Gujarat Board GSEB Solutions Class 12 English Second Language Unit 7 Read 2 Sojourner Truth Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.
GSEB Std 12 English Textbook Solutions Unit 7 Read 2 Sojourner Truth (2nd Language)
GSEB Class 12 English Sojourner Truth Text Book Questions and Answers
[ ✓ ] What did you understand from this speech? Tick mark, if you agree.
[ ✓ ] She favours freedom for women.
[ ✓ ] She believes that women have the strength to deal with odds/any type of problems.
[ ✓ ] All her children were sold but nobody helped her.
[ ✓ ] She insists that men should help women.
[ ✓ ] If all women unite, they can change the quality of life of modern world.
[ ✗ ] She agrees that women should not have equal rights with men, because Christ was not a woman.
Answer the following questions:
Who was Sojourner ?
Sojourner was a black American freedom fighter and orator.
Where was Sojourner born ?
Sojourner was born in Ulster County, New York.
What difficulties did Sojourner face in her childhood?
Sojourner was a daughter of Dutch parents. About the age of 9, she was auctioned off to an Englishman named John Nealy. The Nealys understood very little of her Dutch jargon, so she was brutally punished for no real reason. Then she was sold to a fisherman.
Why did Sojourner run away with her youngest child?
In 1827, after NY passed an emancipation act freeing its slaves, Sojourner prepared to take her family away but Dumont, her husband, was reluctant, so she ran away with her youngest child.
What did the emancipation act say ?
New York passed an emancipation act in 1827. It was meant to free slaves in America.
What did Sojourner do after an emancipation act?
After the emancipation act, Sojourner ran away with only her youngest child in spite of the reluctance of her owner, Dumont. She got settled in New York city. There she worked at a menial job and through friends came under the sway of Mathias, a religious fanatic.
What activities did Sojourner carry on ? during the Civil War?
During the Civil War, Sojourner bought gifts for the soldiers with money raised from helectures and helped fugitive slaves to find work and housing.
Why was it a blessing for Sojourner s to live in New York?
Sojourner was greatly influenced by Mathias in New York. During the war, she bought gifts for the soldiers and helped fugitive slaves to find work and housing. Thus she turned to 5 work for a noble cause. After the war, with these virtues she continued her tirade for the Lord and against racial injustice.
Write about her welfare activity.
Answer:After settling down in New York, She started working for noble causes. She bought 1 gifts for the soldiers. She helped fugitive slaves to find work and housing.
Write in brief about her belief for rights of men and women.
Sojourner firmly believed that the black people should enjoy all the rights that are being enjoyed by the Whites. Like white women, the black women also should be helped to get into carriages and lifted over ditches and to have the best place everywhere.
What did Sojourner complain about her right as a woman ?
Discrimination between men and women should not be shown nor practised. She asks why women can’t have as much rights as men. She raises a poignant question if it was because Christ wasn’t a woman Christ had also come from a woman, so women too should have equal rights as men.
3. Find and classify phrases from the speech.
|No.||General Beliefs||Life Experience of Sojourner|
|1.||Women need to be helped.||Nobody ever helped her.|
|2.||They should have the best place everywhere.||She did not have.|
|3.||They should avoid working in farms.||She did all the work.|
|4.||They should be given food.||She was not given.|
|5.||They should not be lashed.||She was lashed.|
|6.||They should not be sold off as a slaves.||She was sold.|
|7.||They should be allowed to enjoy women’s rights.||She did not enjoy rights.|
4. Find out and write the sentences from the Read which express the opposite meaning of these sentences.
As a child Sojourner was well treated by her parents.
As a child Sojourner’s parents auctioned her off to an Englishman named John Nealy.
Sojourner was an English speaker from her birth.
Nealy sold her to a fisherman who owned a tavern in Kingston, New York. Here she acquired the idiomatic expression which came to mark her
After emancipation act, her master set her free.
In 1827, after New York passed an emancipation act freeing its slaves, she prepared to take her family away. But Dumont began to show reluctance to this, so she ran away.
She gave all her income to her children which she got from her lecture.
During the Civil War, Truth bought gifts for the soldiers with the money raised from her lectures and helped fugitive slaves find work and housing.
(A) Short notes
Write a short note focussing on the questions:
(1) Sojourner Truth
- Who was Sojourner
- difficulties faced by Sojourner in her childhood
- her activities during civil war
- her belief for rights of men and women
Sojourner Truth : Sojourner Truth was a black American freedom fighter and orator. She was a child of African parents – Baumfree and Elizabeth. At the age of 9, she was auctioned of to an Englishman, John Nealy.
