functions may not result in success.
  • The efficiency of employees in business depends upon direction.
  • If the directing person is efficient, then an ordinary employee will give the best result.
  • The school teacher also continuously directs the students and keep supervising their each and every activity.
  • Hence, an efficient person can direct the organization to success (OR ‘A supervisor’s work is similar to that of a teacher.’)

Question 8.
How does motivation help to reduce labour turn over rate?
Answer:
Reduction in labour turnover rate:
Motivation gives internal satisfaction to the employees and inspires them. Although workers get remuneration as per their work, motivation becomes an add-on to provide them satisfaction and respect.
This keeps them motivated to stay in the organization and remain loyal to the company.

Question 9.
What is co-partnership?
Answer:
Co-partnership:

  • When employees or workers are taken as partners in ownership, management and distribution of profit, it is known as co-partnership.
  • Since these employees or workers are taken as co-partners, it becomes easy for owner to increase production and to maintain industrial peace.

Question 10.
What do you mean by informal communication?
Answer:
Informal Communication:

  • Any communication which depends on human relations and friendship among employees of an organization is known as informal communication.
  • Informal communication is flexible and simple in nature.
  • There is no need of control and order in formal communication.
  • It can be explained orally or even in a symbolic language i.e. through signs.
  • Informal organization provides co-ordination and credibility to the organization.

Example:

  • Industrial manager instructs the labourer to work
  • Sales manager gives information and suggestions regarding presentation to the salesman in an easy-going manner

Characteristics:

  • It depends on human relations
  • Control or order is not required in informal communication
  • It can be explained orally or through symbolic language
  • Depends on human and friendly relations
  • It is flexible and easy
  • Process is not important in this communication
  • It gives more co-ordination and credibility to organization
  • Informal communication is not. supplementary but complementary to the formal communication

4. Answer the following questions in brief :

Question 1.
Explain the importance of direction.
Answer:
Importance of directing:
1. Increases efficiency:

  • When employees are given proper directions regarding departmental functions, the efficiency of the business increases.
  • Direction clarifies function of the employee and their authority and responsibility. This increases their efficiency.

2. Assessment of efficiency:
Through direction, assessment and evaluation of the matters like whether the employees have done work as per direction or not, how much work is completed, how much efficiency is increased, what is the performance, etc. can be done.

3. Motivation to employees:

  • Through direction, employees can be made aware about proper method, rules and policies of business.
  • Proper direction helps to remove work related confusions and problems, re-work and repetition of same work. This motivates them for doing the work.

4. Effective planning:
All the functions of a business cannot be planned by one person. A planner can chalk out a plan by collecting necessary information through the subordinates.

5. Effective organization:

  • Due to direction, every employee becomes aware about his authority and responsibility.
  • As a result, they properly follow the orders and instructions given by the boss, This makes entire organization effective.

6. Co-ordination and co-operation:

  • Direction helps to maintain proper co-ordination among employees.
  • Directing helps to align personal interests of employees with the main objectives of the business.

7. Function of control:

  • Direction reduces the chances of work-related mistakes and errors.
  • This makes taking work from the employees easier. As a result the work remains controlled.

8. Increases enthusiasm:

  • Direction brings changes in the attitude of employees towards the work. Their interest and enthusiasm in work increases.
  • Since they get interested in work they become better problem solvers and feel happy to overcome work hurdles.

9. Finding out deviation:

  • Direction helps to track the allotted work. Proper direction makes supervision effective.
  • So, if there is any deviation in the work as compared to the decided standards 4 then it can be checked and brought back on track.

GSEB Solutions Class 12 Organization of Commerce and Management Chapter 6 Directing

Question 2.
Explain the functions of supervision.
Answer:
Functions of supervisor:

  • To plan activities and remove hurdles
  • To provide necessary guidance and direction to complete the work on time
  • To supervise the employees constantly, to save time and labour
  • Supervisor does the function of integration of employee’s personal interest with the interest of productivity of business
  • To motivate and encourage the employees to increase their efficiency
  • To maintain feeling of oneness among the employees
  • To make communication work faster
  • To give guidance regarding use of new technology introduced in the business ‘(9) To maintain discipline among employees
  • Supervisor does not keep control but provides training
  • Supervisor is friend, philosopher and guide for employees

Question 3.
What are the qualities of a good leader?
Answer:
A leader should possess following qualities:
1. Physical qualities:

  • Leader should possess good health. In fact, it is a prime requisite for an effective leader.
  • Other than health, physical structure, well-built physique and cheerful nature inspires the subordinates.

