This GSEB Class 8 Social Science Notes Chapter 6 Effects of the British Rule in India covers all the important topics and concepts as mentioned in the chapter.
Effects of the British Rule in India Class 8 GSEB Notes
→ Until the 18th century the production techniques of India, its industries and organizations of trade and commerce were unmatched.
→ India became poor and bankrupt during the almost 200-year long British rule. India was the country that supplied raw material to the factories in England and a big market for finished products of the same English factories.
→ Diwani Rule-After acquiring rights to extract revenue from states like Bengal, Bihar and Orissa, the British started extracting maximum revenue from peasants thus making them poorer and poorer.
→ Moreover, lakhs of people starved to death during the terrible famine that Bengal witnessed in 1770 C.E.
→ Governor-General Lord Cornwallis enforced. ‘Permanent Settlement Act’ to collect revenue. Against this the poor farmers who worked in the hot sun were exploited and became poorer.
→ Warren Hastings was given the job of collecting revenue; so he was called ‘Collector’. He also functioned as a judge. This destroyed our ancient system of village self-rule which was handled by Gram Panchayats.
→ The British Policy of Social Reforms made the people feel insecure. They feared that the government was trying to convert them to Christianity in order to destroy Indian religion and culture.
→ People believed that the Indian Social System was deliberately undermined in railways and the military. An order was passed in Agra that every Indian had to salute the British. If this was not done, it was considered a crime liable for punishment. Thus a feeling of hatred for the British spread among Indian citizens.
→ Indian handlooms supplied cloth to the markets of Europe and Asia. European traders came to India for business. Indian jute, silk, wool and cotton were in high demand in Europen markets. Muslin of Dhaka was world famous.
→ Indian commodities like saltpetre, salt, lump sugar, etc. were also exported in exchange of tremendous amount of bullion (gold and silver). This scenario changed during the British rule. The flow of bullion was reversed.
→ These unjust rules made Indian cloth costly in Indian markets. So Indian textile, cottage and handicraft industries could not compete with British industries.
→ Many Indian industries like silk, glass, paper, minerals, ship-building, etc. were ruined.
→ Lakhs of people lost their jobs and many people became poorer and poorer.
→ In 1834, English education system was started with the help of Lord Macaulay. Mahatma Gandhiji said, “To give millions a knowledge of English is to enslave them.”
→ With English education the British government got administrative workers who knew English.
→ However, this education also developed national emotions among Indians.
→ In 1853 the British government started railway in India for quick transportation of army.
→ In 1854 C.E. British government started modern system of telegraph and post in India. Thereafter printing press and newspapers also started in India.
→ The reforms were introduced by the British for their benefit but they benefitted Indians too. But still those reforms became a blessing as the emotion of nationalism was inculcated in the minds of Indians y who were brought closer with education, newspapers and posts and telegraphs.