GSEB Solutions Class 10 English First Flight Chapter 2 Nelson Mandela: Long Walk to Freedom

   

Gujarat Board GSEB Class 10 English Textbook Solutions First Flight Chapter 2 Nelson Mandela: Long Walk to Freedom Textbook Exercise Important Questions and Answers, Notes Pdf.

Gujarat Board Textbook Solutions Class 10 English First Flight Chapter 2 Nelson Mandela: Long Walk to Freedom

GSEB Class 10 English Nelson Mandela: Long Walk to Freedom Text Book Questions and Answers

Oral Comprehension Check (Textbook Page No. 18 – 19)

Question 1.
Where did the ceremonies take place ? Can you name any public buildings in India that are made of sandstone ?
Answer:
The ceremonies took place in the campus of the Union Building of Pretoria.

The Parliament House in New Delhi, the Rashtrapati Bhavan in New Delhi, the Supreme Court of India in New Delhi and Madras High Court in Chennai are some examples of Indian public buildings that are made of sandstone.

Question 2.
Can you say how 10 May is an ‘autumn day’ in South Africa ?
Answer:
10 May is an ‘autumn day’ in South Africa because on this day there was the largest gathering of international leaders on South African soil for the installation of South Africa’s first democratic, non-racial government.

GSEB Solutions Class 10 English First Flight Chapter 2 Nelson Mandela: Long Walk to Freedom

Question 3.
At the beginning of his speech, Mandela mentions “an extraordinary human disaster.” What does he mean by this ? What is the “glorious …………….. human achievement” he speaks of at the end ?
Answer:
By human disaster Mandela means to say that coloured people have suffered a lot due to discrimination in the hands of whites. He considered it as great glorious human achievement that a black person became the s president of a country where the blacks are not considered as human being and are treated badly.

Question 4.
What does Mandela thank the international leaders for ?
Answer:
Mandela felt privileged to be the host s to the nations of the world because not too long ago, the South Africans were considered outlaws. He thus thanked all the international leaders for having come to witness his investiture as President since this event could be considered as a common victory for justice, peace and human dignity.

Question 5.
What ideals does he set out for the future of South Africa ?
Answer:
Mandela set out the ideals of poverty alleviation, removal of suffering of people. He also set the ideal for a society where there would be no discrimination based on gender or racial origins.

(Textbook Page No. 21)
Question 6.
What do the military generals do ? How has their attitude changed, and why ?
Answer:
The highest military generals of the South African defence force and police saluted Mandela and pledged their loyalty. Their attitude towards blacks had taken great change. Instead of arresting a black they saluted him.

Question 7.
Why were two national anthems sung ?
Answer:
On the day of the inauguration, two national anthems were sung, one by the whites, and the other by the blacks. This symbolized the. equality of blacks and whites.

GSEB Solutions Class 10 English First Flight Chapter 2 Nelson Mandela: Long Walk to Freedom

Question 8.
How does Mandela describe the systems of government in his country
(i) in the first decade, and
(ii) in the final decade, of the twentieth century ?
Answer:
( i) In the first decade of the twentieth century, the white-skinned people of South Africa patched up their differences and erected a system of racial domination against the darkskinned people of their own land, thus creating the basis of one of the harshest and most inhumane societies the world had ever known.

(ii) In the last decade of the twentieth century, the previous system had been overturned forever and replaced by one that recognized the rights and freedoms of all peoples, regardless of the colour of their skin.

Question 9.
What does courage mean to Mandela ?
Answer:
For Mandela courage does not mean the absence of fear but a victory over fear. According to him brave men need not be fearless but should be able to conquer fear.

Question 10.
Which does he think is natural, to love or to hate ?
Answer:
For Mandela, love comes more naturally to the human heart than hate.

(Textbook Page No. 24)
Question 11.
What ‘twin obligations’ does Mandela mention ?
Answer:
Mandela mentions that every man has twin obligations. The first is to his family, parents, wife and children; the second obligation is to his people, his community and his country.

Question 12.
What did being free mean to Mandela as a boy, and as a student ? How does he contrast these “transitory freedoms” with “the basic and honourable freedoms” ?
Answer:
Like any other kid, for Mandela also the freedom meant a freedom to make merry and enjoy the blissful life. Once anybody becomes an adult then antics of childhood looks like transitory because most of the childish activity is wasteful from an adult’s perspective. Once s you are adult then someday you have to earn a livelihood to bring the bacon home, then only you get an honourable existence in the “family and in the society.