2. Intellectual qualities:

  • A good leader should be intelligent.
  • He should have intellectual qualities such as decision making power, mental ability, grasping power, scientific approach, curiosity, reasoning ability, foresight as well as different skills like elocution, calculative skill, knowledge of inter-relation, human skills, etc.

3. Psychological qualities:
Leader should have qualities like pleasant personality, zeal, courage, sense of co-operation, tact, interest in work, affection, patience, etc.

Question 4.
What are the features of Informal Communication?
Answer:
Informal Communication:

  • Any communication which depends on human relations and friendship among employees of an organization is known as informal communication.
  • Informal communication is flexible and simple in nature.
  • There is no need of control and order in formal communication.
  • It can be explained orally or even in a symbolic language i.e. through signs. -> Informal organization provides co-ordination and credibility to the organization. Example:
  • Industrial manager instructs the labourer to work
  • Sales manager gives information and suggestions regarding presentation to the salesman in an easy going manner

Characteristics:

  • It depends on human relations
  • Control or order is not required in informal communication
  • It can be explained orally or through symbolic language
  • Depends on human and friendly relations
  • It is flexible and easy
  • Process is not important in this communication
  • It gives more co-ordination and credibility to organization
  • Informal communication is not. supplementary but complementary to the formal communication

Question 5.
Distinguish between formal and informal communication.
Answer:

Points Formal Communication Informal Communication
Meaning Communication system which depends on rules,regulations and accomplishment of business objectives, is known as formal communication. Communication system which depends on human relation and friendship is known as informal communication.
Purpose The purpose of formal communication is control and co-ordination. The purpose of informal communication is to have more co-ordination and give more credibility to the organization.
Base Due to rules and regulations, exchange of information between two people takes place. Due to personal and friendly relations, exchange of information between two people takes place.
Control and Supervision It requires control and supervision. It does not require control and supervision.
Flexibility It is less flexible. It is more flexible.
Time It takes place at the work place during working hours. It takes place at any place .or during working hours.
Information in advance Here, sender and receiver of information as well as form of communication are decided beforehand. Form of communication and procedure are not decided beforehand. It takes place as per time and situation.

Question 6.
Write down any six measures to over come the barriers of communication.
Answer:
Following steps can overcome barriers of communication:

  1. Communication system should be arranged as per organizational structure and it should not obstruct the information.
  2. Information given by sender should be precise so that the receiver can understand properly.
  3. Various mediums of communication have ‘different effects. Therefore, an appropriate medium of communication should be selected.
  4. Communication is a two way process. So, it should be done in such a manner that information flows in both the directions easily.
  5. Feeling of mutual trust and co-operation is must between two parties who are communicating.
  6. Communication channel should be as short as possible so that, neither the flow of information stops nor there is any delay in communication.
  7. Communication system’ should be fast.
  8. Communication system should be goal-oriented.
  9. Broadcasting of unnecessary information increases the burden of communication. So the broadcasting of information should be proper.
  10. Communication system should be evaluated periodically. This helps to make changes as per changing situations and technology.
  11. During the entire process of communication, sender should not have any personal interest in it. For example, at times the message sender hides few messages or purposefully gives incomplete information or presents it eccentrically. This should not happen.

5. Answer the following questions in detail :

Question 1.
Define Direction and explain its characteristics.
Answer:
Directing:
In layman language, direction means to guide the workers, make them aware of the work, supervise them and to maintain their enthusiasm for the work.

Characteristics of directing:
1. Goal oriented activity:
The purpose of directing or say direction is to guide and motivate the employees to achieve business goals. Thus, direction is a goal oriented activity.

