Gujarat Board GSEB Solutions Class 11 English Second Language Unit 8 Read 3 Post-Counselling Discussion Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.
GSEB Std 11 English Textbook Solutions Unit 8 Read 3 Post-Counselling Discussion (2nd Language)
GSEB Class 11 English Post-Counselling Discussion Text Book Questions and Answers
Answer the following questions in three to four sentences each:
What were the three most important questions asked by Ms Shah?
(1) What have you to say for the profession of a scientist?
(2) What kind of lifestyle do you prefer?
(3) Would you also like to serve mankind with the help of science?
What are the main traits of Pratik’s personality?
Pratik Is fond of reading. He likes to prepare projects. He likes to work on computers. He will be satisfied with lits regular income. He does not want to be a millionaire. He likes simple living. He wants to contribute his talent for the progress of the nation.
Had you been in place of Pratik what career option would you have chosen?
Had I been in place of Pratik. I would have chosen to be a Computer Engineer as the scope of jobs in this field are more in India and abroad.
1. Short Notes
1.Write a short note focussing on the questions:
How Pratik Gets Guidance for bis Career
(1) Which steps had Pratik to follow for getting career counseLling?
(2) How does Miss Pooja Shah derive suitable career option for Pratik?
(3) What should Pratik go for to make his career In?
(4) Is Pratik happy with Miss Pooja Shah’s suggestions? How?
Pratik approached Apex Counselling Centre for his career guidance. First of all his 1.Q. and career Inventory tests were taken. After a week, he was called for personal counselling. The counsellor, Miss Pooja Shah asked Pratik various questions to derive proper option of his career choice. Then a post-counselling session.
was held to give Pratik the final verdict for his career choice. Having studied all the aspects of Pratik’s potentials — his personality, aptitude. ability. etc. and above all, his results of The Interest Inventory’ and ‘The EQ. Test’, Miss Pooja Shah arrived to the conclusion that he can be a Forensic Scientist. Pratik’s passion for reading detective novels, solving mysteries and his value of truth and justice along with other features led her to come to this conclusion. Pratik and his parents thanked her for doing this great job.
2. Reading Comprehension
Read the extract and answer the questions:
Miss Shah : Why not? He can enjoy all the thrills of solving a mystery by being a forensic scientist. His reports will be considered valuabie In the court which will bring justice to the innocents.
A forensic science expert needs all the logic and the art of troubleshooting which your son already has.
Pratik: Oh! Thank you Miss Shah. I really feel relieved and happy with just a thought that I will pursue a profession which has incorporated my hobbies, my values, my passion, my abilities and my view of life. I would never be bored with such a work. In fact I would enjoy working over time.
Miss Shah: Mr Mehta I have just tried to help you all. Still the choice is yours.
(1) Rewrite the statement by selecting the correct option :
A student can enjoy the thrills of solving a mystery…
(a) by being a police officer.
(b) by being a successful engineer.
(c) by being a forensic scientist.
(2) What thought gave Pratik the feeling of being relieved and happy?
(1) A student can enjoy the thrills of solving a mystery by being a forensic scientist.
(2) Pratik felt relieved and happy by the thought that he would pursue a profession which incorporated his hobbies, values, passion, abilities and view of life.
Study what these people say and advise them which profession is suitable for them and give two reasons for it:
Case Study 1.
I’m Sneha. Biology is my favourite subject. I like helping people. I give first aid to the players of my school’s Basketball Team. We are not rich so I have to find a job as soon as possible. I’m an introvert. I don’t like to lead but to follow commands.
Profession: I think she should become a pharmacist.
Reason 1 : Because she is interested in Biology.
Reason 2 : And she knows how to give first aid so she must be aware of certain medicines.
Case Study 2.
I’m Arjun. I love travelling and photography. I like to visit celebration of festivals, parties and political functions. Wherever there is trouble you would surely find me with my camera. I like to click the most crucial moments. I can make new friends in moments.
Reason 1 : Wherever there is trouble, he reaches there to click photos.
Reason 2 : He also likes to click the most crucial moments.
Case Study 3.
I always draw funny pictures. I am Khevna. I love watching ‘The Kapil Sharma Show’. I appreciate his ‘one liners’. I hardly talk in the class.
Profession : Stand up Comedian
Reason 1 :1 always draw funny pictures.