GSEB Solutions Class 10 English First Flight Chapter 2 Nelson Mandela: Long Walk to Freedom

Question 13.
Does Mandela think the oppressor is free ? Why /Why not ?
Answer:
Mandela does not feel that the s oppressor is free because according to him an oppressor is a prisoner of hatred, who is locked behind the bars of prejudice and narrowmindedness. He feels that both the oppressor and the oppressed are robbed of their humanity.

Thinking about the Text

Question 1.
Why did such a large number international leaders attend the inauguration ? What did it signify the triumph of?
Answer:
The presence of large number of s international leaders was a gesture of solidarity from international community to the idea of the end of apartheid. It signified the triumph of good over evil, the triumph of the idea of a tolerant society without any discrimination.

Question 2.
What does Mandela mean when he says he is “simply the sum of all those African patriots” who had gone before him ?
Answer:
Mandela wants to pay his tribute to all the people who had sacrificed their lives for the Sake of freedom. He feels that he is the sum of all those African patriots who had gone before him because those heroes of yester s years had paved the path of co-operation and unity for him. Therefore, he got the support of his people to be able to come to power to bring equality for his own people.

Question 3.
Would you agree that the ‘depths of oppression’ create ‘heights of character’ ?
How does Mandela illustrate this ? Can you add your own examples to this argument ?
Answer:
Yes, I agree that the ‘depths of i oppression’ create ‘heights of character’. Nelson Mandela illustrates this by giving examples of great heroes of South Africa who sacrificed their lives in the long freedom struggle. India is full of Such examples During our freedom struggle there was a galaxy of leaders of great characters. Probably the oppression of British rule created so many men of such characters. If we compare this with the quality of political leaders India is having today, then Nelson Mandela seems to be absolutely right.

Question 4.
How did Mandela’s understanding o.f freedom change with age and experience ?
Answer:
With age Nelson Mandela realised that he had a lot of responsibilities of his people, his community and his country. As a boy, Mandela did not have a hunger for freedom because he thought that he was born free. He believed that as long as he obeyed his father and abided by the customs of his tribe, he was free in every possible manner. He had certain needs as a teenager and certain needs as a young man. Gradually, he realized that he was selfish during his boyhood. He slowly understands that it is not just his freedom that is being curtailed, but the freedom of all blacks. It is after attaining this understanding that he develops a hunger for the freedom of his people.

GSEB Solutions Class 10 English First Flight Chapter 2 Nelson Mandela: Long Walk to Freedom

Question 5.
How did Mandela’s ‘hunger for freedom’ change his life ?
Answer:
Mandela realized in his youth that it was not just his freedom that was being curtailed, but the freedom of all blacks. The hunger for his own freedom became the hunger for the freedom of his people. This desire of a nonracial society transformed him into a virtuous and self-sacrificing man. Thus, he joined the African National Congress and this changed him from a frightened young man into a bold man.

Thinking about Language

1. There are nouns in the text (formation, government) which are formed from the corresponding verbs (form, govern) by suffixing -(at)ion or -ment. There may be chaftge in the spelling of some verb-noun pairs, such as:
rebel – rebellion constitute – constitution.
Question 1.
Make a list of such pairs of nouns and verbs in the text.
Answer:

Noun Verb
rebellion rebel
constitution constitute
celebration celebrate
inauguration inaugurate
installation install
formation form
government govern
obligation oblige
liberty / liberation liberate
emancipation emancipate
deprivation deprive
discrimination discriminate
conference confer
oppression oppress

2. Read the paragraph below. Fill in the blanks with the noun forms of the verbs given in brackets:
Martin Luther King’s …………….(contribute) to our history as an outstanding leader began when he came to the …………… (assist) of Rosa Parks, a seamstress who refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white passenger. In those days American Blacks were confined to positions of second class citizenship by restrictive laws and customs. To break these laws would mean ……………. (subjugate) and …………… (humiliate) by the police and the legal system. Beatings, …………….. (imprison) and sometimes death awaited those who defied the System. Martin Luther King’s tactics of protest involved non-violent ………….. (resist) to racial injustice.
Answer:
Martin Luther King’s contribution to our history as an outstanding leader began when he came to the assistance of Rdsa Parks, a seamstress who refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white passenger. In those days American Blacks were confined to positions of second class citizenship by restrictive laws and customs. To break these laws would mean subjugation and humiliation by the police and the legal system. Beatings, imprisonment and sometimes death awaited those who defied the System. Martin Luther King’s tactics of protest involved non-violent resistance to racial injustice.

