Gujarat Board GSEB Textbook Solutions Class 10 Social Science Chapter 19 Human Development Textbook Questions and Answers, Additional Important Questions, Notes Pdf.
Human Development Class 10 GSEB Solutions Social Science Chapter 19
Gujarat Board Class 10 Social Science Human Development Textbook Questions and Answers
I. Answer the following questions in detail:
How is Human Development Index calculated?
Human Development Index (HDI) is calculated on the basis of three dimensions that is
- Life expectancy index (LEI) or average age,
- education index (El) and
- income index (II) or lifestyle.
Go through these Social Science Chapter 19 Human Development Class 10 GSEB Notes to score well in your exam.
Before 2010, HDI had been calculated on the basis of average age (health), knowledge and living standard (per capital income).
Describe the challenges the human development.
India has a long way to go and still a lot of work needs to be done to fulfil the parameters of health, education and women empowerment.
The challenges to progress in human development are as follows:
(i) Health: The impediments in the fulfilment of the parameters in the area of health are population growth, widespread common and contagious diseases, malnutrition, physically disabled handicapped and mental disorder. Environmental pollution and crowded habitat created by increasing urbanization are health-related obstacles.
(ii) Sex ratio: The ratio of the female population to the male population is unfavourable. As per the Census of 2011. Female population was 48.46% to 51.54% male population. The sex ratio was most unsatisfactory in the states like Punjab and Haryana. The proportion of female illiteracy is larger, their per capita income is lower, fewer women have employment opportunities. Gender-based discrimination and inequality in economic, political, social-cultural and religious fields poses a huge challenge to human development in India.
(iii) Women empowerment: Women are victims of unhealthy social traditions and gender-based discrimination. Women are ‘powerless’ in comparison to men. Women lack financial independence and this dependence – makes them “helpless’. A number of steps have been taken in the direction of women empowerment, such as 50% reservation of seats in local self-government and encouragement to the formation of the Self-Help Groups of women. However, more efforts are necessary to empower women.
In what ways are the women discriminated in India?
Gender-based discrimination, also described as discrimination against women is a major challenge to human development in India.
Discrimination against women is found in many social customs and traditions like child marriage, female infanticide, uneven marriage, ill-treatment of women in the form of tonsure after the death of husband, down, the practice of Sati. and polygamy prevailed in India. The ‘Purdah’ and ‘Burkha’ (veil) systems were blatant disrespect towards women. A male child was always a preference of the Indian families.
Discrimination was made between male child and female child in their upbringing. Until the end of the 19th century, women were denied education. Even after independence, the percentage of women literacy is less. The dowry system has flourished and taken inhuman form of physical and mental torture and ultimately bride burning and/or suicide committee by women.
According to 2011 Census, the male-female ratio of population is uneven. The male population is 51.54% as against 48.46% female population. In some states the ratio of remale population to male population is 1000:800 less. The most starting are the finding of the Human Development Report of 2015.
|1. HD Index||0.661||0.525|
|2. Expectancy of life||66.6 years||69.5 years|
|3. Expected schooling period||11.8 years||11.3 years|
|4. Average schooling||7.2 years||3.6 years|
|5. Per Capita Income||$8656||$2116|
|7. Literacy rate||88.4%||74.4%|
|8. Representation in Parliament||87.8%||12.2%|
In other words, women suffer discrimination in every area even today.
Describe the work done in the field of health improvement.
Health is an important and valuable asset. Developing countries like India face the challenges of rapid population growth, contagious and common diseases, malnutrition and physical/mental disabilities. However, India has done a lot of work in the or post-1947 period in the field of health improvement.
(i) Child Health: Infant mortality rate has been considerably reduced by undertaking Universal Immunization Programme. Vaccination for various diseases is provided at childbirth and during early infancy. These include OPV for Polio; BCG for Tuberculosis; DPT for Diphtheria, Pertussis and Tetanus; MMR for Measles, Mumps and Rubella; Vaccination for Hepatitis-B; and Typhoid. With the decline in infant mortality rate, a marked improvement in child health has been noted.
(ii) Control over population growth: Family Welfare Programme (Earlier Family Planning Programme) has enabled India to reduce birth rate to 1.9%p.a.
(iii) Pollution control: Steps have been taken to control environmental pollution by enacting laws relating to water and air pollution.