Reason 2 :1 love watching ‘The Kapil Sharma Show’. He appreciates his ‘one liners’.
Case Study 4.
Hi I’m Tejas. There’s no toy at my home that I couldn’t repair. I got my first income from my neighbour as I repaired his grandpa’s radio waking up the whole night. I’m in 11th Science and I’ve got 92 marks in Physics this year.
Profession : Engineer
Reason 1 : There’s no toy at my home that I couldn’t repair.
Reason 2 : He has got 92 marks in Physics.
|1. Co-operation||A. A person’s place of employment|
|2. Skill||B. Working together to achieve a common objective|
|3. Manager||C. The amount of money that is received in exchange of labour or services|
|4. Workplace||D. A developed talent or ability|
|5. Income||E. One, who handles, controls or directs an enterprise or an institution|
|6. Corporate job||E Coming or resulting from a natural tendency|
|7. Restriction||G. The effect or outcome of something which has happened earlier|
|8. Consequence||H. An act of limiting|
|9. Spontaneous||I. A job where the employer is a business enterprise|
2 Find the appropriate forms of the words given in brackets and fill in the blanks :
Having completed his graduation, Arun couldn’t ‘ decide (decision) what occupation (occupy) he ‘ should go for so he interacted (interact) with his teacher. The teacher suggested him to do a business independently (independent) but his financial (finance) condition was weak so he considered (consider) it better to join a government job.
3. Identify and underline the odd words:
(1) teamwork, time management. leadership,patchwork
(2) carpenter. cobbler, salesman, tailor
(3) farmer. talati, sarpanch. reporter
(4) enthusiasm. independence, mysterious, innocence
(5) reflection, restriction, station, creation
The odd words to be underlined are :
4. Find the word closest in the meaning and circle It:
Independence: autocracy, monarchy, liberty, self-government
Interaction: co-operation. communication.speech, argument
Consequence: result, effect, reaction, cause
Occupation: activity. work. engagement. profession
Inventory: summary. questionnaire, schedule. index
Assessment : estimate, evaluation. judgement.examination
Assumption : guess. doubt, suspicion, disbelief
Reflection : consideratIon. speculation, thinking.Impression
The words closest in the meanings are : liberty. communication, result, activity,
questionnaire, evaluation. guess. consideration
5. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate options:
(1) Until Gallileo revealed (revealed /revelation) the truth, ‘the earth revolves around the sun’, it was a mystery (mysterious / mystery).
People assumed (assumption / assumed) that the earth was square. Galltleo’s discovery was a great relief (relief/ relieved) to the seafarers.
(2) To be successful in any Industrial profession (profess tort I professional) you have to work with a close collaboration (coltaborate/ collaboration) under the strict supervision
(supervise/supervtsion) of a manager. You should not exercise your independence (Independent / independence) or spontaniety (spontaneous /sporztaniety) otherwise the production (produce / product ton) of the company suffers.
1. Karsanbhai is the oldest person in his village. He is ninety-six years old. A radio reporter is interviewing him.
Roleplay this conversation in class:
Karsanbhai: Now I live in this village. But I didn’t live here in my youth.
Reporter: Where did you use to live ?
Karsanbhai: When I was young, I lived at Ahmadabad. I used to work in a cotton mill.
Reporter: Life was hard, wasn’t it ?
Karsanbhai: Oh ! yes. Things were different from the way they are now. In those days, we did not have a good house. We used to live in a rented room.
Reporter:And how were the job hours and income ?
Karsanbhai: We used to work for eight hours a day and get only 5 rupees for a day’s work.
Reporter : Did your family support you ?
Karsanbhai: Yes. They supported me a lot and sent me money often.
Reporter: Why did you shift to the village ? What’s the reason of your healthy life ?
Karsanbhai: When the cotton mills were closed we decided to return to our farms. And the reason of my long and healthy life is my living in the village.
Select some renowned personalities and write their names and profession:
(1) She used to participate in singing competitions when she was a child. She won an award at ‘Meri Awaz Suno’ competition and became a singer.
Name : Sunidhi Chauhan
Profession : Playback-singing
(2) She used to make model aircraft in her childhood. She was born in Karnal.
Name : Kalpana Chawla
Profession : Aeronautic Engineer
(3) He used to direct (used to + direct) blockbuster films. He launched many actors of Bollywood.