The Nealys did not understand her Dutch jargon and she was brutally punished for no real reason. Eventually he sold her to a fisherman.
There she acquired the idiomatic expressions which came to mark her speech. Then John J. Dumont purchased her. During her tenure with his family, she married and had five children.
Even against, Dumont’s reluctance, she ran away with only her youngest child and finally wound up in New York city. She worked at a menial job and through some friends, she came under the sway of a religious fanatic named Mathias.
During the Civil War, Truth bought gifts for the soldiers with’ money raised from her lectures and helped fugitive slaves find work and housing. After the war, she continued her tirade for the Lord and against racial injustice.
In one of her famous speeches entitled as Ain’t I a woman’, she spoke aggressively regarding the injustice and humiliation done to the Negro women.
She blurted bluntly why women couldn’t have as much rights as man because Christ wasn’t a women? She firmly told that women are also as strong as man. She died in Battle Creek, Mich sanatorium on November 26, 1883.
- Who was Sojourner Truth?
- Where was she born ?
- How did she become a slave ?
- How was she treated as a slave ?
- Why did she run away to New York ?
- What were her welfare activities ?
Sojourner Struggle : Sojourner Truth was a black American freedom fighter. She was born Isabella Baumfree in Ulster Country, New York. She was a daughter of an African named Baumfree and a woman called Elizabeth. About at the age of 9, she was auctioned off to an Englishman – John Nealy. The Nealys hardly her Dutch jargon, therefore she was brutally punished for no reason.
Eventually Nealy sold her to a fisherman who owned a tavern in Kingston, NY. Then John J. Dumont purchased her next. There she married and had five children. From there she ran away with only her youngest child and tried to settle in New York city. There through her friends, she came under the sway of a religious fanatic Mathias.
During Civil War, she bought gifts for the soldiers and helped fugitive slaves find work and housing. After the war, she fought against racial injustice and ended her life in Battle Creek, Mich sanatorium on November 26, 1883.
(B) Reading Comprehension
Read the following extracts and answer the questions:
(1) During the Civil War, Truth bought gifts for the soldiers with money raised from her lectures and helped fugitive slaves find work and housing. After the war, she continued her tirade for the Lord and against racial injustice, even when old age and ill health restricted her activities to the confines of a Battle Creek, Mich, sanatorium. She died there on November 26, 1883.
(1) What did Truth do for a noble cause ?
(2) What did she continue doing even in her old age and in spite of her ill health ?
(1) Truth, during the Civil war, brought gifts for the soldiers with money raised from her lectures and helped fugitive slaves find work and housing.
(2) Truth continued her tirade for the Lord and against racial injustice, even when old age and ill health restricted her activities to the confines of a sanatorium.
(1) What did Truth buy for the soldiers ?
(2) When did she die ?
(1) Truth bought gifts for the soldiers.
(2) She died on November 26, 1883.
(2) From God and a woman! Man had nothing to do with him. If the first woman God ever made was strong enough to turn the ) world upside down all alone, these women together ought to be able to turn it back,and get it right sideup again! And now they is asking to do it, the men better let them. Obliged to you for hearing me, and now old Sojourner ain’t got nothing more to say.
(1) How does Truth motivate the women ?
(2) What does she want to tell the men ?
(1) Truth says that if the first woman, i.e., Eve, God ever made was strong enough to turn the world upside down alone, why all these women can’t do something extraordinary . They should turn back and show their strength.
(2) She wants to tell the men that women are not at all less than them. They are equal to them and they can do better. They must be allowed opportunity to show off their capacity.
(C) Say True or False
Write whether the following sentences are True or False:
(1) Sojourner Truth was an African freedom fighter and orator.
(2) Sojourner used to speak Dutch language in her childhood.
(3) John J. Dumont was a plantation owner.
(4) Nealy owned a tavern in Kingston.
(5) Mathias was a fisherman.
(6) Sojourner ran away to New York with all her five children.
(7) Sojourner raised money for fugitive slaves from her lectures.
(8) Truth fought against social injustice.
(9) Truth’s speech entitled ‘Ain’t I a Woman ?’ given in New York became very famous.
(10) Sojourner had borne thirteen children.
(11) Sojourner fought for women’s equality.
In each set, there are three words which are synonymous while one is an antonym. Find the odd one out.
(1) structured, chaotic, disorganized, lawless
(2) grab, let go, catch, snatch
(3) cheer, delight, sad, pleasure
(4) protest, revolt, oppose, obey
(5) rare, strange, common, unique
(6) gentle, fierce, intense, ferocious
(7) erupt, break out, be quiet, explode
(8) ordinary, awesome, impressive, wondrous
(2) let go
(7) be quiet
Find out antonyms from the text.
