Our Revision Notes for GSEB Class 9 Social Science Notes Chapter 10 Organs of Government summarises the key points of a chapter and useful resource to prepare effectively for the upcoming board exams.
Organs of Government Class 9 GSEB Notes Social Science Chapter 10
Organs of Government Class 9 GSEB Notes
→ There are three organs of the government. The Legislature, the Executive and the Judiciary.
→ The Legislature as per the Constitution of India consists of a Parliament at the Centre and Legislative Assemblies at the State level.
→ The Executive as per the Constitution of India consists of the President, the Prime Minister and Cabinet Minister and their administrative system at the centre and the Governor, the Chief Minister and his cabinet and administrative system at the State level.
→ Whereas in the Judiciary the Supreme Court is at the top, in the middle are the High Courts of the states and at the bottom there are Subordinate Courts, District Courts and Special Courts.
→ The Legislature has the power to formulate laws but some powers are so given to the Executive and the Judiciary that the Legislature cannot misuse its powers.
→ Similarly the Executive is controlled by giving powers to the Legislature and the Judiciary and the Judiciary is controlled by giving powers to the Legislature and the Executive.
(1) Legislature: India is a republic having a parliamentary democracy. The representation of the people at the centre is seen at the Parliament and of the state is seen in the Legislative Assembly.
→ The Parliament is an important and apex organization of the nation. The Indian Parliament consists of the President, and two houses i.e. the Rajya Sabha and the Lok Sabha.
Legislature is of two types :
- Unicameral Legislature : When the legislature is consisting of one house, it is called Unicameral Legislature.
- Bicameral Legislature : When the legislature is consisting of two houses, it is called Bicameral Legislature.
→ At the Central level, the Upper House of the Legislature is called the Rajya Sabha and the Lower House is called the Lok Sabha.
→ At the State level, the Legislature consists of the Legislative Assembly and the Legislative Council. Most of the States have only Legislative Assembly. States like Bihar, UttarPradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Andhra
Pradesh, Telangana and Maharastra have Legislative Councils.
Organs of Government:
(1) Legislature at the Central Level –
(1) Lok Sabha :
- Lok Sabha is the Lower House of the Parliament. The members of the Lok Sabha are the representatives of the people who are elected through direct election.
- There are in all 552 Members of the Lok Sabha. Out of the 552 members, 530 members are represented the states, 20 are represental Union Territories, and 2 members are nominated by the President from the Anglorlndian community. At present, the strength of the house is 545.
- President is a part of the Parliament.
- Lok Sabha is not a Permanent House. Its term is of five years.
Qualification for membership of Lok Sabha :
- To be qualified as a candidate and to be elected as a member of Loksabha. He/she must be a citizen of India, should be 25 years of age or more.
- He/she should not be having unsound mind or insolvent.
- He/she should not be an employee of the Central or the State Government.
- He must not be a proven criminal.
Tenuse of Lok Sabh :
- The term of Lok Sabha is of 5 years, but the President can dissolve it before that if needed.
- In case of national emergency the term of the Loksabha can be extended for 1 more year.
- If the President dissolves the Parliament it cannot be challenged in court.
Quorum : Quorum is the number of members present in the House of the Parliament. The constitution of India stipulates that at least 10% of the total number of members of the House must be present to constitute the quorum to constitute a meeting of either House of Parliament. For example: in the Lok Sabha, it should be 55 and in Rajya Sabha it should be 25.
(2) Rajya Sabha :
- Rajya Sabha is the Upper House of the Parliament. It is a representative house of all the states and Union territories of India. There are in all 250 members in the Rajya Sabha.
- In all 238 members of the Rajya Sabha are elected. Rest 12 members are nominated by the President of India. At present, the strength of the Rajya Sabha is 245.
Qualification for Membership of Rajya Sabha :
- To be qualified as a candidate and to be . elected as a member of the Rajya Sabha. He/she must be a citizen of India.
- He/She should be 30 years of age or more.
- He/she must not of unsound mind, insolvent or criminal.
- He/she should not be a Government employee taking salary or holding any office of profit.
- Generally both the Houses of the Parliament, meets for three times a year. These meetings are called sessions.
- That is the Budget Session, Monsoon Session and the Winter Session.
→ The main function of the Speaker is to see that the proceedings of the Lok Sabha gets organised in a prescribed form, to maintain discipline, order and dignity of the Houses are the top most functions of the Speaker.
→ By gaining a majority of the members of the Lok Sabha on a resolution to remove the Speaker, with this a Speaker can be removed from his post by giving a 14 days notice period.
→ During any proceedings of the House there arises any question, matter or problem, or discussion on any Bill or Act; and decision upon it is to be taken especially when the number of votes in favour or against the matter are equal in number then in such condition, the Speaker can give his deciding vote which is known as ‘Casting vote’. Apart from such situations the Speaker cannot vote.
→ Shri Ganesh Vasudev Mavlankar was the first Speaker of Lok Sabha.
→ In the absence of the Speaker, the proceedings are conducted out by the Deputy Speaker.
→ The Parliament does the important work of augmenting the old laws, framing new laws and nullifying obsolete laws.
→ Any of the Bills either Ordinary Bill, Money Bill or the Bill to amend Constitution can become an Act by passing through the following process
→ Any Bill can be presented in either House of the Parliament.
→ The Bill can be presented by a minister or any member of the Parliament. If any dispute arises between the two Houses of the Parliament regarding any Bill, the President can call a joint sitting of both the Houses of the Parliament.
→ The proceedings of both the Houses of the Parliament in a joint sitting is chaired by the Speaker, wherein the Bill can be passed by majority.
→ Then the Bill presents for the assent of President of India.
→ After receiving President’s assent the Bill becomes an Act.
