GSEB Solutions Class 10 Social Science Chapter 13 Manufacturing Industries

   

Gujarat Board GSEB Textbook Solutions Class 10 Social Science Chapter 13 Manufacturing Industries Textbook Questions and Answers, Additional Important Questions, Notes Pdf.

Manufacturing Industries Class 10 GSEB Solutions Social Science Chapter 13

Gujarat Board Class 10 Social Science Manufacturing Industries Textbook Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions in details.

Question 1.
Where are sugar factories located? Why?
Answer:
Sugar is obtained from sugarcane. It is necessary to extract the juice of sugarcane within 24 hours of reaping. If it is not done, the water level of the sugar can decreases. If the water level of sugarcane reduces, i.e., sugarcane dehydrates, it will give lesser sugar. Hence, the sugar factories are located near sugarcane growing centres.

GSEB Solutions Class 10 Social Science Chapter 13 Manufacturing Industries

Question 2.
Write a note on the iron and steel industry of India.
Answer:
Iron is one of the most important mineral of the modern world. So, iron and steel industry is the base of modem industries and economic development. It also falls in the category of basic industries on which machines, construction and other such industries develop. The process of making iron is very old in India.

Go through these Social Science Chapter 13 Manufacturing Industries Class 10 GSEB Notes to score well in your exam.

In olden time, people of Damasca used to buy iron from India to make swords. Today, India ranks fifth in the world in iron and steel production. The first factory in India to produce iron was established at Portonovo in Tamil Nadu.

However, it was closed due to some reasons. In 1874, India’s first blast furnace was established at Kulti in West Bengal for making iron ore. In 1907, Jamshedji Tata started Tata Iron and Steel Company (TISCO) at Jamshedpur for large scale production of iron and steel.

Then large scale factories for iron and steel were also established at Bumper and Durgapur in West Bengal, Bhadravati in Karnataka, Bhilai, Rourkela, Bokaro, Vishakhapatnam and Salem. A mini steel plant has been found near Hajira in Gujarat. Iron ore, coal, limestone and manganese are used as raw material for producing iron and steel. The administration of all iron and steel factories except that of Tata is done by ‘Steel Authority of India Limited’ (SAIL).

Question 3.
Write short note on the importance of industries.
Answer:
The process in which man can change the natural resources into usable conditions according to his intellectual, cultural and economic capacity is called industry. Importance of Industries: In today’s time, the existence of nations largely depends on industries’. It is impossible for a nation to achieve economic development without developing its industries. The countries that have focused more on their industrial development have achieved high economic growth.

Countries like US, Russia, Japan, South Korea, etc. are prosperous and developed due to their high industrial development. On the other hand, countries, where the industries are either not developed or are less developed, are not able to utilize their natural resources properly and fully.

As a result they have to sell their natural resources at a cheaper price and purchase goods made from the same raw material from foreign countries at a higher price. In this, manufacturing industries contribute about 29% of the national production.

Question 4.
Write a short note on cotton textile industry of Indian
Answer:
The cotton textile industry plays a very important role in India’s economy. Among all the industries, this industry employs maximum people in India which is about 3.5 crore people. India holds second rank after China in the export of cotton textile. Thus, cotton textile is the main industry from employment as well as production point of view. In the initial years, the cotton textile mills were mainly established in Mumbai and Ahmedabad.

India’s first cotton mill was started in Mumbai. Then, Shahpur Mills and Calico Mills were established in Ahmedabad in Gujarat. Cheap cotton, availability of labour, transport facilities, ports for export and favourable markets were among the chief reasons for the establishment of these industries. Today, cotton textile mills have spread across the country. They are now located in about 100 cities of India.

However, the main centres are Mumbai, Ahmedabad, Bhiwandi, Sholapur, Kolhapur, Nagpur, Indore and Ujjain. A very large number of cotton mills exist in Mumbai and so it is also called as Cottonpolis of India. Cotton textile is also present at other cities of Maharashtra such as Pune, Kolhapur, Aurangabad, Jalgaon, etc. There are a very large number of cotton textile industries in Ahmedabad.