2. Here are some more examples of ‘the’ used with proper names. Try to say what these sentences mean. (You may consult a dictionary if you wish. Look at the entry for ‘the’):

(1) Mr Singh regularly invites the Amitabh ; Bachchans and the Shah Rukh Khans to s his parties.
(2) Many people think that Madhuri Dixit is ‘] the Madhubala of our times.
(3) History is not only the story of the Alexanders, the Napoleons and the Hitlers, but of ordinary people as well.
Answer:
(1) This means that Mr Singh regularly invites famous personalities such as Amitabh Bachchan and Shah Rukh Khan to his parties.
(2) This means that Madhuri Dixit is compared to a phenomenon in acting in the form of legendary actress Madhubala.
(3) This means that history is not only the story of the great fighters and leaders such as Alexander, Napoleon and Hitler, but also of ordinary people.

GSEB Solutions Class 10 English First Flight Chapter 2 Nelson Mandela: Long Walk to Freedom

3. Match, the italicised phrases in column ‘A’ with the phrase nearest meaning in column
‘B’. (Hint : First look for the sentence in the text which the phrase in column A occurs.)
Answer:

Column ‘A’ Column ‘B’
1. I was not unmindful of the fact a. had not forgotten: was aware of the fact.

b. was not careful about the fact.

c. forgot or was not aware of the fact.

2. When my comrades and I were pushed to our limits a. pushed by the guards to the wall.

b. took more than our share of beatings.

c. felt that we could not endure the suffering any longer.

3. To reassure me and keep me going a. make me go on walking.

b. help me continue to live in hope in this very difficult situation.

c. make me remain without complaining.

4. The basic and honourable freedoms of …………… earning my keep ………….. a. earning enough money to live on.

b. keeping what I earned.

c. getting a good salary.

GSEB Class 10 English Nelson Mandela: Long Walk to Freedom Additional Important Questions and Answers

Read the following passages and select the most appropriate answers for the questions given below them:

Question 1.
Today, all of us do, by our presence here … confer glory and hope to newborn liberty. Out of the experience of an extraordinary human disaster that lasted too long, must be born a society of which jll humanity will be proud. We, who were outlaws, not so long ago, have today been given the rare privilege to be host to the nations of the world on our own soil. We thank all of our distinguished international guests for having come to take possession with the people of our country of what is, after all, a common victory for justice, for peace, for human dignity.

1. They are gathered for ……………….
A. pondering over an extraordinary human disaster that lasted too long.
B. conferring glory and hope to new born liberty.
C. accepting outlaws.
D. thanking all of their distinguished international guests.
Answer:
B. conferring glory and hope to new born liberty.

2. The meaning of the word ‘outlaws’ here is:
A. one who is out of law.
B. a political leader.
C. a rebel; a nonconformist.
D. an activist.
Answer:
C. a rebel; a nonconformist.

3. What privilege they have got ?
A. To be host to the nations of the world in their own country.
B. To thank their distinguished international guests.
C. To celebrate freedom.
D. To establish justice and peace.
Answer:
A. To be host to the nations of the world in their own country.

4. For the writer taking possession with the people of their country is …………….
A. involving people to raise voice against the s ruling authorities.
B. having experience of an extraordinary human disaster.
C. bringing about justice and peace for human dignity.
D. All of these three.
Answer:
C. bringing about justice and peace for human dignity.

GSEB Solutions Class 10 English First Flight Chapter 2 Nelson Mandela: Long Walk to Freedom

Question 2.
A few moments later we all lifted our eyes in awe as a spectacular array of South African jets, helicopters and troop carriers roared in perfect formation over the Union Buildings. It was not only a display of pinpoint precision and military force, but a demonstration of, the military’s loyalty to democracy, to a new government that had been freely and fairly elected.

Only moments before, the highest generals of the South African defence force and police, their chests bedecked with ribbons and medals from days gone by, saluted me and pledged their loyalty. I was not unmindful of the fact that not so many years before they would not have saluted but arrested me. Finally a chevron of Impala jets left a smoke trail of the black, red, green, blue and gold of the new South African flag.