(iv) Nutrition: To overcome the programme of malnutrition, mid-day nutritious meal programme for school-going children has been started.
(v) Health services: A network of primary health centres, cottage hospitals and civil hospitals in the rural and urban areas have been set up. They provide health services either free or at a nominal fee.
Which schemes have been started by the Government of Gujarat to ensure equality to women? Explain
The Government of Gujarat has started the following schemes to elevate the status of women (to ensure equality to women) and for empowerment of women:
(i) Education Realising the role of education in raising the status of women, the following schemes have been implemented: School entrance ceremony and chariot festival to encourage girl’s education. Vidyalaxmi bond to women living below poverty line in the urban areas and villages having less than 35% literacy.
Saraswati Sadhana Yojana to provide free bicycles to 1.5 lakh girls per annum and free ST Bus pass to girls who are required to go outside their village for education. Sabla Yojana provides nutritious food and skill training to adolescent girls.
(ii) Employment: Gujarat government has reserved 33% jobs in the government services for women.
Mission Mangalam Yojana provides financial help to Sakhi Mandal (self¬help groups) of women to make them self-reliant.
(iii) Political empowerment: Gujarat government has raised the quantum of reserved seats for women in the local self-government from 33% to 50%.
(iv) Women’s Welfare: Pension is provided to destitute, widows and labourers under the Rashtriya Swavlamban Yojana.
- Beti Bachao Abhiyan has been started with the slogan Beti Bachao, Beti Vadhao and Beti Padhao.
- E-Mamta Programme provides financial help and health services to the pregnant women.
- Chiranjeevi Yojana provides medical services free of cost to pregnant women belonging to the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes.
- Department of Women and Child Welfare as started in 2001 to implement schemes related to welfare of women and children.
II. Answer the following questions pointwise.
Human development is related with which things of human life?
Human development covers all areas of human life. The significant among these are: Peaceful and prosperous life. Opportunity to live a successful and creative life as per one’s abilities, wisdom and interest. Long, healthy and qualitative life. Knowledge acquired through education. Opportunity to earn livelihood. Equal Opportunities to avail natural resources and live a qualitative life. Personal and social security. Opportunity to exercise human rights.
Explain women welfare schemes of the Indian Government chronologically.
Many government schemes for the welfare of women have been implemented since 1980. These include:
Establishment of National Commission for Women in the year 1992. Setting up a separate Department of Women and Child Welfare in 1985. 92nd and 93rd Constitutional Amendments (wrongly given as 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendments in the textbook) in 1992 to provide 33% reservation of seats for women in the local self-government. Enactment of National Policy on Empowerment of Women in 2001.
Undertaking programmes of capacity building, employment, income generation, welfare and supportive services, gender equality and sanitation for women. Celebration of the year 2002 as Women Empowerment Year. Enacting laws to provide equal share in the family property to women.
Establishment of family courts and women welfare centres. Enacting Domestic Violence Act in 2005 to protect women from physical violence and mental torture. Making law related to prevention of dowry more stringent. Raising minimum marriageable age for women to 18 years.
What is ‘Abhayam Yojana’? Explain.
T81 Abhayam Yojana’ is a helpline to provide help to women in distress and those who are suffering from various types of violence. It is meant to provide them security as well guidance about development schemes for women.
Human Development Index is affected by which things around us?
A lot of unhealthy things around us have adverse effect on the Human Development Index. These are:
- Pregnant women suffering from malnutrition,
- Birth of underweight children,
- Children suffering from malnutrition,
- Starvation death and suicide of farmers,
- Children not going to Aanganwadi.
- School going children lacking capability to read and write,
- Children ‘dropping out’ from school to work as child labour,
- Parents refusing opportunities of higher education to their daughters,
- Educated and uneducated unemployed young people,
- Untimely death due to accidents,
- Person suffering from chronic ailments.
III. Answer the following questions briefly.
What is Human Development?
Human Development: The shift in emphasis from economic development to human welfare finds expression in the term ‘Human Development’. According to the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), “Human Development is a process of extending human aspirations and essential subsistence services.” Human development is not merely an increase in per capita income, but also utilization of that income. It provides opportunity to live a creative life according to one’s skills, intelligence, capabilities and taste.
