Gujarat Board GSEB Textbook Solutions Class 10 Social Science Chapter 3 Cultural Heritage of India: Sculpture and Architecture Textbook Questions and Answers, Additional Important Questions, Notes Pdf.
Cultural Heritage of India: Sculpture and Architecture Class 10 GSEB Solutions Social Science Chapter 3
Gujarat Board Class 10 Social Science Cultural Heritage of India: Sculpture and Architecture Textbook Questions and Answers
I. Answer the following questions in detail.
Explain town planning of ancient India?
During excavating several sites, our architects learnt about the ancient architecture and skills of people in those days. In ancient time, the towns were divided into three sections:
- Fort of rulers (Citadel)
- Houses of administrative officers situated on the upper part of town
- Residences of common people situated on the lower part of town.
Go through these Social Science Chapter 3. Cultural Heritage of India: Sculpture and Architecture Class 10 GSEB Notes to score well in your exam.
upper part of town (3) Residences of common people situated in the lower part of town. Upper part of the town was elevated and safe with double-storeyed houses having two to five rooms. Houses on the lower part of the town were single-storeyed mainly constructed with hand-made bricks. Roads in the towns were straight and long, intersecting one another at right angles. The roads were wide enough for a number of vehicles to pass at a time. People of Indus Valley Civilization had developed many more beautiful and systematic towns compared to other civilizations of the world from the architectural point of view.
Give information about roadways and drainage system of town planning of Mohenjodaro.
Roads: These are the main feature of town planning of Mohenjodaro. The roads were 9.75 metres wide. Roads in the towns were straight and long. They were built from north to south and east to west intersecting each other at right angles. The roads were wide enough for a number of vehicles to pass at a time. Pits on the roadside suggest that there might have been lamp posts. The comers were rounded off to make it easy for the movement of heavy carts. Drainage system: It is a unique feature of town planning Mohenjodaro.
This system was built to drain dirty water out from the town. Such a drainage system was found nowhere except in island of Crete in the Mediterranean Sea. Drains were built alongside the roads and the waste and water from kitchens and bathrooms emptied directly into the main drains. Drains were usually covered with stone slabs. Each and every house had a cesspit. There were manholes at regular intervals to aid cleaning.
Public baths: A hugh bath was excavated at Mohenjodaro. It was a large complex having six entrances from the sides, a central bathing pool, dressing room and a well nearby. Fresh water from a nearby well was used to fill the pool through an inlet and the outlet in a corner allowed the used water to drain out. It seems that there might have been a facility for hot water too. These public baths might have been used on festivals and religious ceremonies.
Give information about the caves of Gujarat.
(1) Caves of Junagadh: There are three groups of caves in Junagadh. Each group is discussed below:
(a) Group of Bava Pyara Caves: They are in the three lines intersecting each other at right angles. There are total sixteen caves. Out of them four are in first line, seven in second and five in third line. It is believed that these caves were carved during first to second century i.e. in the beginning of AD.
(b) Caves of Khapra and Kediya: They are double storeyed. On observing their remains, one can say that they might have been carved during the end of second century and the beginning of fourth century.
(c) Caves of Kund: These caves had floors. Which might have been carved in the third century. Ruin of twenty pillars can be seen row.
(2) Khambhalida Caves: These caves were discovered in 1959 AD. They are situated at Khambhalida near Gondal, 70 km from Rajkot. Three of them are remarkable. The cave at the middle consists of Chaitya Gruha with stupa. We can find figures of Boddhi sattvas and statues of devotees standing and supported by these on both sides of entrance gate. The caves are believed to be of second or third century.
(3) Talaja Cave: There is a mountain called the Talaja Mountain near the mouth of Shetrunji River in Bhavnagar district. Shri Talaji Teerth (Taldhwajgiri Teerth) is a famous pilgrim of Talaja. There are 30 beautiful caves carved from the stones. The caves also consist of a huge gate. Mandap (Sabhakhand) and Chaitya Gruha are the best examples of sculpture and protection point of view. These caves are belived to be of third century AD.
(4) Sana Cave: This group of caves is situated on the top of Sana hill in Vankiya village, Una taluka in Gir- Somnath district. These 62 caves are spread on Sana hill like beehives.
Dhank Cave: Dhank giri is situated in Dhank village of Upleta taluka at Rajkot district. It is believed that these caves might have been built in the beginning of fourth century.