So, it is called as ‘Manchester of the East’ and also ‘Denim City of India’. Cities like Vadodara, Kalol, Bharuch, Surat, Porbandar, Bhavnagar, Rajkot etc. also have a good number of textile units. Coimbatore is the main centre of Tamil Nadu, Chennai and Madurai cities are other important centres of textile in Tamil Nadu.

Kanpur, Itawah, Agra, Lucknow, etc are main centres of cotton textile in Uttar Pradesh. Indore, Gwalior, Ujjain and Devas are main centres in Madhya Pradesh. In West Bengal Kolkata, Howrah, Murshidabad are major centres of cotton textile. Cotton textile industry is also present in Rajasthan, Punjab and Haryana. As can be seen the cotton industry is not concentrated at specific states but is spread across India. Reason for this includes huge Indian market and well-established infrastructure such as transport, banks, electricity, etc.

Today, India’s cotton textile industry has grown so much that it exports cloth to Russia, United Kingdom, United States of America, Sudan, Nepal, Australia, France and South African countries. The downside of this industry is that it is facing a tough competition due to the factors like inadequate supply of best variety of cotton, use of old machinery, irregular electric supply, competition from artificial fibre cloth and competition given by global brands.

II. Write to the point answer of the following questions.

Question 1.
Mention the steps to curb environmental degradation.
Answer:
Steps to curb environmental degradation: Industries are the pillars of national economy. They should be developed to solve several problems of the country. The country should develop the industries in such a way that industrial progress and development does not cause much harm to the environment.

The amount of pollution and quality of pollution can be reduced with proper planning, methods and equipment. Pollution can be also reduced by using correct raw material and fuel. The air pollution can be controlled by using filter, scrubber, precipitators, etc. in the factories. The water pollution can be prevented by releasing industrial effluents only after properly treating them. Moreover, industrial water can be purified after treatment and re-used.

GSEB Solutions Class 10 Social Science Chapter 13 Manufacturing Industries

Question 2.
Describe the classification of industries.
Answer:
Industries can be divided on the basis of
(A) Human labour,
(B) Ownership and
(C) Sources of raw material.

(A) Human labour: On the basis of human labour, the industries can be divided as ‘Small Scale’ industries and Targe Scale’ industries.
(i) Large Scale Industry: An Industry which employs a very large number of people is known as large scale industry. For example, cotton textile industry.
(ii) Small Scale Industry: Industry which is generally owned by individual and which employs very less people is known as small scale industry. For example, readymade garment unit, dairy industry, etc.

(B) Ownership: Industries can be private, public, collaborative and cooperative.
(C) Sources of raw material: On the basis of the source of the raw material, the industries can be classified into

  1. Agro-based industries and
  2. Mineral-based industries.

III. Write answer to the following questions in brief.

Question 1.
How many shipbuilding centres are there in India? Which are they?
Answer:
There are five major shipbuilding centres in India. Public sector shipbuilding industries at Vishakhapatnam, Kolkata, Kochi, Mumbai and Marmagao produce modern ships. Out of these, Kochi and Vishakhapatnam build large size ships.

Question 2.
Which raw material is needed for manufacturing cement.
Answer:
Limestone, coal, gypsum, bauxite, clay, etc. are the raw material used for making cement.

Question 3.
Where are the centres of chemical industry located in Gujarat?
Answer:
Ahmedabad, Vadodara, Ankleshwar, Bharuch etc. are major centres of chemical industry in Gujarat.

Question 4.
State four centres of paper industry in India.
Answer:
Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, West Bengal, Odisha, Karnataka, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Tamil Nadu, Haryana, etc. are major centres of paper industry in India.