Which new techniques are used, to measure the Human Development Index?
Since 2010, the UNDP has revised its earlier indicators to measure the human development in the following three areas:
- Life expectancy Index
- Education Index
- Income Index
What was India’s rank and score in the Human Development Report of 2015?
In the Human Development Report of 2015, the rank of India was 130 and the score was 0.609.
Which neighbouring countries are ahead of India in the Human Development Index?
In the Human Development Report, 2015 the neighbouring countries China, Sri Lanka and Maldives Eire ahead of India.
Which vaccines are given children under Child Vaccination Programme?
Under the Universal (Child) vaccination or immunization programme in India, the following vaccines are administered to the children:
- OPV for Polio
- BCG for tuberculosis
- DPT for Diphtheria Pertussis and Tetanus
- MMR for Measles, Mumps, Rubella
- Vaccination for Hepatitis-B and Typhoid.
IV. Answer the following questions by choosing correct alternative:
Which international organization is working for human development.
Which of the following countries has highest Human Development Index?
Among the countries given below, which pair is correct in decreasing order of Human Development Index?
(A) India, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bhutan
(B) Sri Lanka, Bhutan, India, Nepal
(C) Sri Lanka, India, Bhutan, Nepal
(D) Sri Lanka, India, Nepal, Bhutan
(C) Sri Lanka, India, Bhutan, Nepal
Which year was celebrated as the Women Empowerment Year in India?
Which economist of Indian origin got the Noble Prize?
(B) Amartya Sen
(C) Rabindranath Tagore
(D) C.V. Raman
(B) Amartya Sen
Gujarat Board Class 10 Social Science Human Development Additional Important Questions and Answers
I. Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs)
Which report is published every year after 1990 by United nations Development Programme?
(A) Human Development
(B) National Development
(C) World Development
(D) United Nations
(A) Human Development
Whose idea was presented in the first report of Human Development published by United Nations Development Programme?
Which country is at the first place in the world as per Human Development Report 2015?
Which of the following countries, possess highest human development?
Which type of human development is possessed by Kenya?
II. Very Short Answer Type Questions
How many essential pillars of human development are there? ‘
What is the life expectancy index has been decided of India in human development report 2015?
What is average years of schooling in India?
What is the gross national income of India as per human development report?
In dollars ($5497).
What is the value of Human Development Index?
Between 0 and 1.
III. Short Answer Type Questions
What challenges does India face with respect to health of the people?
Although India has made several efforts for improving the health of people, there are several negative sides too. In India, water bom diseases and malnutrition have increased. Till date many Indian women and children belonging to poor class do not get nutritious food. The suffer from lack of nutrients, basis minerals, many vitamins and proteins.
As a result, their body cannot develop properly and fully and they keep on suffering from various health problems. With rise in development and population, the problems of environment pollution and poisonous gases have become a common problem.
Our administrators are not able to handle the increasing urbanization and crowded habitats. So, providing suitable and sufficient health facilities for all remains an ever standing issue.
Healthy people lead to healthier nation. Give reason.
Health of a person is the most important and invaluable asset for the person himself as well as the nation. If the people of nation are healthy, they can lead a happier and a motivated life. People with poor health fall sick quite often. So, they cannot go to work. This decreases the productivity of the nation and hence the economy. Healthy people can work regularly, by remaining motivated and with higher efficiency. Hence, healthy people can make the economy of the nation healthier.
State a few reasons due to which the developing countries have not being able to achieve economic and social development.
Indifference or dislike towards improvement. Low aspirations. Illiteracy in both male and female. Lack of entrepreneurship. Suspicion and superstition, old, rigid and orthodox thinking and traditions. Improper use of natural resources. Improper family planning. Not allowing women to empower, etc.
India has to go a long way in HDI improvement. Give reason.
As the name suggests, the Human Development Index is highly associated with the development of humans. Unlike material resources, it is extremely difficult to develop humans so as to improve overall HDI. Government needs to put a lot of efforts to motivate humans to take up education, take care of their health, etc. Moreover, the government also needs to create huge infrastructural facilities along with several schemes for human welfare, so that people’s overall development takes place and our HDI rises.