(5) Zinzurizar: In the west of Dhank, about 7 km from Siddhsar, is the valley of Zinzurizar. There are many Buddhist caves in this valley. It is considered that they have been built in the second century.
(6) Khapra-Kodiya Caves at Kachchh: There are two caves on the top of mountain near old Paatgadh, in Lakhpat taluka of Kachchh. These caves were discovered by K.K. Shastri in 1967 AD.
(7) Caves at Kaliya Dungar: There are three caves in Kaliya Dungar at Jhagadiya taluka in Bharuch district. These are the best old architectural specimens of Buddhist religion. Architecture of these caves is marvelous. The caves contain an 11 feet high pillar in the form of a statue of a lion. The lion statue has two bodies and one mouth. The pillar has been cut from a single rock.
II. Answer the following questions point-wise.
Give information about Dholaveera.
In 1990, Archeological Survey of India surveyed the heap of ruins of a huge and a systematic ancient town. The town was contemporary to Harappan Civilization and was found 2 km away from Dholaveera village at Khadirbet, in vast desert of Bhachau taluka about 140 km. away from Bhuj.
- Special task of excavation was carried out under the guidance of Ravindra Singh Bisht.
Salient features of Dholaveera:
- It is one of the five largest Harappan sites and most prominent archaeological sites in India belonging to the Indus Valley Civilization. It had very big cities.
- The most striking feature of the city is that all city buildings were built of stone, whereas most other Harappan sites, including Harappa itself and Mohenjodaro, were almost exclusively built of brick.
- The remains found here like the palaces and main walls of town were painted with white color. Such fortified walls made of clay, stone and bricks, encircling town suggest strong security measures that the people of these civilizations took.
- The sites also had provision for potable water and a proper purification system.
Lothal was an important port of Gujarat. Explain.
Lothal is situated in Dholka taluka which is 18 km from the Gulf of Khambhat.
- A huge dockyard was constructed facilitates ships in the time of high tides at the lower eastern part of the town.
- Such dockyard, warehouses, etc. prove that exports and imports used to take place at Lothal.
- This suggests that Lothal might have been a rich and prosperous port of Gujarat as well as India.
Write about the art of pillar inscriptions.
King Ashoka has been the most influential king of the Mauryan period.
- He got prepared various inscriptions on pillars and rocks. These inscriptions were his edicts which depict Ashoka’s belief and faith in Buddhist philosophy.
- The pillars, especially of King Ashoka provided to be excellent sources and are the best examples of Mauryan architecture.
- Each pillar is made of a single piece of sandstone.
- The script used on the inscription was Brahmi script.
- Such pillars were situated in Ambala, Meerut, Allahabad, Sarnath, and Loriya near Nandangadh, Sanchi, Kashi, Patna and Bodhivruksha near Bodh Gaye.
III. Answer the following questions in short.
What is sculpture?
The art of shaping figures or design with facial expression in round or in relief professionally performed by a sculpture with the help of chisel and hammer is known as sculpture.
What is architecture?
Simple architecture means art of construction. In this reference art, of constructing buildings, houses, towns, well, forts, minarets, temples, mosque and tombs is called architecture.
Explain the meaning of Mohenjodaro and write about its roadways.
Mohenjodaro means ‘the mound of the dead men’.
Roadways: Roads are the main features of this town planning. The roads were 9.75 meters wide. Roads in the towns were straight and long. They were built from north to south and east to west, intersecting each other at right angles. The roads were wide enough for a number of vehicles to pass at a time. Pits on the road side suggest that there might have been lamp posts. The comers were rounded off to make it easy for the movement of heavy carts.
Write the meaning of Stupa.
A stupa is a ‘dome-like structure made of stone or bricks’. The purpose of a stupa was to honor a sacred spot, or a particular even or to enshrine the relics of Buddha or those who were Buddhist saint.
IV. Choose the correct option from those given below.
What is another word used for architecture in Sanskrit language?
What was built in Lothal to facilitate the ships?
In which language are stone inscriptions engraved?
The Sun temple of Gujarat is situated at
Which mosque is situated near Teen Darwaza in Ahmedabad?