IV. Select the correct option of the following questions.

Question 1.
Which of the following cities is called cotton polos of India for cotton textiles?
(a) Indore
(b) Mumbai
(c) Ahmedabad
(d) Nagpur
Answer:
(b) Mumbai

GSEB Solutions Class 10 Social Science Chapter 13 Manufacturing Industries

Question 2.
Which place does India hold in the export of jute in the world?
(a) Second
(b) First
(c) Third
(d) None of these
Answer:
(a) Second

Question 3.
Which Indian city is well-known as ‘Silicon Valley’ of India?
(a) Delhi
(b) Bengaluru
(c) Jaipur
(d) Nagpur
Answer:
(b) Bengaluru

Question 4.
Where is the mini steel plant located in Gujarat?
(a) Kandla
(b) Okha
(c) Dwarka
(d) Hajira
Answer:
(d) Hajira

Question 5.
Which of the following pairs is false?
(a) Bengal-Kulti
(b) Jharkhand-Jamshedpur
(c) Kamtataka-Bhadravati
(d) Andhra Pradesh-Bumpur
Answer:
(d) Andhra Pradesh-Bumpur

Gujarat Board Class 10 Social Science Manufacturing Industries Additional Important Questions and Answers

I. Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs)

Question 1.
A jute mill was established in ……………… at Risra near Kolkata.
(a) 1853
(b) 1855
(c) 1854
(d) 1881
Answer:
(b) 1855

Question 2.
Large scale industries: Cotton cloth, Small scale industries: ………………..
(a) Khandsari – sugar
(b) Iron and Steel Industry
(c) Electronic Industry
(d) Transport Equipment Industry
Answer:
(a) Khandsari – sugar

GSEB Solutions Class 10 Social Science Chapter 13 Manufacturing Industries

Question 3.
In a classroom during the discussion about ‘Cotton Textile Industry’, which statement is correct?
(a) Neelam: Extensive market centres, transportation, banks and electricity have contributed considerably in decentralization of this industry.
(b) Mani: There are about 100 cotton textile mills located in Mumbai, so it is known as mega city.
(c) Moti: Coimbatore is called Manchester of east in Tamil Nadu.
(d) Hir: Madurai is known as denim city of India.
Answer:
(a) Neelam: Extensive market centres, transportation, banks and electricity have contributed considerably in decentralization of this industry.

Question 4.
For cotton textile industry are given below their centres. Find in the incorrect options.
(a) Maharashtra: Mumbai, Kolhapur, Aurangabad, Jalgaon
(b) Uttar Pradesh: Kanpur, Itawah, Agra, Lucknow
(c) Madhya Pradesh: Indore, Gwalior, Ujjain, Devas
(d) Tamil Nadu: Coimbatore, Chennai, Madhurai, Puri
Answer:
(d) Tamil Nadu: Coimbatore, Chennai, Madhurai, Puri

Question 5.
Identify the centres of woollen textile industry:
(a) Dhariwal, Ludhiana, Amritsar
(b) Kerala, Maharashtra, Gujarat
(c) Vadodara, Kalol, Bharuch
(d) Bardoli, Gandevi, Kodinar
Answer:
(a) Dhariwal, Ludhiana, Amritsar

Question 6.
Which of the following pairs is not correct?
(a) Rajkot – cotton cloth
(b) Modinagar – synthetic cloth
(c) Agartala – silk cloth
(d) Bikaner – woollen cloth
Answer:
(c) Agartala – silk cloth

Question 7.
Which arrangement of following cloth industries and their states is not correct? Find it out.
(a) Silk cloth: Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, West Bengal, Tamil Nadu, Punjab
(b) Jute cloth: West Bengal, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka, Sikkim
(c) Synthetic cloth: Kerala, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal
(d) Woollen cloth: Punjab, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat, Rajasthan
Answer:
(b) Jute cloth: West Bengal, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka, Sikkim

Question 8.
One statement is not correct for Iron- and Steel industry.
(a) There administration of all iron- steel factories except Tata is handed over to SAIL.
(b) India ranks fifth in the world in iron and Steel production.
(c) Amini steel plant has been established near Bajva in Gujarat.
(d) Iron ore, coal limestone and Manganese ore are used as raw material for producing iron and steel.
Answer:
(c) Amini steel plant has been established near Bajva in Gujarat.

GSEB Solutions Class 10 Social Science Chapter 13 Manufacturing Industries

Question 9.
Which statement is fully correct during students’ discussion about chemical industry in a classroom.
(a) Kena: Gujarat leads in the country in the chemical industry.
(b) Sarva: Chemicals are of two types:

  1. Organic chemicals
  2. Inorganic chemicals

(c) Parth: The chemical industry is important in India.
(d) Above three matters are included in it.
Answer:
(d) Above three matters are included in it.