Name : Mahesh Bhatt
Profession : Film Producer & Director
(4) She used to play (used to + play) badminton and after an accident she climbed Mount Everest.
Name : Arunima Sinha
Profession : Mountaineering Guide
(5) He used to live (use to + live) in Rameshwaram. He became the 11th President of India.
Name : Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam
Profession : Space Technology Engineer
3. Think of your school days. Tick the option that applies to you:
(1) When I was in the primary school, I used to ✓ / didn’t use to help my friends.
(2) When I was in the primary school, I used to / never used to ✓ quarrel a lot with my classmates.
(3) When I was in high school, I used to ✓ / didn’t use to do a lot of homework.
(4) When I was in high school, I used to / never used to ✓ participate in the Science fair.
The tick marked options are :
(1) used to
(2) never used to
(3) used to
(4) never used to
4. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate forms of verbs:
My Interaction with Mr Zala
On an evening, while I was travelling (travel) from Ahmedabad to Amreli by bus, I saw a man struggling to board (board) the bus with his one leg. He was well-built with an athletic body. His eyes shone like fireballs. He came and sat next to me.
On being asked how he lost his leg, he told his story to me. He used to work (use to + work) in the army on the borders of Kashmir. He used to volunteer (use to + volunteer) for operations even if there was a lot of risk. He was a sharp shooter and used to win (win) all the in-service shooting championships.
Once they informed (inform) him about a terrorist infiltration, he Immediately lifted his L.M.G. and got ready. The troop went past (go past) the snowy hills. It was February, and the temperature was below zero but the burning desire to save (save) the country used to keep (use + keep) us warm. Ultimately we sighted the enemies on top of the ‘Tiger Hill’. The battle lasted (last) for two days and a night.
Ultimately, we had a hand to hand fight and the jawans of our ‘Rajputana Batallion’ attacked (attack) like lions. I took a bullet in my right thigh. But most of them were killed and the others ran back like rats. We hoisted the ; Indian flag on ‘Tiger Hill’ with pride. I had to ! sacrifice my right leg. Still I think this is no big sacrifice compared to the soldiers who martyred s their lives for the country that day.
5. The following actions are done while preparing for board exams. Tick the appropriate options. Add more by your own.
|Action||Used to||Didn’t use to / never used to|
|Gossip with friends||✓|
|Had two glasses of milk everyday||✓|
|Stayed awake beyond 1 o’clock at night||✓|
|Copied down notes from friends||✓|
|Wrote down every memorizing tips that my teacher gave||✓|
|Wrote each answer more than 5 times to memorize it||✓|
|Watched only one movie per week||✓|
|Played with my friends only on Sundays||✓|
|Read each topic very carefully and kept record of my doubts||✓|
|Asked questions to my teacher to clarify my doubts||✓|
|Memorized answers even if I didn’t understand them||✓|
|Prepared a timetable for each month||✓|
|Followed my study timetable very strictly||✓|
|Did not eat rice to avoid over-sleeping||✓|
|Drank a lot of tea||✓|
|Not kept stuck to one subject for a very long time||✓|
|Watched selected TV serials for recreation||✓|
|Held interactions with friends for each subject||✓|
Now use the information given above to write a paragraph on what you used to and never used to do while preparing for your board examination.
Preparing for Board Examination
With the prelim exam results, I knew my status in almost all the subjects. So I started preparing very systematically in those subjects. I focussed on the question papers of previous board exams and by solving them, I started gathering confidence.
I tried to understand the questions fully and prepared the answers myself rather than mugging them up. I avoided taking heavy meals and depended more on juices and other drinks. Whenever I met my friends, we talked only about difficult points in every subject.
I decreased my hours of playing and watching movies. Of course, I never missed some favourite serials for recreation. I prepared the timetable myself and started following it strictly. I used to take coffee at certain intervals to keep myself recharged.
1. Your father has asked you to prepare an advertisement to sell an old car. Draft a is suitable advertisement in about 50 words to be published in a local newspaper. It may contain details like model, company, year, colour, condition, contact, condition, contact, etc.
- Old car in good condition. – Single Owner Only 21000 Kms.-Excellent Milage
- Model – 2002 – Ford Fiesta-White
- Best-in-class – Get checked by an auto mechanic.