(a) Jama Masjid
(b) Jumma Masjid
(c) Masjid of Sipri
(a) Jama Masjid
Gujarat Board Class 10 Social Science Cultural Heritage of India: Sculpture and Architecture Additional Important Questions and Answers
I. Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs)
Which of the following buildings is not included in architecture?
(a) Houses and towns
(b) Temples and mosques
(c) Forts and minarets
(d) Sculpture of Nataraj and Rama having bow and arrow
(c) Forts and minarets
Which of the following is not appropriate in ancient Indian town planning?
(a) Forts of rulers
(b) Orphan city having residences of arrival of various tribes
(c) Houses of administrative officers situated on the upper part of town
(d) Residences of common people situated on the lower part of town
(d) Residences of common people situated on the lower part of town
The meaning of Mohenjodaro is
(a) the heap of God
(b) the heap of deads
(d) None of these
(b) the heap of deads
Which the following pairs is not correct?
(a) Kachchh – Dholaveera
(b) Gondal Rozadi
(c) Morbi – Kuntasi
(d) Limbadi – Shrinathgadh
(b) Gondal Rozadi
Four students of a school presented their opinions in a discussion about sketch of stupa. Who is wrong in them?
- Ravi: The railing around the top of the oval-shaped stupa is called Harika.
- Pooja: Elevated circular path around stupa is known as medhi.
- Anvi: Toran means entry of temple.
- Tanvi: A slightly elevated circular path around the temple or place of worship is called pradakshina path.
(a) Ravi and Anvi
(b) Only Anvi
(c) Pooja and Tanvi
(d) All are correct
(d) All are correct
A place is the first preaching place of Lord Buddha. It has a symbol showing triumph of religion. Which place can it be?
(d) Bodh Gaya
Identify the pair which is not correct.
(a) Stone inscription : Dehradun
(b) Stupa on Nagarjuna : Kaunda- Dravid style
(c) Stupa of Berat: Dance and sound art
(d) Pillar of Sarnath: Specimen of sculpture
(a) Stone inscription: Dehradun
Which of the following is hot included in the art of architecture of Gupta period?
(a) Stupa of Amravati
(b) Statue of Mahavir Swami of Mathura
(c) Buddha statues of Samath
(d) Statue of Vishnu in the form of Varah
(b) Statue of Mahavir Swami of Mathura
II. Very Short Answer Questions.
For what is India famous all over the world?
India is famous for rich cultural heritage all over the world.
What has given a unique identify to India?
The art of sculpture and architecture has given a unique identify to India.
Name the important towns of Indus (Sindhu) Valley Civilization.
Mohenjodaro, Harappa, Dholaveera and Lothal.
Who discovered the ancient remains of Harappa?
Dayaram Sahni discovered the ancient remains of Harappa under the leadership of Sir John Marshall and Colonel Meke.
From where were the remains of Harappa discovered? When?
The remains of Harappa were discovered in 1921 from Montgomery in Punjab district near Harappa.
Where did Indus Valley Civilization blossom?
Indus Valley (Sindhy Valley) Civilization blossomed in the region of Sapta Sindhu.
Why is the Indus Valley Civilization called Harappan Civilization?
The Indus Valley Civilization is called Harappan Civilization because its remains were first found from Harappa.
What was the unique feature of Lothal?
A huge dockyard was constructed to facilitate ships at the time of high tides at the lower eastern part of Lothal. This is the unique feature of Lothal.
What is the meaning of stone inscriptions?
Stone inscriptions were made from single rock. The stone was made smooth and shining by rubbing. Religious orders were inscribed on it. This is called stone inscription.
Where do we find pillar inscriptions in India?
We see pillar inscriptions at Ambala, Meerut, Allahabad, Sarnath, Loriya near Nandangadh, Sanchi, Kashi, Patna and Bodhivruksha near Both Gaya.
Where do we find stone inscriptions in India?
We find stone inscriptions at Dehradun, Thane, Mumbai, Dhauli, Jaugada, Chennai, etc. in India.
What is the unique feature of Stupa of Dravidian style?
The Stupas of Dravidian style of South India have shapes like semi-circle, oval and bell shape.
Which Stupas are the best examples of Dravidian style of architecture?
Stupas at Nagarjunkaunda and Amravati are the best specimen of Dravidian style of architecture.
Kings of which dynasty developed Dratridian style of architecture upto the great height?
Chola Kings developed Dravidian style of architecture upto the great height.