Question 10.
Which of the following pairs is not correct?
(a) Chemical industry: Vadodara
(b) Chemical fertilizer industry: Sindri
(c) Plastic industry: Delhi
(d) Varanasi: Tata Locomotive Works
Answer:
(d) Varanasi: Tata Locomotive Works

II. Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What can be considered as the first successful attempt of establishing an industry in India?
Answer:
In 1854 AD, cotton textile industry started in India. This was the first successful attempt of starting an industry in India.

Question 2.
What provided a new dimension to the industrial development in India?
Answer:
In 1907 AD. Tata Iron and Steel Company was founded at Jamshedpur. This provided a new dimension to the industrial development in India.

Question 3.
When and where was the first cotton textile mill established in India?
Answer:
The first cotton textile mill was established in India in Mumbai in 1854. Mumbai is also known as ‘Cottonopolis of India’.

Question 4.
By which other names Ahmedabad is known as?
Answer:
Ahmedabad is also known as “Manchester of the East’ and “Denim City’ of India.

GSEB Solutions Class 10 Social Science Chapter 13 Manufacturing Industries

Question 5.
Which factors are responsible for decentralization for cotton textile industry?
Answer:
Factors like: Extensive market centres, transportation facilities, banking facilities, electricity etc. are responsible for the decentralization of cotton textile industry in India.

Question 6.
Mention India’s place in the production of jute and jute goods and its export in the world.
Answer:
India holds the first place in the production of jute and jute goods in the world. India is at second place after Bangladesh in the export of jute in the world.

Question 7.
Which problems is the jute industry of India facing now?
Answer:
The jute industry is facing problems like: other options in packing material, higher production cost, decreasing demand of jute in international markets.

Question 8.
How many types of silk is produced in India? Name them.
Answer:
In India, four types of silk is produced:

  1. Mulberry
  2. Eri
  3. Tasar
  4. Munga.

Question 9.
What is India’s rank in the production of silk in the world?
Answer:
India ranks second after China in the production of silk in the world.

Question 10.
What is paper made out of?
Answer:
Paper is made out of softwood, bamboo, grass, molasses etc.

Question 11.
Name the raw materials used for producing iron and steel.
Answer:
Iron ore, coal, limestone and manganese are used as raw materials for producing iron and steel.

GSEB Solutions Class 10 Social Science Chapter 13 Manufacturing Industries

Question 12.
Who manages all iron and steel factories except TATA?
Answer:
SAIL (Steel Authority of India Limited) manages all iron and steel factories except TATA Iron and Steel Company.

Question 13.
What is the rank of India is the production of iron and steel in the world?
Answer:
India ranks fifth in the world in the production of iron and steel.

Question 14.
Where is mini steel plant located in Gujarat?
Answer:
Mini steel plant is located at Hajira in Gujarat.

Question 15.
Which are the unique qualities/ properties of aluminium?
Answer:
Aluminium is light in weight, strong, malleable, good conductor of electricity and rustproof.

Question 16.
Where and by whom was the first copper refining unit of India founded?
Answer:
The first copper refining unit of India was founded at Ghatshila in Jharkhand by Indian Copper Corporation (ICC).

Question 17.
Which is the main organic chemical? Mention its uses.
Answer:
Petrochemicals is the main organic chemical. It is used in artificial fibres, artificial rubber, plastic goods, colours, chemicals and medicines.

GSEB Solutions Class 10 Social Science Chapter 13 Manufacturing Industries

Question 18.
Which are inorganic chemicals?
Answer:
Sulphuric acid, nitric acid, alkalies, soda ash, caustic soda, chlorine etc. are inorganic chemicals.

Question 19.
When and where was the first chemical fertilizer factory established?
Answer:
The first chemical fertilizer factory was established at Panipat in Tamil Nadu in 1906.

Question 20.
When did the development of chemical fertilizer industry start?
Answer:
The development of chemical fertilizer industry started when Fertilizer Corporation of India started its factory at Sindari.

Question 21.
Where are the centres of chemical fertilizer industry located in Gujarat?
Answer:
Kalol, Kandla, Hajira, Bharuch, Vadodara are the centres of chemical fertilizer industry in Gujarat.