1. What was the awesome spectacle?
A. View of the Union Buildings
B. An array of South African jets, helicopters and troop carriers roaring in perfect formation.
C. Parade of military force.
D. All of these three.
Answer:
B. An array of South African jets, helicopters and troop carriers roaring in perfect formation.

2. The spectacle was demonstrating ……………
A. the military’s loyalty to democracy, to a new democratic government.
B. the skill achieved by military air force.
C. the strength that the military had.
D. celebration of victory.
Answer:
A. the military’s loyalty to democracy, to a new democratic government.

3. The highest generals of the South African defence force and police pledged their loyalty by …………….
A. putting on ribbons and medals from days gone by.
B. saluting Nelson Mandela.
C. displaying of pinpoint precision of military force.
D. Both ‘A’ and ‘B’.
Answer:
B. saluting Nelson Mandela.

4. The new South African flag was displayed by ……………….
A. the military officials.
B. Nelson Mandela himself.
C. a smoke trail of the black, red, green blue and gold left by a chevron of Impala jets.
D. an spectacular array of South African jets and helicopters.
Answer:
C. a smoke trail of the black, red, green blue and gold left by a chevron of Impala jets.

GSEB Solutions Class 10 English First Flight Chapter 2 Nelson Mandela: Long Walk to Freedom

Question 3.
I was not born with a hunger to be free. I was born free-free in every way that I could know. Free to run in the fields near my mother’s hut, free to swim in the clear stream that ran through my village, free to roast mealies under the stars and ride the broad backs of slow-moving bulls. As long as I obeyed my father and abided by the customs of my tribe, I was not troubled by the laws of man or God. It was only when I began to learn that my boyhood freedom was an illusion, when I discovered as a young man that my freedom had already been taken from me, that I began to hunger for it.

At first, is a student, I wanted freedom only for myself, the transitory freedoms of being able to stay out at night, read what I pleased and go where I chose. Later, as a young man in Johannesburg, I yearned for the basic and honourable freedoms of achieving my potential, of earning my keep, of marrying and having a family-the freedom not to be obstructed in a lawful life.

1. In his childhood, Nelson Mandela was free to …………………..
A. run in the fields near his mother’s hut.
B. swim in the clear stream that ran through his village.
C. roast mealies under the stars.
D. All of these three.
Answer:
D. All of these three.

2. Riding the broad backs of slow-moving bulls ? is viewed by Nelson Mandela as ……………..
A. a gesture of freedom.
B. a childish play.
C. a silly craze.
D. Both ‘A’ and ‘B’.
Answer:
A. a gesture of freedom.

3. Nelson Mandela began to hunger for freedom when ……………….
A. he began to learn that his boyhood freedom was an illusion.
B. he discovered as a young man that his freedom had already been taken from him.
C. he wanted freedom only for himself.
D. Both ‘A’ and ‘B’.
Answer:
D. Both ‘A’ and ‘B’.

4. As a young man in Johannesburg, Nelson Mandela yearned for such freedom as ……………….
A. not to be obstructed in a lawful life.
B. he should be allowed to stay out at night.
C. he should be allowed to go where he chose.
D.All of these three.
Answer:
A. not to be obstructed in a lawful life.

GSEB Solutions Class 10 English First Flight Chapter 2 Nelson Mandela: Long Walk to Freedom

Answer the following questions in three to four sentences each:

Question 1.
What promise did Mandela make in the beginning of his oath-taking speech ?
Answer:
Mandela thanks all the international leaders and guests as he calls it an occasion of joy and victory for Justice. He promised that the country would not again experience the oppression of one by another.

Question 2.
What freedom meant to Mandela in his childhood?
Answer:
During his childhood the meaning j; of freedom for Mandela was quite limited he jj considered it to be free to run in the fields, to swim in the clear stream, free to roast mealies I; and ride the broad backs of slow-moving bulls.

Question 3.
Why did the inauguration ceremony take place in the amphitheatre formed by ; the Union Building in Pretoria ?
Answer:
lt was the first democratic, non-racial s government taking oath in South Africa. The ceremony was attended by dignitaries from more than 140 countries around the world and thousands of the people of South Africa of all s the races to make the day memorable. So, it took place in, the amphitheatre formed by the Union Building in Pretoria.