Name the cavas in Maharashtra.
Ajanta-Ellora caves at Aurangabad and Elephanta caves near Mumbai are located in Maharashtra.
Which caves are located at Odisha?
Udaigiri, Khangiri and Nilgiri caves are located near Bhuvaneshwar in Odisha.
Which caves are located in Gujarat?
Khambalida (Near Gondal), Dhank(near Rajkot), three caves at Junagadh, Talaja, Sana are located in Gujarat.
How many groups of caves are there in Junagadh? Which are they?
There are three groups of caves in Junagadh:
- Group of Bhavapyara caves
- Group of Uparkot caves
- Group of Khapra and Kodiya caves.
How many caves are there in the group of Bhavapyara caves?
There are three layers in the group of Bavapyara caves. There are total 16 caves. Four in the first line, seven in the second line and five in the third line.
How many pillars are there in the Khapra and Kodiya caves?
There are 20 pillars in the Khapra and Kodia caves.
Where are Khambhalida caves located? When are they discovered?
The caves of Khambhalida are located at Khambhalida near Gondal, 70 km away from Rajkot. Khambhalida caves were discovered in 1959 AD.
By which other name Talaja caves known as? How many caves are there?
Talaja caves are also known as ’Taaldhwajgiri’.There are 30 caves.
Where are Dhank caves situated?
Dhank caves are situated in Dhankgiri in Dhank village of Upleta taluka of Rajkot district.
Where are Khapra-Kodiya caves of Kachchh situated? How many caves are there?
Khapra-Kediya caves are situated on the top of mountain near old Paat Gadh in kachchh of Lakhtar taluka.
Which is the famous pillar of Kaliya Dungar caves? Mention its characteristics.
Lion pillar is a famous pillar of Kaliya Dungar. This pillar has been carved from a single rock. It is eleven feet tall. There is a statue of a lion with two bodies and one mouth.
During whose rule were the chariot temples built? Mention its specialities.
Chariot temples were built during the rule of Pallava Kings in South India. These temples were carved out from a single rock and they have chariot shape.
Which are the best examples of architecture of Kanchi?
The Kailashnath temple and Vaikuntha Perumal temple of Kanchi are the best examples of architecture.
Name the best example of temple architecture.
The Bhoomara Shiva temple near Jabalpur and the temples of Larkhan in Bijapur district are the best examples of temple architecture.
Which statues are unique specimens of sculpture?
The copper status of Lord Buddha in Nalanda (Sultangunj) and the statues of Jan temples of Mathura are unique specimens of sculpture.
Whose contribution is most important in building temples in South India? Name the capital also.
The contribution of Pallava kings is most important in building temple in South India. Kanchi (Kanchipuram) was the capital of Pallava kings.
Name the capital of Chola dynasty.
Thanjavur was the capital of Chola dynasty.
Which Gopurams are famous?
Gopurams of Kanchi and Madurai are famous.
Where is Meenakshi temple? How many Gopurams are there in this temple?
Meenakshi temple is in Mumbai. It has four Gopurams.
Name the capital of Chandela rulers of Bundelkhand during medieval period.
Khajuraho was the capital of Chandela rulers of Bundelkhand during medieval period.
Who built the Khajuraho temples?
The Chandela kings of Bundelkhand built the Khajuraho temples.
How many Jain temples are there in ’Rajgriha? Name them.
There are five Jain temples in ‘Rajgriha’. They are: Vaibhav, Vipulachal, Ratnagiri, Udaygiri, Shramangiri.
Who built the Sun Temple of Modhera, and when?
The Sun Temple of Modhera was built by king Bhimdev-I (First) of Solanki dynasty in 1026 AD.
III. Short Answer Type Questions.
What does Mohenjodaro mean? When and by whom was the site of Mohenjodaro excavated?
Mohan-jo-Daro means ‘the mound of the dead men’. In 1922, an archaeologist named Rakhal Das Banerji and Dayaram Sahni discovered remains of huge town planning, during excavation work. They carried out this work under the guidance of Sir John Marshal and Colonel Meke, in Larkana district, Sindh (now in Pakistan) of Mohenjodaro.
Name the various Harappan sites discovered in India?