- Six airbags-Have a trial-ride to ensure condition
- Contact: 94080 57590
Read the advertisement and apply in reply to it:
As per the NOC received from DEO, Mahesana, Kelavani Mandal, Visnagar, needs an English teacher for M. J. Sarvodaya Higher Secondary School. Qualifications, pay scale and service conditions are as per Govt, of Gujarat norms. Interested qualified candidates may send their applications to the Secretary of the Kelavani Mandal, Visnagar, by RPAD within ten days from the publication of this advertisement.
Chiranjeev H. Shukla
37, Abhilash Society,
Ranki Vav Road, Patan,
District: Patan (N. G.)
June 7, 2018
Kelavani Mandal, Visnagar
Subject: Application for the post of an English Teacher in Higher Secondary Section
Ref.: Advertisement in Gujarat Samachar dated April 6, 2018.
With reference to your advertisement for the vacancy of an English Teacher in the Higher Secondary Section of M. J. Sarvodaya Higher Secondary School, I am sending forward my application for the same. I hope you will find my academic qualification and other eligibility parameters suitable for the post and consider the appointment in my favour.
NB : Please find my resume on the attached sheet.
Chiranjeev H. Shukla
Full Name : Chiranjeev Haresh Shukla
Address : 37, Abhilash Society, 1
Ranki Vav Road, Patan ]
District: Patan (N. G.)
Birthdate : February 5, 1996
Marital Status : Single
1. B.A. with English as special subject, 68 %, North Gujarat University, , May 2014
2. M.A. with English as special subject
62 %, North Gujarat University, May 2016
3. B.Ed. (Methods : English, Sanskrit)
72%, North Gujarat University,April 2018.
Experience: Part Time English Teacher in Higher Secondary Section
Nootan Higher Secondary School (Non-granted) Patan June 2014 till date
1. Mr Jayesh C. Joshi
Principal, J. L. Higher Secondary School, Rambag, Maninagar, Ahmedabad – 380 008.
2. Ms Shruti Verma
H.O.D., English Department M. N. College, Visnagar,
3. Your school has invited a career counsellor to guide you. Frame questions to gather information about ‘opportunities available in different fields at present’.
I have taken up commerce stream and want to seek opportunities in the fields related to commerce, will you please guide me ?
Counsellor: You’re most welcome.
(1) Sir, which are those fields wherein I can make my career ?
(2) I am not very good at studies. I am an average student, what else can I do except becoming a simple commerce graduate?
(3) Sir, with around 60 % marks, can I go for Management courses ?
(4) Sir, I am not a science student, still I have great interest in computers. Can I make my career in computer related fields ?
(5) Sir, I am fond of travelling and am very much sociable, always curious to know things around, can I make my career in journalism ? What should I do to become eligible for it?
(6) I have heard that government has many vacancies in social welfare section. What should I do to go for B.S.W. or M.S.W. ?
(7) Sir, if I want to become an advocate, getting simple L.L.B. degree is enough or for better career, should I go for further studies?
(8) Sir, What do you specifically suggest for banking jobs ?
(9) If I have to appear for civil services examinations, can a commerce student be successful ? What extra efforts should I put in to get jobs in civil services?
(10) Sir, I am physically quite fit and have great interest in games, sports and other areas wherein I can go ahead depending on my physical ;fitness. Can I go for police, military or other security forces like air and navy which directly fall under Central Government ? What should I do for such services ?
1. Interviewing professionals :
(a) You are to interview a successful professional, Brainstorm in class and make a list of possible professionals. You could suggest any i one you know or are related to. (e.g., doctors, professors, engineers, artists, etc.)
(b) Through class discussion, prepare interview questions covering these broad areas- -Biographical details.
- Professional journey
- Interest and hobby
(c) Conduct the interview. Go for the interview in pairs. One student will ask the questions and the other will record the answers.
(d) Based on the interview prepare a presentation on the topic ‘My Impression of name of the professional.’
2. [The teacher will take the class to vote] This council has to choose an area in the school or outside that needed thorough cleaning. Take permission from your principal and organise a CLEAN CAMPAIGN for your school or class. Invite your teachers to participate.
3. Arrange a mock session of an interview class.
- Instructions: A group of 5 students can ask questions one by one to the student who comes for the counselling to choose his career. Let him fill up the interest inventory too.