Even today, about 70% of our population resides in villages. It is quite difficult and a challenging task to make understand the rural mass about various government schemes, advantages of literacy, raising their living standards, etc. So, if India needs to improve its HDI, it needs to put strenuous efforts to handle the rural mass and hence, India has to go along way in HDI improvement.
It is extremely important to educate – women. Give reason.
Women are the centre of whole development process. In any of I the developing country economic empowerment in the main aspect of women empowerment. If a woman is educated she would educate house, society and ultimately entire nation. Moreover, educated women would contribute significantly in the economy of the nation. Hence, it is utmost important to educate women.
IV. Long Answer Type Questions
What are HDI and HDR? Explain both in brief.
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic of three economic indicators. The HDI formed on the basis of these indicators is used to rank countries into four tiers of human development at world level. The HDI is used to prepare a report called Human Development Report (HDR). The concept of Human Development Index was given by Mahbub-Ul-Haq.
He then gathered many others including Indian origin Nobel Prize winner economist Amartya Sen in this work. This team, under United Nations, Development Programme (UNDP), published the first human development Report (HDR) in 1990. This report was prepared on the basis of Human Development Index (HDI). Since then UNDP publishes Human Development Report (HDR) every year. Till 2009, the Human Development Index was formed on the basis of three indicators namely,
- Life expectancy (Health);
- Knowledge and
- Living standard (per capital income).
The HDR was then prepared to based on these economic indicators. After 2010, a new technique was used to develop HDI and hence prepare HDR. Under this technique the three indicators were:
- Life Expectancy Index (LEI),
- Educational Index (E) and
- Income Index (II) (life style).
State the important aspects of HDI and HDR.
The value of HDI ranges from 0 to 1. The values of HDI are calculated on the basis of three standards namely Life Expectancy Education Index (El) and Income Index (II). The country whose HDI data is closer to 1 is considered more developed. It gets higher ranking in HDI. The country whose HDI value is away from 1 is considered less developed it gets lower ranking in HDI.
So, lower the HDI less developed the nation and higher the HDI more developed the nation. Since 1990, every year the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) publishes Human Development Report HDR. The Human Development Report of 2015 included Human Development Index of 188 countries. On the basis of the HDI values, the countries are divided into four tiers.
According to Human Development Report of 2015, Norway ranked 1st with HDI 0.944 points while India ranked 130th with 0. 609 points. Based on these values, Norway falls in first, tier whereas India in third. Thus, the values of DHI help in comparing the development of various countries. Countries take reference about their position from HDR and try to increase their HDI through the means of development.
Census favours women but statistical figures do not. Explain.
According to India’s census of 2011, 48.46% of our total population is female whereas 51.5% is male. This means that as per the census, the proportion of females is almost equal to that of males in total population. So, females are a veiy good human resource and hence, they should play a good role in the development of Indian economy. But, when we look at the statistical numbers we see that contribution of women in Indian economy is quite less as compared to men.
A male gets an average schooling of 7.2 years whereas a female gets only 3.6 years i.e. half of what men gets. Life expectancy of women in more than the men but even though their per capita income is lesser than men. Man earns about US $8,656 whereas women earn just US $2,116. India’s 79.9% labour force is male whereas only 27% is female. So, even though census says we have almost equal number of males and females, the contribution of females is quite less in the economy.
What is women empowerment? What is the scenario of women empowerment in India?
The creation of an environment for women where they can make decisions of their own for their personal benefits as well as for the society is called women empowerment. By empowering them also means increasing their spiritual, political, social or economic strength.
Scenario of Women Empowerment in India: India has taken several steps for empowering women. Indian women have served as the Prime Minister, President and as Chief Minister of different states. Today, Indian women are engaged in jobs like driving a mere driver -to flying a hi-tech aeroplane, drama, movies, TV, sepals and News channel.
The employment of women is expanding from working in top position in business and commerce, communication and many other areas. Although women have developed quite well, their development is mainly concentrated in urban areas. The rural areas still lack quite behind in ‘ empowering women.
V. Fill in the blanks
1. The process of extending human aspirations and essential subsistence services is called ………….. .
2. …………….. is an important and valuable asset.
3. Indian …………….. guarantees equality and justice to all the citizens.
4. In progress and development of any country the role of ……………. is important as a human resource.
5. Year 2002 was celebrated as ……………… year in the world.
1. Human Development
5. Woman Empowerment