Frame sentences of your own using both the words in a sentence:
(gently, skilled, liberate, generous, harmony, kind)
Example : gently x brutally
Parents must treat small kids gently instead of treating them brutally.
skilled x unskilled
Today skilled persons are preferred for certain jobs and not the unskilled ones.
liberated x jailed
Some kids feel liberated as they come out of school where they feel jailed.
generous x selfish
Generous people are praised everywhere, never the selfish ones.
harmony x sinisterness
Our attitude should be in harmony with our surrounding and not sinisterness.
kind x harsh
We should be kind to the poor and not harsh.
3 Fill the blanks with the most appropriate words.
(1) It’s really mean to lash the animals. (lash, sway, mean, barn)
(2) The provocative criticism caused a social ’ tension and headed the whole community to a chaotic state.
(plantations, headed, criticism, emancipated)
(3) The labourers gathered in the evenings in the inns of the town and talked in their typical jargon, (jargon, ditches, inns, orator)
(4) Twixt the enslavement and male dominance, the condition of Negro women was terribly pitiful, (enslavement, fanatic. twixt, auctioned)
4. I Find out who am I?
(interviewee, employee, absentee, appointee,charioteer, engineer, devotee, nominee, employer, mountaineer, puppeteer)
My friends always stay eager to read a new sonnet or short poem written by me. Who am I?
(1) I strongly believe In God and regularly visit a religious place to render my services there. — devotee
(2) My husband Instructed the bank that if he dies. I will get all the amount in the account. — nominee
(3) I went for a job. The officer asked me some questions. — employer
(4) Today I selected 5 people to work for my company. — intervIewee
(5) I work in this company. — employee
(6) I was supposed to be present here but I couldn’t. — absentee
5. Find out and note down the words.
(1) between = twixt
(2) a metal = steel
(3) the hardest body part = teeth
(4) a channel, a drain = ditch
(5) to flee or run away = escape
(6) a chaos, noise = racket
6. Circle the odd one out.
(1) tirade, racket, chaos, conspiracy
(2) freedom, revolution, emancipation, independence
(3) mean, ignoble, brutal, irregular
(4) master, fanatic, slave, employer
7. Find out the suitable words from the brackets and add them to the series of the words.
(head, sway, fugitive, fanatic, menial, auctioned, orator, lash)
(1) renegade, run away, absconder – fugitive
(2) extremist, militant, activist – fanatic
(3) swing, influence, affect – sway
(4) unskilful, trivial, tedious – menial
(5) hit, whip, blow – lash
(6) conversationalist, speaker, narrator – orator
(7) sale, trade, mart – auctioned
(8) direct, lead, guide – head
1. Read the conversation.
In school, you and Rahul approached your teacher. Rahul had a few queries.
Rahul: “How can I improve my handwriting, Madam ?”
Teacher : “See Rahul, it is not just the handwriting, your content of the answer is also very poor.”
Rahul: “Yes Madam. I know. Will you please show
me the way to improve my performance ?”
Teacher: “You first of all need to be regular in your class. Be attentive to whatever is discussed in the class. Leave your habit of arguing with the teachers and lastly start writing practice.”
Rahul: “Thank you very much, madam. I will surely try all this.”
Now you are reporting this to your elder s brother at home. Complete the passage filling in the gaps with appropriate words:
Rahul inquired of his class teacher how he could improve his handwriting. Responding to his query, the class teacher drew his attention to the facts that it was not just the handwriting but his content of the answer was also very poor. Rahul accepted the point and requested her to show him the way to improve his performance. So the teacher told him that first of all he needed to be regular in his class. She also advised him to be attentive to whatever was discussed in the class and leave his habit of arguing with the teachers and lastly she also suggested him to start practice writing. Rahul thanked her and told her that he would surely try all that.
2. Read the text.
“How many hours a day do you study, Laxmi ?”
“Who ? Me, sir ?” confirmed Laxmi. ‘
“Yes. I am talking to you, Laxmi.”
“Why, Sir ? I study well.”
“I find you ‘Online’ on social networking sites even at late hours.”
“Oh! That is the case ! Sir, my brother uses my phone when I am at home.”
3. Fill in the gaps using appropriate words to complete the report of the above dialogue.
Teacher enquired of Laxmi as to how many hours a day she studied. So Laxmi confirmed if it was her. The teacher confirmed that he was talking to her intending to know the reason behind such inquiry Laxmi assured that she studied well. So the teacher explained the problem telling her that he found her ‘online’ on social networking sites even at late hours. Laxmi exclaimed with a little shock and regaining her confidence told the teacher that her brother used her phone when she was at home.