Ropar in Himalayan region, Alamgirpur at Meerut in Uttar Pradesh, Kalibangan in Rajasthan, Lothal at Dholka in Gujarat, Deshalpur – Shikarpur in Kachchh, Dholaveera, Rangpur near Limdi in Saurashtra, Shrinathgad (Rozadi) near Gondal, Kuntasi near Morbi and Somnath, etc. were the names the various Harappan sites discovered in India.
In which region was the Indus Valley Civilization found and why was it named the Harappan Civilization?
The region where the Indus Valley Civilization was found was in the expanse of Sapta Sindhu river and the culture which developed here is known as Indus Valley Civilization. The civilization was named the Harappan civilization as it was the first site to be excavated in the region. In 1921, under the leadership of Sir John Marshal and Colonel Meke, Dayaram Sahni discovered the ancient remains of Indian civilization from Montgomery in Punjab district near Harappa.
Describe the location of Lothal.
Lothal is situated in Dholka taluka of Ahmedabad district, 18 km away from the Gulf of Khambhat.
Enlist the various excavated sites and their locations.
Describe the Sanchi Stupa.
The Sanchi stupa was built during Mauryan Period. It is situated at Madhya Pradesh. The original stupa of Sanchi was made of bricks. It was half in size compared to the present stupa. This Buddhist stupa reveals a high standard of development in the technical and artistic skills of the period.
Describe the Stone Inscriptions of Ashoka.
Stone inscriptions, carved by religious orders of emperor Ashoka are the best specimens of engraving on stone. The stone inscriptions are part of edicts of Ashoka. He had used these edicts to spread the teachings of Buddha. These inscriptions show Ashoka’s observance of dharma or justice and his efforts to solve the social problems. Such stone inscriptions have been found from Peshawar, Dehradun, Thane, Mumbai, Dhauli, Jaugada (Odisha) and Chennai, etc. Such type of stone inscription has been found from the foothill of Gimar Mountain on the way to Junagadh in Gujarat.
Give examples of the Satavahana architecture.
Many Buddhist Stupas were built in the regions near Krishna and Godavari river during the reign of Satvahan kings. They were of semicircle, oval and bell-shaped or dome-shaped. Stupa in Nagarjunakonda and Amravati are great specimens of the Satavahana’s contribution to Buddhism.
“The Gupta period came to be known as the Golden Age of Indian Culture”. Justify.
During the Gupta period, architecture, sculpture, painting, dancing and music flourished. Parvati temple at Jabalpur (Ninava), Bhumara (Nagoda) Shiva temple, Vishnu temple and Narsinh temple of Madhya Pradesh, Gopmandir at Jamnagar are some of the examples of Gupta temple architecture.
Stupas, chaityas, maths, viharas, flags and pillars are the unique examples of. Gupta art. Buddha statue at Samath, statue of Lord Vishnu at Mathura, Statue of Mahavir Swami, caves of Udaygiri and statue of Vishnu in the form of Varah in Madhya Pradesh, etc. are the best specimens of sculpture of Gupta period. Hence, we can conclude that the Gupta period was known as the Golden Age.
Explain the development of cave architecture in ancient India.
Cave architecture is considered as a man-made place of beauty. Caves of Ajanta and Ellora at Aurangabad, Elephanta caves near Mumbai, Udayagiri and Bagh near Gwalior, Bhuvnesh at Odisha, Khandiri and Nilgiri are the famous specimens of cave architecture of Gupta period. The caves found at Khambalida (Gondal), Dhank (Rajkot), the cave groups (three Caves) at Junagadh, Talaja, Sa,na (Una district) are well known examples of cave architecture of the period found in Gujarat.
What are chariot temples? Enlist famous chariot temples of the south.
People of Pallava dynasty of south India were quite skillful in carving a single rock into the shape chariot temple. These chariots are named after the names of Pandavas. Among them, chariot temple of Dharmaraja is the biggest whereas the chariot temple of Dhrupadi is the smallest. Kailashnath temple of Kanchi and temple of Vaikuntha Perumal are the best examples of architectural art. Moreover, mandapas and chariot temple of Mahabalipuram are world-famous.
Give a brief idea about Brihadeswara temple.
The great Brihadeswara temple was the first temple constructed by Rajraja of Chola dynasty in Tanjavar. The temple is about 200 metres high. It is an extraordinary temple of ancient India. It has thirteen-storeyed Gopuram.
List the most famous Mosque and Islamic structures of Gujarat.
