GSEB Class 12 Economics Notes Chapter 7 Population

   

This GSEB Class 12 Economics Notes Chapter 7 Population covers all the important topics and concepts as mentioned in the chapter.

Population Class 12 GSEB Notes

Meaning of Population Explosion:
India’s death rate has fallen, rapidly and as against it, birth rate has not fallen to that extent which has resulted in rise in net population which is – known as population explosion.

Population Trends in India:

  • Size of Population: Size of population refers to the total population in India during different periods.
  • Population Growth Rate: The number and percentage increase in population is known as population growth rate. It depends on Birth rate and Death rate.
  • Male and Female Population in India: The number of males and females of the total population is known as Gender distribution of population. It represents male-female ratio.
  • Gender Ratio in India: The number of females in the country per 1000 males is identified as Sex ratio or Gender ratio or female-male ratio.
  • Age-wise Population in India: It refers to the classification of population in different age groups. It helps in understanding aspects of working and non-working age groups.
  • Rural and Urban Population in India: Number of people living in rural areas and the number of people living in urban areas constitutes the proportion of rural and urban population. It depends on various. factors like-extent of employment, education, health, social life, quality of life, economic returns, occupation, etc.

GSEB Class 12 Economics Notes Chapter 7 Population

Causes of rapid increase in Population:
1. Meaning of Birth Rate and Death Rate:

  • Birth rate: Birth rate means the number of children born for every 1000 people during the given year.
  • It is not represented as percentage. -»On the basis of birth rate the increase in the population is known.
  • Death rate: Death rate means the number of people who die for every 1000 people during a given year.
  • It is not represented as percentage. On the basis of death rate the decrease in the population is known.

2. Causes of High Birth Rate:
Social Factors:

  • Universality of marriage,
  • Early marriage and widow remarriage,
  • Preference for a male child and
  • Joint family system.

Economic Factors:

  • Low level of education,
  • Low level of income and
  • High infant mortality rate.

Other Factors:

  • High fertility rate and
  • Lack of family planning information.

3. Causes of Low Death Rate:

  • Improvement in standard of living
  • Control over epidemics
  • Control on drought and
  • Protection against natural calamities Transportation facilities.

Measures to Control Population:

  • Mass education and awareness,
  • Effective family planning
  • Increasing the age of marriage
  • Incentives and disincentives
  • Expansion in medical services and
  • Effective health services.

National Population Policy:
In 2000 under the chairmanship of Dr M. S. Swaminathan a committee was set up to frame new population policy.

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