4. Read the paragraph.
“Look, he is coming this way” seeing the policeman coming towards us, my wife whispered to me. Trying to maintain the cool look I said, “Good Morning Officer!!” who was now just in front of us.
“What are you doing here at this odd hour of night ?” he said, with a strict tone, looking to his wrist watch which showed 1:30am. “We are husband and wife and our car has broken down,” I tried to explain in order to clear his doubts. “Let me have a look at your ownership documents and driving license,” demanded the officer. Now, complete the paragraph by filling in gaps with appropriate reporting words.
Pointing my attention towards the approaching policeman my wife whispered to me that he was coming that way. Just as the policeman got in front of us, I with cool looks said that wished him good morning.
With a strict tone and looking to his wrist watch which showed 1:30 am he asked us what we were doing there at that odd hour of night. In order to clear his doubts, I explained that we were husband and wife and our car had broken down. The officer demanded to have a look at his ownership documents and driving licence.
5. Read the messages and report them as shown in the example.
Message: Hema said to Ramesh, “We will meet tomorrow.”
Reporting: Hema told Ramesh that they would meet the next day.
Krishna informed Ganesh, “I won’t be attending the party tomorrow.”
Krishna informed Ganesh that he would not be attending the party, the next day.
The teacher said, “Ajay, Have completed your homework ?”
The teacher asked Ajay if he completed his homework.
The passenger, “What is the time of the train to Ahmedabad ?”
The passenger asked the time of the train to Ahmedabad.
“Go back home now, King” said the saint, “and you will find what you need.”
The King commanded the saint to go back home then and that he would find what he needed.
Pradip said to Meena, “Please sing a song for me.”
Pradip requested Meena to sing a song for him.
Roy said, “Hurrah ! Our team won.”
Roy applauded that their team had won.
The boy said, “Let’s play for half an hour.”
The boy suggested that they should play for half an hour.
Parul said to her friend, “Thank you for your kind help.”
Parul thanked her friend for her kind help.
6. Read this conversation between Vishal and Ashish about a movie.
“Which movie was released yesterday?” said Vishal. ‘Badlapur.’ said Ashish.
“Wow. It has my favourite actor, Varun Dhawan.” said Vishal.
“Good. And I’m a fan of Nawazuddin Siddiqui. So would you like to join me to watch the film?” said Ashish.
“Yes, Indeed. When are you planning to watch it?” said Vishal.
“Let’s bunk today’s last lecture of Sanskrit and go for the film.” said Ashish.
”No. There is an important topic in Sanskrit lecture today. Can we go tomorrow on Sunday?” said Vishal.
“That’s fine. We’ll go tomorrow.” said Ashish.
Now narrate it to your friend.
Vishal asked Ashish which movie was released the previous day. Ashish replied that it was ‘Badlapur. Vishal expressed his appreciation and commented that it had his favourite actor Varun Dhawan. Ashish said that it was good. He informed Vishal that he was a fan of Nawazuddin Siddiqui.
He further asked Vishal if he would like to join him to watch the film. Vishal replied he would and asked him when he was planning to watch it. Ashish suggested that they should bunk the last lecture of Sanskrit that day and go for the film.
Vishal refused and informed that there was an important topic in Sanskrit lecture that day. And suggested if they could go the next day that was on Sunday. Ashish agreed and promised that they would go the next day.
7. Imagine that you are Sergeant Morris who witnesses the following conversation between Mr White and Mrs White. Make a diary entry of this conversation.
Mrs White demanded the monkey’s paw as she wanted to make a wish and have her son back. “I want it” she said “Why?” “I only just thought of it,” she said hysterically. “The other two wishes. Why didn’t I think of it before ?” she replied rapidly. “What wish ?” Mr White asked.
“Wish our boy alive again. Bring him back,” cried the old woman. “It is foolish and wicked,” he faltered. “Wish!” repeated his wife. He took out the monkey’s paw and raised his hand. “I wish my son alive again.”
The paw fell on the floor and after a few moments a knock was heard at the door. “Who could that be ?” enquired Mr White. “That must be my son.” replied the old lady and ran towards the door. “Don’t let it in, for God’s sake” cried Mr White shivering in fear.
Mrs White demanded the monkey’s paw as she wanted to make a wish and have her son back. She was hysterical and thought that since other two wishes had been fulfilled, she would make the third wish to have their boy alive again.
Mr White felt that it was foolish and wicked. But his wife insisted that he should make the wish : Mr White took the paw and raising his hand he made the wish that his son was alive again.