Question 22.
By which other name plastic industry in known as?
Answer:
Plastic industry is known as ‘Sunrise Industry’.

Question 23.
On what position, is India in the production of cement in the world? How much of the total production of cement is produced in India?
Answer:
India ranks second after China in the production of cement in the world. India produces about 6% of the total production of cement in the world.

Question 24.
What is the meaning of transport equipment industry?
Answer:
The industry producing vehicles with faster speed is known as transport equipment industry.

GSEB Solutions Class 10 Social Science Chapter 13 Manufacturing Industries

Question 25.
Where are diesel and electric engines produced?
Answer:
Diesel and electric engines are produced at:

  1. Mihijam in Chitranjan in West Bengal,
  2. Varanasi in Uttar Pradesh.
  3. Jamshedpur in Jharkhand.

Question 26.
Where are passenger coaches manufactured?
Answer:
Passenger coaches are manufactured at Perambur, Bengaluru, Kapurthala and Kolkata.

Question 27.
India is at what position in the production of commercial vehicles in the world?
Answer:
India ranks fifth in the production of commercial vehicles in the world.

Question 28.
Which are the larger size shipbuilding centre in India?
Answer:
The larger size ships are built at Vishakhapatnam and Kochi.

Question 29.
Where are fighter aircrafts manufactured in India?
Answer:
Fighter aircrafts are manufactured at Bengaluru, Nasik, Koraput, Hyderabad, and Lucknow.

Question 30.
Where and when was Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL) established?
Answer:
Bharat Electronic Limited was established in 1956 at Bengaluru.

Question 31.
From when was the electronic industry started in India?
Answer:
In 1905, radio set and telephone industry was established in India. This can be said to be the beginning of electronics industry in India.

Question 32.
By which other names is Bengaluru known as?
Answer:
Bengaluru is known as ‘Capital of Electronic Industry’ and ‘Silicon Valley of India’.

Question 33.
What is the meaning of environmental degradation?
Answer:
Due to natural and human-induced reasons, the quality of environment is reduced. This is called environmental degradation.

GSEB Solutions Class 10 Social Science Chapter 13 Manufacturing Industries

Question 34.
Which types of pollution are created due to industries?
Answer:
Due to industries, various type of pollution like:

  1. air pollution,
  2. water pollution,
  3. soil pollution and
  4. noise pollution are created.

Question 35.
Which gases in the air creates air pollution?
Answer:
Harmful gases like carbon monoxide and sulphur dioxide created air pollution.

Question 36.
Which equipments are used to control air pollution?
Answer:
Equipments like filters, scrubbers machine, precipitators are used to control air pollution.

III. Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Industrial development started very late in India. Give reason.
Answer:
When the Industrial Revolution took place in the world, India, was under the British Rule. British made very unjust policies so that Indians could not start or develop industries. The first charcoal-based iron melting industry started as early as 1853, but it failed because of the British policies. The British used to buy raw material at cheap prices from India, produce goods from them in England and sell those goods back in India.

As a result, the local industries could not develop in India. There were also several bans on Indians for producing several goods and setting up industries. Owing to all these reasons, India’s industrial backbone broke down during the British Rule and so India could not start industrial development as early as other developed countries.

Question 2.
Enlist first few Industries of India and their set-ups.
Answer:
The first charcoal-based iron melting industry started as early as 1853, but it failed because of the British policies. The first cotton textile industry started in 1854. A jute mill was established in 1855 at Risra near Kolkata. In 1874, India’s first blast furnace was established at Kulti in West Bengal for making iron ore which was closed after few years it was restarted in 1881. In 1907, Jamshedji Tata started Tata Iron and Steel Company (TISCO) at Jamshedpur and opened new ways for India.

GSEB Solutions Class 10 Social Science Chapter 13 Manufacturing Industries

Question 3.
India was quite rich and prosperous in its industries. Give reason.
Answer:
In India, the industrial traditions are as old as the time fo Indus Valley Civilization. At that time, India used to produce cotton textile, clay utensils, things of bell-metal and beads. India was also quite advanced in shipbuilding industry till 18th century. India not only produced handicraft but also exported it. India also had well-developed cottage industries.