Question 4.
What are the ideals which Mandela set for the future of South Africa in his swearing-in ceremony ?
Answer:
Mandela emphasised to liberate all the people from poverty, deprivation, suffering, gender and other discriminations in his swearingin ceremony.

Question 5.
What did Mandela think for the oppressor and the oppressed ?
Answer:
Mandela always thought that both the oppressor and the oppressed are deprived of their humanity. The oppressor is a prisoner of hatred while the oppressed has no confidence in humanity so both of them need to be liberated.

GSEB Solutions Class 10 English First Flight Chapter 2 Nelson Mandela: Long Walk to Freedom

Question 6.
What do you understand by ‘Apartheid’ ?
Answer:
‘Apartheid’ is a political system that divides people according to their race. In this system black-coloured people in South Africa were not free even to discharge their personal and social obligations of being parents, sons and husbands, etc.

Question 7.
Describe the effect of the policy of apartheid on the people of South Africa.
Answer:
The policy of apartheid could not be considered fortunate for the people of South Africa, It created distance and a deep wound in the country and the people. Many great men like Oliver Tambo, Walter Sisulu, Yusuf Dadoo, Bram Fischer, etc were produced due to the brutality and oppression. They were men of great character.

Question 8.
How is courage related to the brave man according to the author of the lesson ?
Answer:
The author believes that courage is not the absence of fear, but it is the triumph over it. The brave man is not the one who does not feel fear of any kind but he is the one who has the courage to conquer it.

Question 9.
Could everyone fulfil the obligations personal or social in South Africa ?
Answer:
No, everyone was not free to fulfil their obligations because of the colour of the skin. If a person tried to fulfil his obligation, he was punished and isolated for being a rebel.

Question 10.
What did Mandela realise about his brothers and sisters ?
Answer:
Mandela realised that his brothers and sisters were not free in their own country due to their colour. The freedom of everyone in his society was curtailed. He joined the African National Congress and fought for the freedom.

GSEB Solutions Class 10 English First Flight Chapter 2 Nelson Mandela: Long Walk to Freedom

Question 11.
Why was Nelson Mandela changed into a bold man?
Answer:
Nelson Mandela was changed into a bold man due to his desire for the freedom of his country and his countrymen. He wanted to live a life with dignity as he could not enjoy the limited freedom.

Answer the following questions in five to six sentences each:

Question 1.
What does Nelson Mandela refer to as ‘an extraordinary human disaster’?
Answer:
Nelson Mandela refers to the apartheid policy of the white race against the black people as “an extraordinary human disaster”. White people snatched freedom from the coloured people of South Africa to whom the country belonged. The black people were subjected to oppression for long. They were not even allowed to discharge their obligations to their own families, community and their country. White people had no compassion for them and oppressed their own people and put them in prison. If they had some freedom, it was curtailed. The black people lived the life of a slave.

Question 2.
Describe the views of Mandela for the black people who fought and sacrificed their lives for the country’s political independence ?
Answer:
Mandela always said that the political freedom was the result of sacrifices of thousands of the black people who fought for that. He said that it could not be repaid. He thought himself as the sum of all of those African patriots. He regretted that he could not thank them. He cursed the policy of apartheid that wounded the people of his country, which would take centuries to heal.

He also said that the oppression and brutality of the white people produced great freedom fighters like Oliver Tambo, Walter Sisulu, Luthuli, Dadoo, Fischer, Sobukwe and many more. They were men of courage, wisdom and large heartedness. They really suffered a lot for the political freedom of the country.

Question 3.
What does Mandela mean to say that the oppressor and the oppressed alike are robbed of their humanity?
Answer:
Mandela is right in saying that the oppressor and the oppressed alike are robbed of their humanity. Both of them are actually the victim of hatred. Everyone is obliged to discharge their duties whether personal or social but without freedom a man cannot do so. The person who snatches this freedom of a man is really an oppressor and a prisoner of hatred. He has lack of humanity. But this is the same with a person who is oppressed by other.

GSEB Solutions Class 10 English First Flight Chapter 2 Nelson Mandela: Long Walk to Freedom

Grammar

1. Rectify the errors in each of the following lines as shown in the example:
Answer:
Everyone is born hating the other person because of the colour on his skin, or his background, and his religion. People must taught to love.