- Exercise: Fill up his personality chart and prepare the data.
- Discussion: Discuss your observations and conclusions with the class.
- Writing: Let every student of the class prepare a report depending on the mock session.
[Note: To be done by the students.]
Post-Counselling Discussion Summary in Gujarati
આ એકમમાં માહિતી પૃથક્કરણ’થી ધ્યાનમાં આવેલી બાબતો અંગે ફરી એક વાર કુ. પૂજા શાહ પ્રતીક તથા તેનાં માતા-પિતા સાથે બેઠક કરે છે અને તેની કારકિર્દી પસંદ કરવા ઉપયોગી નીવડે તેવું માર્ગદર્શન આપે છે.
પ્રતીકને રસાયણવિજ્ઞાન તેમજ કમ્યુટરમાં વિશેષ રુચિ છે.
તેણે A-B વિષયજૂથ સાથે ધોરણ 12 પાસ કર્યું છે અને તેની રુચિ મુજબ તે કેમિકલ એન્જિનિયરિંગ કે કમ્યુટર એન્જિનિયરિંગ કરી શકે પણ તેને ફેક્ટરીનું વાતાવરણ પસંદ નથી. ‘ કુ. શાહે Interest Inventory અને IQ Testને આધારે કહ્યું કે વિજ્ઞાનીનો વ્યવસાય તેના માટે વધારે અનુકૂળ છે.
પ્રતીકની માતાએ પૂછયું કે તે ડિટેક્ટિવ નોવેલ્સ વાંચીને કેવી રીતે વૈજ્ઞાનિક બનશે. કુ. શાહે કહ્યું કે રહસ્યો ઉકેલવાના તેના રસને જોતાં તે ‘ફોરેન્સિક ‘ વિજ્ઞાની’ જરૂર બની શકે. પ્રતીકે કુ. શાહનો આ સૂચન માટે આભાર માન્યો અને કહ્યું કે તે આ ક્ષેત્રમાં ખૂબ જ રસથી કામ કરશે.
Phrases and Idioms
feel relieved (ફીલ રિલીડ) come out of tension, tiredness, etc. – તણાવ, થાક વગેરેમાંથી બહાર આવવું
be grateful to (બી ગ્રેટફુલ ટુ) be thankful / obliged to –ના પ્રત્યે આભારી | ઋણી હોવું
be in the dark (બી ઇન ધ ડાર્ક) devoid of knowledge, be unaware of – જ્ઞાન જાણથી અજાણ હોવું, -ની માહિતી ન હોવી
પ્રતીક વિજ્ઞાન પ્રવાહના A-B’ વિષયજૂથનો વિદ્યાર્થી છે. તેથી ઇજનેરી ક્ષેત્રની બધી જ શાખાઓ (કોઈ પણ કોર્સ) તેને પ્રાપ્ય છે. તે સ્નાતક અને અનુસ્નાતક થવાનું પણ પસંદ કરી શકે છે. જો આપણે ઇજનેરી (ક્ષેત્રોની ચર્ચા કરીએ તો, તે જીવન-કૌશલ્યોમાં સારો છે. તેથી મિકેનિકલ અને ઇલેક્ટ્રૉનિક્સ ક્ષેત્રો લેવાં તેને માટે સલાહભર્યા નથી. તેને કેમિસ્ટ્રી(રસાયણવિજ્ઞાન)માં 80 ગુણ આવ્યા છે અને તેને કમ્યુટર પર કામ કરવું ગમે છે. તેથી કેમિકલ એન્જિનિયરિંગ કે સૉફટવેર એન્જિનિયરિંગ તેને માટે બહેતર વિકલ્પો છે. પણ મને એ વાત યાદ અપાવવા દો કે તેને ફૅક્ટરીનું વાતાવરણ પસંદ નથી. તેથી સૉફટવેર એ પ્રમાણમાં સારો વિકલ્પ છે.
શ્રીમાન મહેતા : પણ શું એને આટલા ટકાએ આ શાખાઓમાં પ્રવેશ મળશે?