Sultan Ahmad Shah-I built Jama Masjid near Teen Darwaja in Ahmedabad. This mosque was built in 1424 AD. It has 260 pillars and 15 domes. Other famous Islamic structures of Gujarat are Sidi Saiyad Jali, Sarkhej Roza, Shaking Towers, Mosque of Queen Sipri (also known as Mosque of Nageena) and Jama Masjid of Champaner.
Enlist famous historical vavs and lakes of Gujarat.
Famous Vavs (Step-Wells): Step-well of Adalaj, Step-well of Dada Hari (Hari ni vav, Ahmedabad), Rani Ki vav of Patan, Hira Bhagor of Dabhoi. Famous Lakes: Shahstralinga Lake (Patan), Malav Lake (Dholka), etc.
IV. Long Answer Type Questions
Write the significant features of the Harappan Civilization.
The features that signify the Harappan Civilization are as follows:
The region of Sapt Sindhu River is a region of Indian culture. The culture which developed here is known as Indus Valley Civilization. The remains of Indus Valley Civilization were found from Ropar in Himalayan region, Alamgirpur at Meerut in Uttar Pradesh, Kalibangan in Rajasthan, and Lothal at Dholka in Gujarat, etc.
The remains were first found from Harappa that is why it is known as Harappan Civilization. Copper and stone weapons and many other things were also found from this region. That is why that period is also known as Copper Stone Age. Town planning of Harappan Civilization was very systematic. Its granaries and forts were remarkable. People of that age were fond of wearing ornaments and such remains have been found.
State and explain the various parts of a stupa.
Parts of a Stupa:
- Harmika: The railing around the top of the oval-shaped stupa is called Harmika.
- Medhi: Elevated circular path around stupa is known as medhi. It is used for pradakshina.
- Pradakshina Path: A slightly elevated circular path around the temple or place of worship is called pradakshina path. Pradakshina is done in such a way that place of worship is always to the right side.
- Toran: It means a gateway that is built on two high pillars with artistic horizontal beam on it. The devotes use this toran as an entrance.
Give a brief idea about the temple architecture of ancient India.
Indian temples are known for having a pedestal, pinnacle (shikhar) and a pradakshina path encircling the ‘Garbha Gribha’ (innermost part of the temple). One can also see ladder attached to the pinnacle. Some temples are also flat i.e. without pedestal with pradakshina oath encircling the ’Garbha Griha’.
Famous ancient temples having beautiful architecture are as follows: The Bhoomara Shiva near Jabalpur. Temples of Larkhan in Bijapur district. Copper statue of Lord Buddha in Nalanda (Sultangunj). Jain temples at Mathura. Temples constructed in Kanchi which was the capital city of Pallavas. Brihadeswar temple of Thanjavur. The Sun temple of Konark in Odisha is also quite famous. It is a chariot temple. The metallic and stone idols placed in these temples had excellent work and specific characteristic features. Meenakshi temple is a very huge and famous temple located in Madurai. Chandela rulers built a beautiful temple at Khajuraho. The style of pinnacle of this temple is different from others.
State and explain the various parts of a South Indian Temple.
- Gopuram: The entrance of the South Indian Temple is known as Gopuram. It consists of two lower storeys in convex shape and the other two storeys aloft to make a pyramidal structure. Such a design makes the Gopuram strong.
- Mandap: A huge hall in front of the main gate where devotees get together and enter into Garbh Griha one by one is called Mandap.
- Garbha Griha: It means small and dark rectangular room in which idol is kept. It is the innermost part of the temple. In Gujarat, it is known as ‘Gabharo’.
- Viman: The semi-circular or sloppy part that makes a dome of the temple is called Viman. It looks like a pyramid and is made, up of many storeys.
- Pinnacle (Shikhar): The pointed exterior part of Garbh Gruha at the top is known as pinnacle. It is plated with gold or brass.
Describe the famous Jain temples of India.
Jain temples are famous worldwide due to their excellent art of sculpture. These temples are found at various places of India.
Jain Temples of Bihar: Rajgiuha in Bihar is a very famous pilgrimate for Jains. There are five main hills in Rajgruha which contain various Jain temples. The names of these hills are Vipulachal, Udaygiri, Ratnagiri, Bhramangiri and Vaibhavgiri.
