GSEB Class 6 Social Science Notes Chapter 2 Map

This GSEB Class 6 Social Science Notes Chapter 9 Ancient Towns covers all the important topics and concepts as mentioned in the chapter.

Ancient Towns Class 6 GSEB Notes

→ Due to earthquake, land is converted into water area and wherever there is water area, it becomes land. Small or big towns are buried underground somewhere. These towns are found at the time of excavation. We get coins, weapons, vessels, ornaments, toys, etc. from it. These things are called ‘ruins or remains’.

→ The remains have historical value. Historians make study of these remains and make the history authentic.

→ During excavation in the year 1921- 22 C.E. towns like Harappa from Sindh and Mohenjodaro from Punjab (now in Pakistan) were found. As these towns were extended in the valley of river Indus (Sindhu), they are known as ‘Indus (Sindhu) Valley Civilization’ or ‘Harappan Civilization’. This civilization dates back to approximately 4500 years.

→ The remains of Indus (Sindhu) Valley Civilization are found from the places like Rangpur, Rozadi, Lothal, Deshalpur and Dholavira in Gujarat. Lothal was a very important port of this civilization.

→ The town planning of Mohenjodaro and Harappa town was ideal, well-managed, well-organized and symbol of engineering art and skills and one of the most impressive features of the Indus valley civilization.

→ The buildings of these towns were built on a high level to provide protection from flood. Houses of rich people were two-storeyed. Each building had modern amenities.

→ The main roads, connected with small roads, streets, the lanes, etc. of Mohenjodaro and Harappa towns were very well organized and connected with each other. There were claypots for collecting garbage / wastage on the roadside and arrangement of lamps for providing light at night. There were markets on both sides of the main roads.

→ The underground drainage system was a dignifying characteristic of Indus (Sindhu) Valley Civilization. It gives an idea of the awareness of the people of that time about their hygiene and public health.

GSEB Class 6 Social Science Notes Chapter 9 Ancient Towns

→ From the remains of Mohenjodaro some public buildings are found, which mainly include the buildings which can be used as school, auditorium, a prayer hall, a civic centre, an administrative office, assembly hall, granary, a big building, bathroom, etc.

→ The people of this civilization used wheat, barley, pulses, millet, white gram, oilseeds like sesame, mustard, etc. in their food. This also included fish, meat, milk, date and fruits.

→ People of this period used ox / bullock for farming. They took two crops at a time in the farm. The remains of canals are found from Afghanistan and those of pond from Dholavira in Gujarat.

→ The main occupations of people of this period were pot-making and metal work. Lothal was an important overseas trading centre.

→ Generally, men and women used to wear two clothes. Women were very much fond of beauty products. The household things found from here give an idea about love for art and civilization in the people of that time.

→ Many beautiful clay-toys for the entertainment of children are found here.

→ Seals and writings on seals (scripts) were used by the people to maintain contacts with people living at a far away distance.

→ A script is a form of writing used by people for the language they use. Script which was found from here, was probably inspired by the early Sumerian script. It was picture-based. However, the historians have not been able to decipher the script till now.

→ Different measures of weights made of small and big stone pieces have been found there. These weights may have been used to make trade easier.

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