This GSEB Class 12 Economics Notes Chapter 7 Population covers all the important topics and concepts as mentioned in the chapter.
Population Class 12 GSEB Notes
Meaning of Population Explosion:
India’s death rate has fallen, rapidly and as against it, birth rate has not fallen to that extent which has resulted in rise in net population which is – known as population explosion.
Population Trends in India:
- Size of Population: Size of population refers to the total population in India during different periods.
- Population Growth Rate: The number and percentage increase in population is known as population growth rate. It depends on Birth rate and Death rate.
- Male and Female Population in India: The number of males and females of the total population is known as Gender distribution of population. It represents male-female ratio.
- Gender Ratio in India: The number of females in the country per 1000 males is identified as Sex ratio or Gender ratio or female-male ratio.
- Age-wise Population in India: It refers to the classification of population in different age groups. It helps in understanding aspects of working and non-working age groups.
- Rural and Urban Population in India: Number of people living in rural areas and the number of people living in urban areas constitutes the proportion of rural and urban population. It depends on various. factors like-extent of employment, education, health, social life, quality of life, economic returns, occupation, etc.
Causes of rapid increase in Population:
1. Meaning of Birth Rate and Death Rate:
- Birth rate: Birth rate means the number of children born for every 1000 people during the given year.
- It is not represented as percentage. -»On the basis of birth rate the increase in the population is known.
- Death rate: Death rate means the number of people who die for every 1000 people during a given year.
- It is not represented as percentage. On the basis of death rate the decrease in the population is known.
2. Causes of High Birth Rate:
- Universality of marriage,
- Early marriage and widow remarriage,
- Preference for a male child and
- Joint family system.
- Low level of education,
- Low level of income and
- High infant mortality rate.
- High fertility rate and
- Lack of family planning information.
3. Causes of Low Death Rate:
- Improvement in standard of living
- Control over epidemics
- Control on drought and
- Protection against natural calamities Transportation facilities.
Measures to Control Population:
- Mass education and awareness,
- Effective family planning
- Increasing the age of marriage
- Incentives and disincentives
- Expansion in medical services and
- Effective health services.
National Population Policy:
In 2000 under the chairmanship of Dr M. S. Swaminathan a committee was set up to frame new population policy.