Sammet Shikarji: The pilgrimage called ‘Sammet Shikarji’ lies near Madhuban forests in Jharkhand. It holds a very special importance for Jains because 20 Tirthankaras including Aadinath Bhagwan and Bhagwan Mahavir attained moksha (salvation) here. Famous temples like that of Abhinandannathji and Parshwanathji are located at Sammet Shikhaiji.
Jain Temples of Gujarat: In Gujarat, Jain temple at Palitana and Shankhesh war temple at Panchasara are among the famous ones.
Delwara Temples: Jain temples at Delwara in Mount Abu and Ranakpur in Rajasthan are excellent examples of construction, stone carving, artistic skill and sculpture. ‘Vimal Vasahi’ and ‘Luna Vasahi’ temples were constructed under the patronage of ministers Vimal Shah and Vastupal respectively. These temples are constructed with white marbles. They are famous in India as well as world because of their attractive artistic work’of sculpture. These temples are wonderful and memorable gifts of Jain religion to the Indian culture.
Write a note on the medieval architecture of India.
Several mosques, minarets, royal palaces, bridges, inns, tombs, etc. were constructed in medieval age. Some of them are discussed below:
- Architecture of Qutub-ud-din Aibak: Qutub-ud-din Aibak was a Turkish rulers. He built Qutub Minar and Quwwat-ul-Islam mosque. He also built a mosque called Adhai-din-ka Jhopra in Ajmer.
- Architecture of Bengal region: The famous Adina mosque at Pandua region of Bengal, Tomb of Jalal-ud- Muhammad Shah and Tanti Para mosque were constructed in the Bengal region. This region developed its own unique style of architecture.
- Architecture of Jaunpur region: Sultans of Turkey built the Atala mosque. There is a beautiful artistic grill around the dome of the mosque. The walls and ceiling of this mosque are decorated with many Indian designs including the design of lotus.
- Architecture of Malwa region: Many tombs were built in the Malwa region. The domes and carvings on balcony of these structures are quite impressive and attractive. The tomb of Hoshang Shah is made of marble in India style.
- Other provinces: The rulers of Kashmir and Bahamani built several buildings at Bidar and Gulbarge and ‘Madrasa’ of Mahmud Gava. Vithala Swami and Hazar Rama Temple of Hampi, Gopurams and artistic pillars are well-known art of Vijayanagar empire.
Explain the structure of a mosque.
A mosque is made up of the following six parts:
- Galiyara: The entry and exist of the mosque is called Galiyara.
- Kibla: The hall where namaz is performed, called Kibla. It will always face the direction of Kaba of Mecca.
- Livan: The room in a mosque with pillars is called livan. .
- Maksura: End of the mosque wall is Maksura. It is seperated by a railing.
- Mahab: The interior part of mosque wall which is of human height and indicates correct direction of’Mecca is known as Mahrab. In India, Mahrab is generally kept in west.
- Sahan: The campus of mosque where the followers of Islam get together for prayer is known as Sahan.
V. Fill in the blanks
- The simple meaning of architecture is ………………..
- …………….. and ………….. were important cities of Indus Valley Civilization.
- The remains of Mohenjodaro were discovered from ……………. district of Pakistan.
- ……………… was the unique feature of town planning of Mohejodaro.
- The excavation of Dholaveera was carried out in 1990 under the guidance of ………………
- Harappa; Mohenjodaro
- Ravindra Singh Bisht.
VI. State whether the following statements are true or false.
- Skill of an architect is seen in the art of architecture.
- Gopuram word is used for architecture in Sanskrit Language.
- The spirit of paintings of Ajanta caves is Lord Buddha.
- Modhera Sun Temple is known as Black Pagoda.
- Delwara of Mount Abu are located in Rajasthan.
VII. Arrange following events as per their time.
- Excavation of Dholaveera city/town
- Discovery of Khambhalida caves near Gondal
- K.K. Shastri discovered Khapra-Kodiya caves in Kachchh
- Excavation at Mohenjodaro
- Architecture construction of the Sun Temple of Modhera
(5), (4), (2), (3), (1)
VIII. Identify me:
- My skill is tested in art of architecture.
- My talent is tested in sculpture.
- I am considered the entrance gateway of south Indian temples.
- I am known as capital of Pallavas.
- My architecture is located at Siddhpur.
- Rudra Himalaya.