Example:

Error Correction
Everyone No one
the other another
on of
and or
taught learn

Rewrite as directed:
(1) This inauguration would be the largest gathering ever on South African soil. (Change the Degree.)
(2) On that lovely autumn day, I was accompanied by my lovely daughter Zenani. (Change the Voice.)
(3) The sun will never set on so glorious a human achievement. (Turn into Affirmative.)
(4 ) It was not only display of military force but a demonstration of military’s loyalty to democracy. (Use ‘both’.)
(5) I was pained that I was not able to thank them. (Use ‘so’.)
(6) I was not born with a hunger to be free. (Use ‘without’.)
(7) I am not truly free if I am taking away someone else’s freedom. (Use ‘unless’.)
Answer:
(1) No other gathering on South African soil would ever be so large as this one.
OR
This gathering would be larger than any other gathering on South African soil ever.
(2) On that lovely autumn day, my lovely daughter Zenani accompanied me.
(3) The sun will shine on so glorious a human achievement for ever.
(4) It was both the display of military force and a demonstration of military’s loyalty to democracy.
(5) I was not able to thank them, so I was pained.
(6) I was born without a hunger to be free.
(7) I am free unless I am taking away someone else’s freedom.

Vocabulary

Question 1.
(extraordinary, humanity, glory, liberty)
Today, all of us do, by our presence here ……….. confer ……….1…………. and hope to newborn …………..2…………… Out of the experience of an ………. 3………… human disaster that lasted too long, must be born a society of which all …………4…………. will be proud. (March 20)
Answer:
(1) glory
(2) liberty
(3) extraordinary
(4) humanity

Question 2.
(confer, liberty, disaster, humanity)
Today, all of us do, by our presence here……. ………….1………… glory and hope to newborn ………….2…………. Out of the experience of an extraordinary human …………3…………. that lasted too long, must be born a society of which all …………..4………… will be proud. (August 20)
Answer:
(1) confer
(2) liberty
(3) disaster
(4) humanity

Writing
Looking at Contrasts:

Question 1.
Nelson Mandela’s writing is marked by balance : many sentences have two parts in. balance.
Use the following phrases to complete the sentences given below:
(1) they can be taught to love.
(2) I was born free.
(3) but the triumph over it.
(4) but he who conquers that fear.
(5) to create such heights of character.
Answer:
(1) It requires such depths of oppression to create such heights of character.
(2) Courage was not the absence of fear but the triumph over it.
(3) The brave man is not he who does not feel afraid but he who conquers that fear.
(4) If people can learn to hate they can be taught to love.
(5) I was not born with a hunger to be free. I was born free.

GSEB Solutions Class 10 English First Flight Chapter 2 Nelson Mandela: Long Walk to Freedom

Question 2.
This text repeatedly contrasts the past with the present or the future. We can use coordinated clauses to contrast two views, for emphasis or effect.

Given below are sentences carrying one part of the contrast. Find in the text the second part of the contrast, and complete each item. Identify the words which signal the contrast. This has been done for you in the first item.

(1) For decades the Union Buildings had been the seat of white supremacy, and now it was the site of a rainbow gathering of different, colours and nations for the installation of South Africa’s first democratic non-racial government.

(2) Only moments before, the highest generals of the South African defence force and, police …………… saluted me and pledged their loyalty…………… not so many years before they would not have saluted but arrested me.

(3) Although that day neither group knew the lyrics of the anthem ………….., they would soon know the words by heart.

(4) My country is rich in the minerals and gems that lie beneath its soil, but I have ; always known that its greatest wealth is its people.

(5) The Air Show was not only a display of pinpoint precision and military force, but a demonstration of the military’s loyalty to democracy, to a new government that d been freely and fairly elected.

(6) It was this desire for the freedom of my people …………… that transformed a frightened young man into a bold one, that drove a law-abiding attorney to become a criminal, that turned a family-loving husband into a man without a home.

Question 3.
Expressing Your Opinion:
Do you think there is colour prejudice in our own country ? Discuss this with your friend and write a paragraph of about 100 to 150 words about this. You have the option of making your paragraph a humorous one.
Answer:
Colour Prejudice in our Own Country
Prejudice refers to an unsubstantiated, negative pre-judgment of individuals or groups, usually because of their social status, ethnicity, gender, and way of behaviour or their specific world-view. And we judge people in this perspective. Discrimination is everywhere. Surely enough, we are also judged by others according to the same criteria.