2. Function at every level of management:

  • Direction is such a function which is used at every levels of management.
  • The top level managers direct departmental officers regarding target, policy and administrative matters.
  • Similarly, at the bottom level the supervisors give orders and instructions to the foremen and jobbers.
  • The jobbers and foreman direct the workers working under their control.
  • Thus, direction moves from top level to the bottom level of management.

3. Continuous process:
As long as the organization exists, the function of direction will also continue. Thus, direction is a continuous process.

4. Observation of functions:
One of the chief functions of directing is observing whether employees are working as per instructions given to them or not.

5. Wider scope:
Directing is not merely guiding and advising to the employees but also making them understand the business decisions and encourage them to work for their implementation.

6. Communication:

  • It is highly important to have an effective communication channel for giving orders and guidance to the employees.
  • Under ineffective communication process it is difficult to give right direction to the right employee at the right time.

7. Motivation:

  • It is necessary to motivate the employees so that they put their best efforts for the organization.
  • Higher authorities guide the employees personally. Such guidance solves the problems and doubts of employees, generates faith in them and motivates them to do better work.

8. Flow of direction:
Direction always moves from top level to bottom level management. Top level management gives guidance to the managers of middle level management and middle level management directs the workers of bottom level management. Hence, the flow of direction is downwards.

9. Managerial function:
Just like other management functions such as planning, organizing, staffing, etc., direction is also a management function.

GSEB Solutions Class 12 Organization of Commerce and Management Chapter 6 Directing

Question 2.
Define Motivation and explain its features.
Answer:
Motivation:
The process of stimulating people to perform action and to make it possible to have maximum work satisfaction is called motivation.

Characteristics of motivation:
1. internal inspiration:

  • Motivation is that strength or power which arises from inside of the individual.
  • The feeling of motivation makes the person realize that something is lacking and when he gets inspired he marches to do .activity which can overcome that feeling of lacking.
  • For example, a student may feel that he lacks in mathematics which is not allowing him to reach desired results. If he gets this realization, he may become motivated to work for it.

2. Psychological concept:

  • Motivation is a psychological phenomenon.
  • The mental status and approach of every person is different.
  • As a result, the need of internal inspiration and its format is also different for every person.

3. Increases efficiency of employees:

  • Motivated workers are encouraged to produce more.
  • Motivation boosts their morale. Their productivity and efficiency also increase.
  • Overall, these things together increase the profitability of business.

4. Continuous process:

  • Once motivation process has started, it remains continuous.
  • Employees should be motivated regularly to get the work done from them.
  • Motivational direction and guidance should be provided to them.

5. Reduction in labour turnover rate:

  • Motivation gives internal satisfaction to the employees and inspires them.
  • Although workers get remuneration as per their work, motivation becomes an add-on to provide them satisfaction and respect.
  • This keeps them motivated to stay in the organization and remain loyal to the company.

6. Achievement of goals:
Motivation inspires the workers to function effectively. So, achievement of personal and business objectives become possible and easier.

7. Wider scope:

  • Motivation is a wide concept.
  • Motivation includes different terms like need, motive, desire, emotion, aim, choice, will power, eagerness, temptation, etc.

8. Adapting to changes in the organization:

  • In modern time changes takes place very fast in industries and organizations. These changes constantly affect production, technology, raw material and other activities.
  • Generally, the workers are not prepared to accept these changes quickly. They are reluctant towards new changes.
  • If they are motivated well they will be able to adapt changes faster and easily. .

9. Tool to get co-operation:
Motivation gives job satisfaction to the employees. As a result, they co-operate to their higher authorities.

10. Positive attitude:

  • Motivation makes the attitude of people positive.
  • Workers often face several problems. When these problems are heard and solved, they experience a feeling of respect for staffing as well as organization.
  • They work, as if they are a part of the organization. Such a style of work makes possible the development of employees and business unit.

11. One of the functions of management:

  • Motivation is an important part of the management.
  • Managers have to get the work done from the living resources like employees and not from physical resources. Therefore, to motivate, is an important function.