The paw fell on the floor and after a few moments a knock was heard on the door. Mr White wondered who that could be. The old lady guessed that it might be her son and ran towards the door.
Mr White was shivering in fear and prayed to God that it should not be allowed to enter the house.
8. Rewrite the following as a dialogue (direct speech) and not as reported by someone. Make necessary changes.
Father inquired about her daughter’s health.
“How are you feeling today, Jill ?” asked her father.
She expressed gratitude for the support I had provided her.
She said to me, “Thank you very much for the support you have provided to me.”
Jayesh offered to buy his classmate a cup of coffee.
Jayesh said to his classmate, “May I buy you a cup of coffee ?”
We politely declined our political leader’s invitation.
We said to the political leader, “Sir, it will not be possible for us to accept your invitation.”
Reema expressed surprise at meeting her classmates there.
Reema said to her classmate, Wow! How come, you are here !”
Students were warned not to go out in the night during camp. There were wild animals around.
The camp director said to the students, “Don’t go out during the night as there are wild animals around the camp.”
9. Here is a report of a telephone message on a tape recorder by a secretary. Write the actual words that you think Mr Atri used.
Mr Atri said that he was very sorry that he could not attend the sales conference on Monday. He was leaving for Delhi that evening and would not be back till Wednesday. He wondered if Mr Shyam could go to the sales conference instead. He would appreciate if he could know by that evening, so that he could ask Mr Shyam for his travel arrangements. He apologized for any inconvenience caused.
Mr Atri said, “I am very sorry I cannot attend the sales conference on Monday. I am leaving for Delhi in the evening and will not be back till Wednesday.
Can Mr Shyam go to the sales conference instead of me. It would be nice if you can let me know by evening so that I can ask Mr Shyam about his Travel arrangements. I am very sorry for the inconvenience caused.”
10. Imagine this event and complete the conversation using reported speech.
One day a man from the future met me …I asked him which year they are in presently. He replied that they were in 2050 presently. I enquired if they had currency in notes and coins. He answered that he had never seen notes and coins. I asked him why he had not seen them.
Then I asked him further how they made financial transactions. He answered that every financial was done online, so they never needed any physical instruments.
I asked him when he would go to Mars for visit. He said that he never would prefer to go to Mars as he did not like the environment there, but very soon he was planning to visit the moon. I asked him to give me the details of the itinerary of his visit to the moon. He bade me good bye and vanished.
Your friend has participated in an essay writing competition in his school. The topic is ‘My favourite leader’. Write a letter to him telling him about your favourite leader and inspire him.
51, Shankershet Road,
Pune – 411002.
January 7, 2021
I hope my letter finds you in best of your health.
I was very glad to know that you are participating in the essay competition. The topic is very encouraging. Since you are writing an essay on your favourite leader, you should find out his date of birth.
A little information about the childhood ‘ A days. The activities in which he particiapted, Find out the circumstances which led him to become a leader.Helen Keller is my favourite leader.
In spite of being deaf and blind how she succeeded in encouraging others is the most important aspect of her life. I hope you do well and come out with flying colours.Pay my respects to your parents and love to your younger brother.
Write a paragraph sharing your views on :Women Education and Women Empowerment.
- Why should there be a similar education for women and men ?
- How can education empower women ?
- Do you favour reservation and special facilities for girl students ? Why ?
Our society was male dominated in the past. Social workers in the past had always been striving to educate our women. In modern ‘ times it has become very obvious that women can achieve success in tasks assigned to them.
The place of women should not be restricted to kitchen or bringing up children. We can help women to empower themselves because they have the ability to do so. At times they prove to be very successful.
Reservation for women should be practised and law which provides such reservations should be made more flexible. Education of women is a ‘must’.
Write a speech in about 150 words on Problems of Working Women.
Women are the backbone of any society. At the outset we can see that the frailty of women has always been advantageous to male dominance.
Today it is very necessary that women work hand in hand with men for the betterment of their families. But they face problems. The working women have to manage their household affairs also.
It is taken for granted that it is the task of the women to do the chores. Women are answerable to the elders in the house. On the other hand they are also answerable to the officers at the working place.
The most important problem is that sometimes they are unable to justify the role of mother, daughter or wife. We have to be considerate and compassionate.
The women should be provided transportation facility by the employer in code of late office hours. If this is not provided, they would face problems which may prove harmful. It is the responsibility of every male citizen to take care of the women as they play a very important role in the betterment of the society.
Frame about 10 questions to interview working women. Interview three working women.
Interviewing a Working Woman
(1) What are your working hours ?
