Our Revision Notes for GSEB Class 10 Social Science Notes Chapter 3 Cultural Heritage of India: Sculpture and Architecture summarises the key points of a chapter and useful resource to prepare effectively for the upcoming board exams.
Cultural Heritage of India: Sculpture and Architecture Class 10 GSEB Notes Social Science Chapter 3
Cultural Heritage of India: Sculpture and Architecture Class 10 GSEB Notes
→ The art of sculpture and architecture has brought a unique identity to India.
→ Sculpture means the art of shaping figure or design with the help of chisel and hammer.
→ Architecture means construction. Art of constructing buildings, houses, towns, wells, forts, minarets, temples, mosques and tombs is called architecture.
→ The towns of ancient India were divided into three sections:
- Fort of rulers
- Houses of administrative officers situated on the upper part of town
- Residences of common people situated on the lower part of town.
→ People of Indus valley civilisation has developed many more beautiful and systematic towns. Among all of them Harappa and Mohenjodaro had the best town planning.
→ Mohenjodaro: In 1922 archaeologists named Rakhal Das Banerji and Dayaram Sahani found Out remains of huge town planning under the guidance of Sir John Marshal and colonel Meke, in Larkana district of Pakistan.
→ Mohenjodaro means ‘the heap of the dead’.
→ Houses of Mohenjodaro were’ built op-high plinth to protect them frgm floods and dampness. Houses of the rich people were double storeyed having five toTSfeven rooms, while those of poor people were single storeyed having-two to three rooms.
→ The roads were 9.75 metres wide, the small link roads crossed the major ones at right angles.
→ Pits on the roadside suggest that thereYnight have been lamp posts. There were two main roads – One was going from north to south and the other was going from East to West.
→ Drainage system is a unique feature of this town planning. This planned, systematic and efficient drainage system clearly proves that they were very careful about their health and hygiene.
→ There was an arrangement to put fresh water in and dirty water out. These public baths might have been used on festivals and religious ceremonies.
→ The ruins of two huge buildings have been found at Mohenjodaro. They might have been used as a town hall or as a theatre or an administrative office or a granary. The barrack of such buildings was also found out. This must have been used to accommodate soldiers.
→ Harappa : In 1921 under the leadership of Sir John Marshal and Colonel Meke, Dayaram Sahni discovered very ancient remains of Indian civilisation from Montegomary in Punjab district near Harappa. The remains of this civilisation were found from Ropar in Himalayan region, Alamgirpur at Meerut in Uttar Pradesh, Kalibangan in Rajasthan, Lothal at Dholka in Gujarat, Deshalpur- Shikarpur in Kachchh, Dholaveera, Rangpur near Limbdi in Saurashtra, Shrinathgad near Gondal, Kutasi near Morbi and Somnath, etc.
→ The culture which developed here is known as Indus Valley Civilisation. Its remains were found first of all from Harappa, and therefore, it is known as Harappan Civilization. Town planning of this civilization was very systematic.
→ A huge and systematic ancient town, contemporary to Harappan civilization has been found 2 km away from Dholaveera village at Khadirbet, in vast desert of Bhachau taluka. It is about 140 km away from Bhuj in Gujarat.
→ India had undertaken the research work in 1990 AD. Special task of excavation was carried out under the guidance of Ravindra Singh Bisht.
→ Remains at Dholaveera, palaces and main walls of town were painted with white colour. This wall is made up of clay, stone and bricks, potable water was available here as well as a proper system of water purification was set up here.
→ Lothal is situated in Dholka taluka of Ahmedabad district between two rivers, i.e., Bhogavo and Sabarmati. It is 18 km far from Bay of Khambhat, from where three layers of human habitat were found.
→ The huge dockyard, storage shop etc. show, the proof of important and export which suggest that it might be a rich and prosperous port of India.
→ An oval-shaped construction under which the remains of Lord Buddha’s body were placed in a box is known as Stupa.
→ There are five famous stupas of the time of king Ashoka. They are Stupas of Sanchi, Sarnath, Berat, Nandangadh, Devanimori (Gujarat) respectively. Chaityas, Viharas and Maths were also found there.
→ Stone inscriptions carved out by the religious order of emperor Ashoka are the best specimen of stone-engraving. Such pHlars were eracted in Ambaia, Meerut, Allahabad, Samath, Loriya near Nandangadh, Sanchi, Kashi, Patna and Bodhivruksha near Bodh Gaya. They were carved in Brahmi script.
→ In stone inscriptiorf at Sarnath is the best specimen of sculpture. The pillar has four lions facing four directions.
→ Samath is a preaching place of Lord Buddha while Dharmachakras are carved below the lion images.
→ Images of four lions have been placed as our national emblems.
→ Stone inscriptions carved by religious order of Ashoka have been found from Peshawar, Dehradun, Thane, Mumbai, Qhauli, Jaugada and Chennai, etc. Such inscription is found from the foot hills of Girnar mountain on the way to Junagadh in Gujarat.
→ Many Buddhist stupas were built in the regions near Krishna and Godavari river during the reign of Satavahana kings. Stupa of Nagarjuna-Kaunda and Amravati are the best specimen of Dravid style of art.
→ Chola kings adopted Dravid style of architecture upto the great extent.
→ During the Gupta period, architecture, sculpture, painting, dancing and music flourished.