The question arises whether this is a typical model of a human’s behaviour, pre-programmed by the very nature or, maybe, some stereotypes and prejudices are just intentionally imposed by the society we live in. I strongly believe that the second statement is true as the main reason we start discriminating other people is that they look, act, think and speak differently. They do not basically belong to the same societal group and we experience some feeling of their segregation or even some kind of absolutely unjustified superiority over them.

People are highly prejudiced and most of them do not like to accept differences as it is much more convenient to live in a comfortable world surrounded by people with the same beliefs, colour of skin, social status while showing utmost contempt for people who do not fit in with the same category even though those individuals might be 10 times smarter than you are or have some outstanding talents or achievements you could never dream of. This happens more in Inciia as people still believe that whatever caste system Rishi ‘Manu’ has established is to be followed by all means. We hate Africans for their black colour and get impressed of the ones with white skin has no justification.

The illusional image of a perfect man or woman is totally subjective and applying our own mental paradigm of expectations and requirements to other people seems to be an act of deceiving ourselves. By denying the fact that each and every person is unique we basically deny our uniqueness as well. Let us imagine a hypothetical world where all people look, dress, speak and act in the same standardized way and any deviation is regarded as a possible crime ? Would you consider such people as humans or rather robots? We should respect our individuality and individuality of other people despite their race, colour of skin, culture, religious beliefs, ethnicity, social status as all people s are supposed to have equal rights and opportunities.

People who show zero tolerance and enjoy discriminating against different social groups should think how they would ’ feel if the same attitude was shown to them in case they were born in a different family or at a different location or time.

The whimsical nature of the innermost propaganda infatuating the minds of modern people and making them feel special or superior over others should be eradicated, s If we are absolutely sure that any kind of discrimination should be overcome, we should understand that everyone needs to do some actions irrespective of dissipated efforts as far as discrimination issues are concerned. It means that the common way we look at the world should be changed as it will allow us to discern and, most importantly, respect the life of other people, their peculiarities, appearance, attitude and the life choices they make.

To sum up, the issue of discrimination still remains unresolved and it might take some time for the contemporary society to understand its significance and negative influences it brings to the development of the mankind. However, if everyone makes a little effort to learn that all people are different and their individual peculiarities make this world more flamboyant and interesting to live in, then humanity has good chances of developing in the right and promising direction. Let us all be honest and bring the best from our souls in order to ensure bright and happy future for the coming generations !

GSEB Solutions Class 10 English First Flight Chapter 2 Nelson Mandela: Long Walk to Freedom

Nelson Mandela: Long Walk to Freedom Summary in English

Nelson Mandela: Long Walk to Freedom Introduction:
Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela (18 July, 1918-5 December, 2013) was a South African anti-apartheid revolutionary, political leader, and philanthropist who served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999. He was the country’s first black head of state and the first elected in a fully representative democratic election. His government focused on dismantling the legacy of apartheid by tackling institutionalised racism and fostering racial reconciliation. Ideologically an African nationalist and socialist, he served as President of the African National Congress (ANC) party from 1991 to 1997.

Nelson Mandela: Long Walk to Freedom Summary:
This unit is an extract from Nelson Mandela’s autobiography – ‘Long walk to freedom’. In 1994, first democratic elections were held in South Africa. Nelson Mandela’s party – African National Congress-won the elections and Mandela was sworn in as the first Black President on May 10, 1994. On the occasion of the inaugur§tion ceremony, Nelson Mandela expresses his views on freedom and its importance.

Here he recalls the history of the South African struggle and the past days of his own struggleful life. He pays tribute to thousands of South African patriots who suffered endlessly and sacrificed their lives for the cause of freedom. He calls himself the sum of all those patriots who have gone before him. In spite of all those sacrifices, Mandela bears no ill- will against the Whites. He says, “Each man has two obligations – first towards his family and the second one for his country.”

He says the oppressor is as much a prisoner as the oppressed. The oppressor remains chained to hatred, while the oppressed one gains height in character in proportion to the depths of torture he is subjected to. Mandela also says that courage is-not the absence of fear, but the triumph over fear. The brave man is not the one who does not feel afraid, but the one who conquers that fear. One man can be free if he respects another’s freedom with same degree as he desires for himself.

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