(2) How do you manage to go to your workplace ?
(3) When do you get up and manage household chores before going to your workplace ?
(4) How do you manage your children ? Can you spare time for them ?
(5) What are the expectations of your family members from you ?
(6) Does your husband cooperate you on all the fronts ?
(7) How do you manage work at your workplace with your household duties all the time lingering on your mind ?
(8) Is your employer satisfied with your work ?
(9) How many leaves do you take from office ? For what purposes ?
(10) Are your family members (along with your children) satisfied with your contribution in the house ?
Search from internet which other short stories William Wymark Jacobs has written. Read of the other creations of W. W. Jacobs in the class.
Search on the net for the ‘World’s best short stories’. Read one of the suggested short stories.
Note: Students will browse on net and search out the stories themselves.
Meet a working woman. Talk to her about the problems she faces because she is a working woman. Enlist her problems.
Note: Students will meet a working woman. They will talk with her and know her problems. They will make the list of the problems themselves.
Sojourner Truth Summary in Gujarati
ને પોરચય ‘સજર્નર ટૂથ’ એ એક શ્યામ અમેરિકન સ્વાતંત્ર્યસેનાની અને પ્રભાવશાળી વક્તાની વીતકકથા છે. ‘શ્યામ હોવું એટલે ગોરાઓના ગુલામ હોવું” એવો વણલખ્યો કાયદો હબસીઓની નીતિ હતી. 9 વર્ષની કુમળી વયે ટુથને હરાજીમાં ‘નીલી’ નામના એક અંગ્રેજે ખરીદી. ટૂથની ડચ ભાષા અંગ્રેજ કુટુંબ સમજી શકતું નહિ, તેથી તેને કોઈ પણ કારણ વગર ક્રૂર સજા કરતા.
તે અંગ્રેજે તેણીને એક માછીમારને વેચી. ત્યારબાદ ડ્યુમોન નામના વાડીના એક માલિકે તેને ખરીદી. ત્યાંના તેના સમયગાળા દરમિયાન તેનાં લગ્ન થયાં અને પાંચ બાળકો થયાં. 1927માં ન્યૂ યૉર્કે ગુલામોની મુક્તિનો કાયદો કર્યો તો તેણી તેના કુટુંબને દૂર લઈ જવા માગતી હતી, પણ ડ્યુમોને નામરજી બતાવી. આખરે, તેણીએ તેના સૌથી નાના બાળક સાથે જ ન્યૂ યૉર્ક પહોંચવું પડ્યું. તેણે ત્યાં નોકરી શરૂ કરી.
સિવિલ વૉર દરમિયાન ભાષણો કરી, તેમાંથી રળેલા પૈસાથી તે સૈનિકો માટે ભેટસોગાદો લાવી અને ભાગી આવેલા ગુલામોને તેણે કામ અને રહેઠાણ અપાવ્યાં. તેણે રંગભેદનીતિથી થતા અન્યાય સામેનાં ટીકાત્મક ભાષણો ચાલુ રાખ્યાં. પણ વૃદ્ધત્વ અને અસ્વસ્થ તબિયતને લીધે તેની પ્રવૃત્તિઓ રોકાઈ ગઈ. તેણી નવેમ્બર 26, 1883માં બૅટલક્રીક ખાતેના પોતાના નિવાસસ્થાને મૃત્યુ પામી.
તેણે ઓહાયો ખાતે ડિસેમ્બર, 1851માં “ધ વિમેન્સ કન્વેશન ઇન એક્રોન’માં આપેલું ભાષણ “શું હું સ્ત્રી નથી?” અતિશય લોકપ્રિય બન્યું. “ગોરાઓ દક્ષિણના નીગ્રો અને ઉત્તરની સ્ત્રીઓના અધિકારો વિશે જે બણગાં ફૂંકે છે, એ લોકો શું કોઈ પણ સ્થળે સ્ત્રીઓને મદદ કરે છે ખરા? ગાડીમાં કે અન્ય સ્થાનોએ મને કોઈએ મદદ કરી નથી.
મેં ખેતરો ખેડ્યાં છે, અનાજ વાવ્યું છે, લખ્યું છે અને કોઈ પુરુષ મારી મદદે આવ્યો નથી. “શું હું એક સ્ત્રી નથી?” પુરુષના જેટલું જ હું કામ કરું છું, ત્રાસ સહન કરું છું. મેં તેર બાળકોને જન્મ આપ્યો અને બધાંને ગુલામી માટે વેચી માર્યા.