In the ancient time Indian cotton cloth, muslin cloth, metal utensils and ornamentals were in huge demand. Traders from many countries used to travel India to buy goods produced here. Hence, we can say that India was quite rich and prosperous in its industries.

Question 4.
The textile industry of India was ruined under the British rule. Give reason.
Answer:
When the Industrial Revolution took place in the world, India was under the British Rule. British made very unjust policies so that Indian could not start or develop industries. The British used to buy raw cotton and other fibres at cheap prices from India, produces goods from them in England and sell those goods back in India.

This ruined our Indian textile industry. Textile industries has no option but to shut down. Unemployment and poverty increased. Thus, the textile industry of Indian was ruined under the British Rule.

Question 5.
Define large scale and small scale industry.
Answer:
Large Scale Industry: An industry which employs a very large number of people is known as ‘Large Scale Industry’. For example, cotton textile industry.

Small Scale Industry: An industry which is generally owned by individual and which employs very less people is known as ‘Small Scale Industry’. For example, ready-made garment unit, daily industry etc.

Question 6.
Mumbai is called the ‘Cottonopolis of India1 whereas Ahmedabad the ‘Manchester of the East1 as well as ‘Denim City’. Give reason.
Answer:
A place where a very large number of cotton mills exist and where people heavily depend on cotton textile is called Cottonopolis, This situation existed in Mumbai and so it is called as Cottonopolis of India. There was a time when Ahmedabad used to be leader in cotton textile. The city of Manchester in England also had the same growth of cotton textile during the 19th centuiy. Hence, Ahmedabad was compared to Manchester and given the title of ‘Manchester of East’ or ‘Manchester of India’.

Question 7.
State the main centre of cotton textile industry in India.
Answer:

State Main centres of cotton textile industry
Maharashtra Mumbai, Pune, Bhiwan- di, Sholapur, Kolhapur, Nagpur, Aurangabad and Jalgaon.
Gujarat Ahmedabad, Vadodara, Kalol, Bharuch, Surat, Porbandar, Bhavnagar and Rajkot.
Tamil Nadu Coimbatore, Chennai and Madurai.
Uttar Pradesh Kanpur, Itawah, Agra and Lucknow.
Madhya Pradesh Indore, Gwalior, Ujjain and Devas.
West Bengal Kolkata, Howrah and Murshidabad.

Question 8.
Why did cotton textile establish quite well in India? What are the current challenges faced by it?
Answer:
Cheap cotton, availability of labour, transport facilities, ports for export and favourable markets were among the chief reasons for the establishment of cotton textile industry in India. Today, the industry is facing a tough competition due to the factors like inadequate supply of best variety of cotton, use of old machinery, irregular electric supply, competition from artificial fibre cloth and competition given by global brands.

GSEB Solutions Class 10 Social Science Chapter 13 Manufacturing Industries

Question 9.
Jute industry is concentrated in West Bengal. Give reason.
Answer:
Of the total jute production of the country, West Bengal alone produces about 80% of Jute. Purifying jute requires a lot of water. As a result, most of the jute mills are located on the bank of Hoogli river. West Bengal has several favourable factors such as water of Hoogli river, cheap labour force, banks and insurance coverage, port for export facility etc. Hence, jute industry is concentrated here.

Question 10.
Write a short note on Silk Textile Industry.
Answer:
Traditionally, India has been involved in silk production since ancient India. India ranks second after China in silk production. India produces four types of silk. They are mulberry, eri, tasar and muga. Today, there are about 300 silk weaving mills in India. Karnataka, Madhya Pradehs, West Bengal, Tamil Nadu, Punjab and Jammu-Kashmir are major producing states. India also exports silk clothes to Europe, Africa, Germany, Singapore, USA, Kuwait, Malaysia, Russia and Gulf countries.

Question 11.
Describe in brief about woollen textile industry.
Answer:
As a cottage industry, the history of woollen textile industry is quite old. In India, maximum woollen mills are located in Punjab and then in Maharashtra. These mills are also present in Uttar Pradesh, Ahmedabad and Jamnagar in Gujarat, Bikaner and Jaipur, in Rajasthan, Srinagar in Jammu and Kashmir and Bengaluru in Karnataka. India produces woollen clothes as well as carpets. Out woollen cloth is exported to America, Canada, Germany, France, Russia, etc.