કુ. શાહ : શ્રીમાન મહેતા, આટલા અધીરા ન બનો. તમારી ધારણા સાચી હોઈ શકે પણ અંતિમ નિર્ણય પર જતાં પહેલાં આપણે બે બીજી બાબતોને પણ ધ્યાનમાં લેવાની છે. ચાલો હું તમને આપણે જે લીધી હતી એ કસોટીઓ ‘ધ ઇન્ટરેસ્ટ ઇન્વેન્ટરી” અને “ધ
ટેસ્ટ’નાં તેનાં પરિણામ (તમને) કહી દઉં.
શ્રીમાન મહેતા : અચ્છા…. એ (પરિણામો) શું કહે છે?
કુ. શાહ : તેના રસનું સર્વેક્ષણ કરતાં અમે શોધી કાઢ્યું છે કે એ વિજ્ઞાન અને તકનીકી(ટેકનોલૉજી)ના ક્ષેત્રે સંશોધનમાં સારું કરી શકે તેમ) છે. વિશેષમાં, તેનો IQ (બુદ્ધિઆંક) 130 છે જે એક ઇજનેરને જરૂર હોય તેના કરતાં ઘણો વધારે છે. હકીકતમાં, તેનો IQ (બુદ્ધિઆંક) તેના વિજ્ઞાનીના વ્યવસાય સાથે
બંધબેસે છે. પ્રતીક, (આ બાબતમાં) તું શું કહે છે? પ્રતીક કુ. શાહ તમે સંપૂર્ણ સાચાં છો. મને એ ક્યારેય ખ્યાલ
આવ્યો નહોતો કે મને શા માટે વિજ્ઞાનીઓ અને (તેમની) શોધો વિશે વાંચવાનું આટલું બધું ગમે છે. મેં
હંમેશાં દરેક સિદ્ધાંત પાછળનો તર્ક શોધવા પ્રયત્ન કર્યો.
કુ. શાહ : હા, અને આ પ્રકારનું કામ પસંદ કરીને તું રાષ્ટ્ર તેમજ સમાજની સેવા કરી શકે છે.
શ્રીમાન મહેતા : પરંતુ તમે તેની ડિટેક્ટિવ નૉવેલ્સ વાંચવાના મોહને, રહસ્યો ઉકેલવાને અને સત્ય અને ન્યાયનાં મૂલ્યોને કેવી રીતે સાંકળી શકો?
કુ. શાહ કે કેમ નહિ? તે એક ન્યાયાલયીન વૈજ્ઞાનિક બનીને રહસ્યો ઉકેલવાનો રોમાંચ માણી શકે. તેના (તૈયાર કરેલા) અહેવાલો અદાલતમાં મૂલ્યવાન (અગત્યના) ગણાશે, જેનાથી નિર્દોષોને ન્યાય મળશે. એક ન્યાયાલયીન વૈજ્ઞાનિક તજજ્ઞને જરૂર છે, તર્ક અને મુશ્કેલીઓ શોધી કાઢી તેમનો યોગ્ય નિકાલ કરવાની, જે (કૌશલ) તમારા પુત્ર પાસે પહેલાંથી છે જ.
પ્રતીક : અરે ! કુ. શાહ આપનો ખૂબ ખૂબ આભાર. હવે મને સાચે જ એ બાબતથી ખુશી અને રાહત થયાં કે હું એ વ્યવસાયમાં જઈશ કે જેમાં મારા શોખ, મારાં મૂલ્યો, મારી ઉત્કટ ઇચ્છા, મારી ક્ષમતાઓ અને મારો જીવન(તરફ)નો દષ્ટિકોણ સમાવિષ્ટ છે. મને આ કામમાં કદાપિ કંટાળો નહિ આવે. હકીકતમાં, મને વધારે કલાક કામ કરવાનું ગમશે.
કુ. શાહ : શ્રીમાન મહેતા, મેં તમને બધામાં મદદ કરવાનો પ્રયત્ન કર્યો છે, છતાંય પસંદગી તમારી છે.
શ્રીમાન મહેતા : કુ. શાહ અમે તમારા આભારી છીએ. તમે (અમાર)
અને કુટુંબ મોટું કામ કર્યું છે. હકીકતમાં અમે અમારા દીકરાની ક્ષમતા વિશે (તદન) અંધારામાં સાવ અજાણ) હતા. પુનઃ આપનો આભાર.
કુ. શાહ : મારી ખૂબ શુભેચ્છા, પ્રતીક.