ત્યારે એક માનો ચિત્કાર કોઈએ સાંભળ્યો ખરો? દરેક બાબતમાં રંગભેદ રાખનારા ગોરાઓને અમારા (કાળાઓના) અધિકાર વિશે વાત કરવાનો શો હક? પુરુષોને સ્ત્રી કરતાં વધારે અધિકાર કારણ કે શું ક્રાઇસ્ટ પુરુષ હતા તેથી?
ક્રાઇસ્ટ ક્યાંથી જન્મ્યા હતા? દુનિયામાં સૌપ્રથમ ઈશ્વરે સ્ત્રીનું જ સર્જન કર્યું, તેથી તો આ દુનિયા સર્જાઈ. શું સ્ત્રીઓને પુરુષ સમોવડા અધિકાર મેળવવાનો હક નથી? અંતે થે સમગ્ર શ્રોતાગણનો પોતાનું વક્તવ્ય સાંભળ્યા બદલ આભાર માન્યો.
Phrases and Idioms
સજર્નર ટૂથ (1797 – 1883) એક અમેરિકન સ્વાતંત્ર્યસેનાની તથા વક્તા હતાં. એમણે પુત્રી તરીકે ઇઝાબેલા નામે આફ્રિકન પિતા બૉમક્રી (ડચ માલિકના નામ પરથી) અને માતા એલિઝાબેથને ત્યાં ન્યૂ યૉર્કના અલ્સટર કાઉન્ટીમાં જન્મ લીધો હતો. લગભગ 9 વર્ષની ઉંમરે તેમને હરાજીમાં હૉન નીલી નામના એક અંગ્રેજને આપી દેવાયાં.
નીલી પરિવાર તેણીની ડચ બોલી સમજી શકતા ન હતા, અને પરિણામે, કોઈ વાજબી કારણ વગર તેમને ક્રૂરતાથી સજા કરવામાં આવતી. પ્રસંગોપાત્ત નીલી પરિવારે તેણીને કિંગ્ટન, ન્યૂ યૉર્ક ખાતે દારૂનું પીઠું ધરાવનાર એક માછીમારને વેચી મારી. અહીં તેણીએ અનુભવથી (ત્યાંની) રૂઢ શૈલી શીખી લીધી, જેની તેણીના બોલવા પર વિશિષ્ટ અસર પડી. ત્યારબાદ હૉન જે.
ડ્યુમોન નામના નજીકમાં રહેતા રોપ-ઉછેર વ્યવસાયના માલિકે તેણીને ખરીદી. તેના કુટુંબ સાથેના તેણીના સમયગાળા દરમિયાન તેણીએ લગ્ન કર્યા અને પાંચ બાળકોને જન્મ આપ્યો. 1827માં ન્યૂ યૉર્કે તેના ગુલામોને મુક્ત કરવાનો મુક્તિધારો પસાર કર્યો અને તેણી તેના કુટુંબને દૂર (બીજે) લઈ જવા તૈયાર થઈ, પરંતુ ડ્યુમોન આ બાબતે તૈયાર નહોતો, તેથી તેણી તેના સૌથી નાના બાળકને લઈ જતી રહી.
છેવટે તેણી ન્યૂ યૉર્ક શહેરમાં આવી સ્થિર થઈ. ત્યાં તે લોકોનાં ઘરનાં કામ કરવા લાગી અને થોડાક મિત્રો દ્વારા સંપર્ક થયેલ) મૅથિઆસ નામના એક ધર્મઝનૂની વ્યક્તિના પ્રભાવમાં ખેંચાઈ. ગૃહયુદ્ધ દરમિયાન, ટુથ તેનાં ભાષણોમાંથી કમાયેલા પૈસાથી સૈનિકો માટે ભેટસોગાદો લાવી અને ભાગેડુ ગુલામોને કામ અને ઘર શોધી આપવા મદદ કરવા લાગી. યુદ્ધ બાદ વૃદ્ધત્વ અને માંદગીએ તેણીની પ્રવૃત્તિઓને બૅટલક્રીક, મિચના સ્વાધ્યગૃહમાં સીમિત કરી દીધી
હોવા છતાં તેણીએ ખુદાને ખાતર તેનાં જાતિભેદના અન્યાય સામેનાં લાંબાં આક્રોશયુક્ત ભાષણો ચાલુ રાખ્યાં. ત્યાં જ તેણી 26 નવેમ્બર 1883ના રોજ મૃત્યુ પામી. અહીં, તેણીએ તેણીનાં ઘણાં બધાં ભાષણોમાંથી ડિસેમ્બર, 1851માં ઓહાયો ખાતે “ધ વિમૅન્સ કન્વેન્શન ઇન એક્રોન’માં ‘ઍઇન્ટ આઈ અ વુમન?’ (શું હું સ્ત્રી નથી? એવા શીર્ષક હેઠળ) પ્રખ્યાત થયેલું એક ભાષણ આપ્યું છે:
હા, તો બાળકો જ્યાં (પણ) છેતરાવાનું હશે ત્યાં સારી સ્થિતિમાં બહાર આવવાના રસ્તાઓ) પણ હશે જ. મને લાગે છે કે દક્ષિણની નીગ્રો પ્રજા અને ઉત્તરની સ્ત્રીઓ, બધા જ જ્યારે હકની વાત કરે છે, ત્યારે ગોરાઓ ટૂંક સમયમાં મુશ્કેલીમાં મુકાશે.