→ When a Bill is sent for President’s signature, there are three options with the President:
- He signs the Bill thereby approving it or
- He keeps the Bill with him or
- He sends the Bill back to the Parliament for reconsideration.
→ The Bill becomes an Act is published in Government gazette, then there is enforcement from the date given therein.
→ Procedure Subject to Money Bill : Whether the Bill is Money Bill or not is decided by the Speaker of the Lok Sabha. A Bill containing the recommendations of the budget or financial matters is called a Money Bill. The budget of the Centre is presented around last week of February in the Lok Sabha mostly by the Finance Minister.
→ All the Money Bills are first presented in the Lok Sabha which passes through the following process:
(i) A preliminary discussion is carried out on the Money Bill presented in the Lok Sabha.
→ After the Money Bill is passed by both the Houses of the Parliament, it is sent to the President for his assent.
→ The President has to sign the Money Bill.
→ Apart from this in both the houses of the Parliament the social, economic, political, defence and foreign matters are discussed.
→ The Houses of the Parliament are called as the custodians of public funds as it controls the functioning of the Executive.
Legislature at the State Level :
- Legislative Assembly:
Each State has a Legislature and it is called Legislative Assembly. Legislative Assembly is the Lower House.
- Legislative Council:
The other House of the Legislature is called the Legislative Council.
Qualification for membership of the State Legislature: Any person who is a citizen of India, is of 25 years or more, and is not in a state of unsound mind, insolvent or criminal cannot contest the elections of Legislative Assembly.
Time Period :
- The Legislative Assembly is not a permanent House. Its time period is of 5 years.
- In Legislative Assembly, Speaker and Deputy Speaker are elected by the members from amongst themselves.
- The members of the Legislative Council are elected from among the institutions of Local Self Governance, registered graduates, teachers of secondary and higher secondary by electorates.
- To be eligible as a member of the Legislative Council, the candidate should be of 30 years or more and must be a citizen of India.
- The Legislative Council is a permanent House.
• Union Executive means at Central Government, Political, Excutive comprising Administration of the Prime Minister and Cabinet of Ministers, President, Vice-President and Bureaucrats.
• Political and Administrative Executive officers and employees are in direct contact of the people.
• The Executive implements the laws framed by the Legislature.
• Political Executive changes every five years or if the power is given up. Whereas the administrative executive is formed by permanently appointed bureaucrats and hence it is permanent.
• Administrative Executive requires educational qualifications, quality, experience as well as passing competitive examination to be appointed permanently.
• The service of the administrative officers is known as the Civil Service. At the Centre, the Political Executive consists of President, Vice President, Prime Minister and Cabinet of Ministers as per the Constitution.
- President is the Constitutional Head of India.
- All the executive powers of the federal Government are given to the President by the Constitution.
- All the administration of the Central government is carried out in the name of the President. He is the Head of the nation and the first citizen of Republic of India.
- A Presidential candidate should be a citizen of India and should be 35 years of age or above.
- He should not be a salaried employee of the Government or hold any office of profit.
- He should not be a member of any of the Houses of the Parliament or State Legislative Assembly.
- The Presidential election is indirectly carried out by the members of both the Houses of the Parliament and the members elected to the State Legislative Assembly.
- A President is elected for a term of 5 years and he can contest the election after the completion of his term.
- When the President is in power neither criminal case can be framed against him nor an order of arrest or improvment can be issued.
Functions and Powers :
- He appoints Prime Minister, other ministers of the cabinet.
- The President has the power to declare war, cease the war or conclude treaties with other countries.
- He can establish ‘President rule’ by dissolving the State Cabinet Ministry.
- The Vice President: In the absence of the President, the Vice President performs the functions of the President.
- He is ex-officio chairman of Rajya Sabha.
Prime Minister :
- The Prime Minister is the real head of the Central Government.
- He distributes the portfolios.
- The Prime Minister is chairman of NITI Aayog.
- There are three level of ministers under the Prime Minister called Council of Ministers. The Cabinet Ministers, the State Ministers and the Deputy Ministers.
The Governor :
- The Council of Ministers is collectively responsible and accountable to the Lok Sabha.
- The Governor is appointed by the President of India on the advice of the Council of Ministers headed by the Prime Minister.
- The President can appoint a person as the Governor of more than one state.
- The Governor is the constitutional and formal head of the State.
- All executive powers of the State government are vested in him.
- The Governor has significant legislative powers.
- The position of the Governor in a State is similar to that of the President at the Centre.
- The Chief Minister is appointed by the Governor.
Administrative System :
- The Political Executive frames various policies in different fields.
- The detailed and efficient implementation of these policies is done by the Administrative Executive.
- The Administrative Executive advises and guides the state executives in the matters of policies.
- It provides required information and figures. However, the Political Executive is not bound to follow the advice of it.
Governance at the Local Level
- It is extremely difficult to carry out the Governance of the entire nation from a single place as the Central Government has way too many responsibilities.
- The power is decentralised with the objective to timely solve various problems, needs, expectations and aspirations of the people.
- Therefore, Government of India has passed the 73rd and 74th Constitutional amendment Act and established the local self government.
- The municipality, municipal corporation are the Institutes of Local Self Governance of urban area an for villages one can find Gram Panchayat, Taluka Panchayat and District Panchayat.
- The judiciary checks whether the laws are in accordance with the constitutional provision, or not, if the law is not consistent with the Constitution it declares the law unconstitutional and void.
- When any disputes arise between the Centre and the State or states then they are solved by the Supreme Court.
- The Indian judiciary is continuous and linear. At the top at the Central Level there is the Supreme Court, at the middle at the State Level there are High Courts and at the bottom level there are Trial Courts, Civil Courts, Criminal Courts and various subordinate Courts.