Question 12.
Give a brief idea about synthetic textile industry.
Answer:
The fibre made by man artificially i.e. without using natural fibres is called synthetic fibre. This fibre is used in making ropes, nets, clothes, etc. Synthetic fibre is strong, durable and does not wrinkle. Hence, the industry based on synthetic fibre has grown much. By mixing cotton fibres with synthetic fibres we produce mixed variety of cloth. Kerala, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal,, Tamil Nadu etc. are leading states in synthetic textiles. Surat, Kanpur, Mumbai, Ahmedabad, Kolkata, Chennai, Modinagar, etc. are other important centres.

Question 13.
Write a note on Sugar Industry.
Answer:
India has been long involved in making jaggery from sugarcane juice. In agro-based industry, sugar industry comes second after textile industry in India. It is necessary to extract the juice of sugarcane within 24 hours of reaping it so that its water level does not decrease. If the water level of sugarcane reduces, it will give lesser sugar. Hence, the sugar factories are located near sugarcane growing centres. Sugar factories are located in Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, etc. In Gujarat, this industry is developed at Bardoli, Gandevi, Olpad, Vyara, Bharuch, Kodinar, Talala-Gir, etc.

Question 14.
Give a brief introduction of Paper Industry.
Answer:
Paper Industry: Paper is made out of softwood, bamboo, grass, molasses, etc. Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, West Bengal, Odisha, Karnataka, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Tamil Nadu, Haryana, etc. are major centres of Paper Industry.

GSEB Solutions Class 10 Social Science Chapter 13 Manufacturing Industries

Question 15.
Explain briefly the aluminium refining industry of India.
Answer:
Aluminium refining is quite an important industry of India. It is extracted from bauxite ore. Aluminium is light in weight, strong, malleable, smooth conductor of electricity and rustproof. Other minerals are also added to aluminium to improve its properties further. Aluminium is used in making cars, train, aeroplanes and machines.

About 40-50% cost or producing aluminium goes in electricity. So, aluminium refinery is set-up at such places where bauxite and hydro-electricity is available easily. Factories producing aluminium are established on Odisha, West Bengal, Kerala, Uttar Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu.

Question 16.
Explain briefly copper refining industry of India.
Answer:
Copper has many important properties such as good conductor of electricity, can be mixed with other minerals easily, etc. Hence, it is a very useful metal for mankind. It is use in electrical industry, in making refrigerator, air conditioner, automobiles, radiators, domestic utensils, etc. First copper refining unit of India was set-up by Indian Copper Corporation (ICC) at Ghatshila in Jharkhand. In 1972, ICC was handed over to Hindustan Copper Limited (HCL) Today, copper is produced by private sector also. Even then we are not able to meet our demand and so we have to import copper.

Question 17.
Write a note on cement industry.
Answer:
Cement is the base material for construction of roads, dams, bridge, etc. India ranks second after China in cement production. India produces . about 6% of world cement production, t limestone, coal, gypsum, bauxite, clay, etc are the raw material used for producing cement. The raw materials of cement and hence the cement are quite heavy in weight. So the cement factories are located where the raw material is available easily and in abundance. Gujarat’s cement industry has developed quite well.

Question 18.
Write a short note on railway manufacturing. Where are railway engines made in India?
Answer: Indian Railways itself manufacture I the vehicles and equipment necessary
to run the trains. This includes railway engines, passenger coaches, goods coaches, etc. There are also private companies who produce these things for the railways. Indian Railways have three types of railway engines namely

  1. Steam engine
  2. Diesel engine and
  3. Electric engine.

The steam engines have become absolute now and are used only for the Heritage. Trains that run for tourism purpose. Diesel and electric engines are produced at Mihijam in Chittaranjan Locomotives Works in West Bengal, Diesel Locomotives Works at Varanasi and The Tata Locomotive Works at Jamshedpur. Passenger coaches are manufactured at Perambur, Bengaluru, Kapurthala and Kolkata.