Question 3.
Explain the Maslow’s hierarchy of needs with diagram.
Answer:
Hierarchy of needs as given by Maslow:
In 1943, Maslow in his article ‘Principle of Human Motivation’ in 1943 gave the five needs for those humans seek.

These needs in ascending order are,

  1. Physiological or primary needs,
  2. Safety needs,
  3. Social needs,
  4. Esteem and status needs and
  5. Self-esteem and self-actualization needs.

The first three needs are of lower order. The last two needs are of higher order.
GSEB Solutions Class 12 Organization of Commerce and Management Chapter 6 Directing 1
1. Physiological or primary needs:

  • The basic needs that a human body seeks such as food water, clothing and shelter are known as physiological needs or primary needs.
  • These needs are so basic that unless these are fulfilled man does not seek any other need whatever it may be.

2. Safety needs:

  • After the physical needs are satisfied, the next need that comes in the hierarchy is safety.
  • Safety needs refer to physical safety, job safety, safety against risk, regularity of wages, etc.
  • To safeguard himself, man buys insurance, opens saving account and fixed deposit account, invests money, etc.
  • These safety measures provide him financial mental peace.

3. Social needs:

  • After security needs comes the social needs. These needs include love and affection.
  • Man is a social animal. He always wants love and affection from his family, relatives and society at large.
  • Social needs include feeling of getting love and respect from the family members, friends and relatives as well as by his colleagues at work place and by others in society.

4. Esteem and status needs:

  • Esteem and status needs are also known as position need or high class need.
  • Man longs that people should praise him, give him respect and that his reputation increases in the society.

5. Self-esteem and Self-actualization needs:

  • After the four needs are satisfied, man tries to satisfy his need of self-esteem or say self-actualization.
  • Each person wishes to rise in his life and reach the top position.
  • He/she wishes that society takes his name with pride and in the best way and he rises in his skills and work.
  • For example, a person feels like earning name and fame like Zakir Husain in playing tabla, Shivkumar Sharma in playing santoor, Sachin Tendulkar in the field of cricket, Amitabh Bachchan in the field of acting, Lata Mangeshkar in the field of music, etc.

Question 4.
Explain Financial Incentives.
Answer:
Financial incentives:
Monetary benefit offered to employees to encourage behavior or actions is called financial incentive.

  • Financial incentives are boon for skilled and proficient employees or workers because they boost their enthusiasm, courage, self-confidence and efficiency.
  • Financial incentive gives security to the employees and increases their social status.

Types of financial incentive:
1. Profit sharing:

  • When workers get a definite proportion of profit in the form of money other than their salary, it is called profit-sharing.
  • Profit sharing is based on the concept that surplus profit of the business is the result of the joint efforts of the workers and owner.

2. Co-partnership:

  • When employees or workers are taken as partners in ownership, management and distribution of profit, it is known as co-partnership.
  • Since these employees or workers are taken as co-partners, it becomes easy for owner to increase production and to maintain industrial peace.

3. Promotion:

  • The process of placing the staff in a higher and beneficial position is known as promotion.
  • Promotion increases authority, responsibility, duties and salary of the employee.
  • Promotion increases the efficiency of the staff and his morale.

4. Bonus:

  • When a business earns profits, its credit goes to workers as well.
  • On the basis of this thdught, the organization at the end of each year distributes ceiiain percent of profit among works. This distributed amount is known as bonus.

5. Commission:

  • In order to increase sales, business units decide sales target for the employees appointed in sales department.
  • To see that the .sales executives achieve these targets, the business units provide them certain financial incentive on sales. This is called commission.

6. Prizes:

  • When certain employees show outstanding performance or style of working, they are honoured for their services in the form of cash prize along with certificate and medal by the business units.
  • Such prizes are given in annual meeting, get-together or by arranging a special felicitation programme. Distributing prizes before all the staff members boost encouragement, zeal and efficiency of the workers.

7. Suggestions and advices:

  • Workers are constantly engaged in production. While working they come across several ideas and suggestions to improve the process, reduce costs, improve productivity, etc.
  • They may give such suggestions and advice to the management to improve the production process and make it more efficient.
  • When these ideas and suggestions prove fruitful, the workers are paid monetary incentives.