→ Parvati temple at Jabalpur, Bhumra Shiva temple, Narsinh temple, Gopmandir, stupas, Chaityas maths, viharas, flags and pillars are the unique examples of Gupta art.
→ Caves of Ajanta and Ellora, Elephanta caves, Udaygiri and Bagh caves, Bhuvneshwari caves, Khandgiri and Nilgiri caves are the specimens of cave architecture of Gupta period.
→ Caves in Gujarat are found at Junagadh, Khambhalida, Talaja, Sana, Dhank, Jhinjhuri, Khapra-Kodiya and Kaliya Dungar.
→ A unique feature of Pallava age can be seen in the famous chariot temple of South India. It is carved out from a single rock. Kailashnath temple of Kanchi and temple of Vaikutha Perumal, Mandapas at Mahabalipuram and temple of Mahabalipuram are world famous rock-cut temple.
→ The chariots were named after the names of Pandavas. Many famous temple architecture are seen with high pedestal and pinnacle with ladder. Temples in Kanchi, the capital city of Pallavas are very famous.
→ Gopuram means the entrance of the temple. The construction of temples gained momentum due to encouragement of Pandya rulers of south India. Gopuram of Kanchi and Madurai gives us pleasure even today when viewed from distance.
→ Brihadeshwar temple of Tanjavur has thirteen storeyed ‘Gopuram’. Meenakshi temple has four main Gopurams from the architectural point of view. It is a wonderful temple.
→ Chandela rulers built a beautiful temple of Khajuraho (Madhya Pradesh). Jain temples are found at various places of India. Vaibhar at Rajgriha, Vipulachal, Ratnagiri, Udayagiri and Shramgiri are five main jain temples. Sidhakshetra Pilgrim in Samet Shikharji, Bihar is known as Madhuvan.
→ Aadinath Bhagwan and other twenty, Tirthankars attained Nirvana.
→ There is a jain temple at Palitana and Shankheshwar temple at Panchasara in Gujarat. Jain temple at Delwara (Mouth Abu) and Ranakpur in Rajasthan are excellent and wonderful form of construction carving, artistic skill and sculpture.
→ Modhera temple in Gujarat was built in 1026 AD during the reign of Solanki king Bhimdev-I. Medieval Architecture The architecture of mosques, minarets, royal palaces, bridges and inns etc. are seen in medieval age.
→ Qutub-ud-din Aibak built Qutub Minar and Qutwwat-ul-lslam mosque and Adhai-din-ka Jhopra was built by Qutub-ud-din Aibak.
→ Adina Mosque at Pandua region of Bengal, Sultans of Turky built Atala mosque, etc. were well known architecture of medieval period. Architecture of Gujarat Royal palaces, forts, gates, kirtistambh (tower of fame), inns (sanctuaries), Upashrya, Visamas, Varandas, Skylight watch tower, arches, stepwells, lakes and ponds, figures of birds and animals are the most beautiful magnificent structures of Gujarat.
→ Today Gujarat shines like star in the world map because of its art of sculpture, architecture and carving.
Cultural Heritage of India: Sculpture and Architecture Class 10 GSEB Notes Important Terms
• Vastu: The word ‘Vastu’ is used for architecture in Sanskrit language. Vastu has direct contact with residence / habitat.
• Citadel: Under the town planning in Indus Valley Civilization, forts of rulers were constructed on the upper parts of the town in called Citadel.
• Harappan Civilization: The remains of Indus Valley Civilization were found first at Harappa. So, it is known as Harappan Civilization.
• Fortification: Fortified walls encircling town for strong arrangement of protection, is called fortification.
• Lothal: It is situated in taluka Dholka region between two rivers, i.e., Bhogavo and Sabarmati. It can be considered a rich port of ancient India.
• Harmika: The railing around the top of the oval-shaped stupa is called Harmika.
• Medhi: Elevated circular path around stupa is known as medhi, which is used for pradakshina.
• Toran: It means a gateway that is built on two high pillars with artistic horizontal beam on it. The devotees use this toran as an entrance.
• Pillar inscription: Stone inscriptions made from single rock made shiny carved out by the religious order of emperor Ashoka are the best specimens of engraving on stone. This is called Pillar Inscription.
• Dravid style: Many Buddhist stupas were built in the regions near Krishna and Godavari rivers during the region of Satavahana kings. They were of semi-circular, oval and bell shaped. They are known as best specimen of Dravid style of architecture, for example, Stupa of Amravati.
• Trimurti: In three forms of God – painting of Brahma, Vishnu and Mahesh is curved in this great statue. It is seen in- Elephanta caves.
• Chariot temple: Architecture carved out from a single rock is called Chariot temple. It is a unique feature of Pallavi age can be seen in the famous chariot temple of south India. For example, kailasnath temple of Kanchi is the example of architectural art.
• Garbha Gruha: Garbha Gruha means a small and dark rectangular room in which idol is kept. In Gujarat, is known as ‘Gabharo’.
• Gopuram: Pandya rulers of South India built high outer walls and beautifully decorated gates outside the temple. The gates of this temple are known as ‘Gopuram’. Hence, Gopuram means entrance gateway of the temple. For example, temples Temples of Kanchi and Madurai.
• Taaldhwajagiri: Mountain of Talaja is situated near the mouth of Shetrunji river in Bhavnagar district. It is famous as a pilagrim of Taaldhwajagiri.