પણ અહીં આ બધા શાની વાતો કરે છે? ત્યાં પેલો માણસ કહે છે કે સ્ત્રીઓને ગાડીમાં લઈ જવા મદદ કરવી જોઈએ અને ખાડીઓ પાર કરાવવી જોઈએ તેમજ દરેક સ્થળે તેમને શ્રેષ્ઠ સ્થાન જ આપવું જોઈએ.
મને તો કોઈ ગાડીમાં લઈ જવા, ખાડીઓ પાર કરવા કે સારા સ્થળે પહોંચાડવા મદદ કરતું નથી! અને શું હું સ્ત્રી નથી? મારા હાથ સામે જુઓ! મેં (ખેતર) ખેડ્યું છે, પાક વાવ્યો છે અને ઢોરને વાડામાં પૂર્યા છે અને કોઈ પુરુષ (મારી મદદ માટે) આગળ આવ્યો નથી. શું હું સ્ત્રી નથી?
હું એક પુરુષ જેટલું કામ પણ કરી શકું છું અને ખાઈ પણ શકું છું – (ખાવાનું) જ્યારે મળે ત્યારે – અને કોરડાનો માર પણ સહી લઉં છું. શું હું સ્ત્રી નથી? મેં તેર બાળકોને જન્મ આપ્યો છે અને બધાને ગુલામો માટે વેચાઈ જતાં જોયાં છે, અને જ્યારે મારામાં રહેલી માતાએ
દર્દભર્યું આક્રંદ કર્યું છે ત્યારે ભગવાન જીસસ સિવાય એ કોઈએ કાને ધર્યું નથી ! શું હું એક સ્ત્રી નથી? અને પછી તે લોકો આ બાબત તેમના દિમાગમાં હોવાની વાતો કરે છે અને એ લોકો શું કહે છે? (શ્રોતાઓમાંથી એક ધીમેથી બોલે છે “બુદ્ધિ’).
‘ હા, એ જ, ભાઈ, એને સ્ત્રીઓના કે નીગ્રો પ્રજાના અધિકાર (હક) સાથે શી લેવાદેવા? અગર મારા કપમાં એક ‘પિંટ’થી વધારે (દારૂ) સમાતો નથી અને તમારા(કપ)માં એક ‘ક્વાર્ટ’ સમાય છે, તો શું તમારે મને તેમાંથી મારો કપ ભરવા અડધોય નહીં આપો, આટલી નીચતા દેખાડશો? તો પછી કાળા પોશાકમાં સજ્જ ત્યાં બેઠેલો ઠીંગણો માણસ કહે છે કે “સ્ત્રીઓ પુરુષો જેટલા અધિકાર ન ભોગવી શકે’, ‘શું
એ) એટલા માટે કે જીસસ ક્રાઇસ્ટ એક સ્ત્રી નહોતા? તમારા ક્રાઇસ્ટ ક્યાંથી જન્મ લીધો હતો? તમારા ક્રાઇસ્ટ ક્યાંથી આવ્યા હતા? ભગવાન હોય કે સ્ત્રી, પુરુષે એમાં કશું કરવાનું નથી. જો સર્વપ્રથમ બનેલ શ્રી ભગવાન આખાય વિશ્વને એકલી ઊંધું કરી શકે તેટલી તાકતવર હોય, તો આ બધી સ્ત્રીઓ (ભેગી મળીને) તેને પાછું વાળી દેવા શક્તિમાન હોવી જોઈએ અને સીધું કરીને તેમનો હક ફરીથી મેળવી શકે.
અને હવે તેઓ તે કરવા માગે છે, પુરુષોએ તેમને તેમ કરવા દેવું જોઈએ. મને સાંભળ્યા બદલ હું તમારી ણી છું, અને હવે આ વૃદ્ધ (થઈ ચૂકેલી) સર્જનને બીજું કશું કહેવાનું રહેતું નથી.