GSEB Solutions Class 12 Organization of Commerce and Management Chapter 6 Directing

Question 5.
Define Communication. Explain its characteristics.
Answer:
Communication:
Communication is the process of exchange of words, letters, instructions and opinions.

Characteristics of communication:
1. Goal oriented process:

  • The objective of communication is not only to exchange information but also to achieve objectives.
  • Special care is taken to confirm that the receiver of information understands the information as intended.

2. Clear words and language:
The words and language used in communication should be clear. It should not have double meaning so as to avoid any confusion.

3. Two-way process:

  • Communication is a two-way or bilateral process.
  • Top managers send the necessary information regarding objectives, policy, method, procedure and rules to the middle and bottom level management. While on the other hand, the middle and bottom level management pass necessary information in the form of report to the top level management.

4. Continuous process:

  • Communication is a continuous and a permanent process.
  • It starts from the beginning of the business and continues till the end.

5. Many equipment:
Several method and equipment are used to communicate things. For example, oral or written correspondence, telephone, fax, internet, mobile phone, SMS, telex, etc.

6. Many types and methods:
There are many types and methods of communication. These include internal communication, external communication, written communication, oral communication, communication through signs, etc.

7. Motivating activity:
Communication clarifies the job properly. So, the officers and employees remain motivated about what has to be done without any confusion.

8. Related to administrative process:

  • Communication mainly relates to the administration of the unit.
  • It is used to collect information necessary to make right decisions and for proper administration.
  • It is also used for solving the administrative problems and difficulties.

9. Human process:

  • Communication is based on the behaviour of the humans.
  • Irrespective of the medium of communication, without the existence of human skills, communication does not take place. Moreover, at the time of communication fear, feelings, anger, etc. also affect the communication. Hence, communication is called a human process.

Question 6.
Explain barriers to effective communication.
Answer:
Barriers of effective communication:

  • Communication is a human activity and so there are chances of problems in this process.
  • The factors of human limitations such as affection, mistakes, estimations, misunderstanding, distrust, fear, etc. that affect communication are called barriers of communication.

Following barriers come in the way of effective communication:
1. Lack of planning:
If the order of information is not planned, sender will give wrong, unclear and incomplete information.

2. Faulty translation:
Employees working at middle level receive messages from top level. At times such messages may not be in mother-tongue. The middle level staff analyzes these messages on their own and sends them at bottom level. The middle level person may make mistakes in translating the message.

3. Unclear messages:

  • At times, important matters may be presented in an unclear manner. Also, the words and sentences in the message may be arranged in improperly.
  • There are chances that these messages fail to give clarity to the receiver.

4. Unclear assumptions:
Many messages depend upon guess work and assumptions. If these are not clarified while transmitting messages, their meaning and importance might . change when at the receiver’s end.

5. Shortage of time:

  • Many times decisions are taken on the basis of information. After getting information, it is to be implemented.
  • However, if information is not available on time, then the message loses its importance and effectiveness.

6. Overburden in communication:

  • There is a constant and continuous exchange of communication in large industries. A high flow of communication over-burdens people.
  • If information is transmitted and received by someone who may be over-burdened, then he may not be able to maintain precision of information and just conduct the task of communication.
  • This may prove quite harmful for the organization.

7. Ignorance towards messages:

  • Many times higher managers or bottom level employees remain inattentive and careless regarding messages. Due to their carelessness the message may not be transmitted or understood properly further.
  • This can create several problems in the overall work processes.

8. Improper selection of media:
There are specific mediums of communication for fulfilling a desired task. If these mediums are not selected properly then they may become barriers to communication. For example, if change in quantity to be produced is mentioned orally rather than in written form then it may lead to blame-game if the production is not done as per the desired change.

9. Distrust and fear:

  • If fear and distrust exists in the organization, every message is perceived with doubt. This is because people might fear of being held responsible for things unnecessarily.
  • At times information is changed due to the fear that correct information will lead to punishment or fine.
  • Hence, based on some bitter experiences of the past, the correct information or message may be edited or not passed.

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