Question 19.
Write a note on-road vehicle manufacturing in India.
Answer:
Before independence, India used to import parts and assemble cars for the local market. However, now India has made much advancement in this industry. Our factories manufacture truck, bus, car, rickshaw, motorcycle, scooter, cycle, etc. The road vehicles are manufactured mostly by private sector. India ranks 5th in the world in the production of commercial vehicles. We have developed so much that today we export the vehicles and also several parts to various countries. India produces tractors and cycles at a very large scale and also exports them to many countries.

GSEB Solutions Class 10 Social Science Chapter 13 Manufacturing Industries

Question 20.
Write a short note on shipbuilding and aviation industry of India.
Answer:
Ship-building is an ancient industry in India. Today, India even produces modem ships. Public sector industries at Vishakhapatnam, Kolkata, Kochi, Mumbai and Marmagao produce modern ships. Out of these, Kochi and Vishakhapatnam build large size ships. There are also few important private ports which help in trade and commerce with other countries through these ships.

India has also made good progress in aviation industry. India manufactures both helicopters and small aircrafts. Aircrafts building units age established in Bengaluru, Koraput, Nasik, Hyderabad and Lucknow. Factories for manufacturing passenger aircrafts have not yet started in Indna.

Question 21.
Give an idea about the electronic industry of India.
Answer:
India’s electronic industry began with the establishment of industries for manufacturing radio and television in 1905. Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL) was established in 1956 in Bengaluru. The objective of this unit was to produce equipment for Akashwani and weather department. Today, BEL produces various electronic equipment in collaboration with Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO).

The electronic industry has upgraded the lives of people by providing them means of communication and entertainment. It has also contributed significantly in the national economy. Bengaluru has become capital of electronic industry. It is also called ‘Silicon Valley of India’. Various software park, Science Park and Technological Park are established for the development of this industry. The future of this industry in India is very bright.

IV. Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Write a note on chemical industry of India.
Answer:
Chemical industry is quite an important industry for India. These industries produce two types of chemicals namely, organic chemicals and inorganic chemicals. Industries that produce organic chemicals are mainly petrochemical industries. A chemical substance obtained from petroleum is called petrochemical. So, a petrochemical industry is an industry which produces products using chemicals derived from petroleum.

Petrochemicals or organic chemicals are used in producing artificilal fibres, artificial rubber, plastic goods, colour, chemicals and medicines. These industries are generally set-up near oil refineries and petrochemical centres. India has an important position in the world in the insecticide industry. Gujarat leads in the country in chemical industry. Ahmedabad, Vadodara, Ankleshwar, Bharuch, etc. are major centres of chemical industry.

Question 2.
Write a note on chemical fertilizer industry and plastic industry.
Answer:
First chemical fertilizer factory of India was established in 1906 at Ranipat in Tamil Nadu. The development of chemical industry started when Fertilizer Corporation of India (FCI) started its factory at Sindarin. Chemical industry is highly concentrated in Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and Kerala. In Gujarat, the factories producing chemical fertilizers are located at Kalol, Kandla, Hajira, Bharuch, Vadodara, etc.

Plastic Industry: There are practically countless applications of plastic. So, there is a constant rise in demand of raw material for plastic. Plastic is waterproof and can fit into any mould. Due to such a wide use and excellent properties of plastic, plastic industry is also known as ‘Sunrise Industry’. It is used in packing chemicals, textiles, building construction, vehicle manufacturing, electronics etc. Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Bengaluru, Vadodara, Vapi, Kanpur, Coimbatore and Chennai.

Question 3.
How do industries pollute the environment? Explain. What are its effects?
Answer:
There is no doubt that industries form the base of our economy. We cannot think of an industry- free nation. The downside is that industries have increased pollution to a tremendous level and have ruined the environment. The reduction in environmental conditions arising due to man-induced reasons is called environmental degradation. Industries mainly cause four types of pollutions. They are:

  1. Air pollution,
  2. water pollution,
  3. Land pollution and
  4. Noise pollution.

Effect of Industrial pollution:
Industries have polluted air and water to a great extent. The air has become polluted due to very harmful gases like carbon monoxide and sulphur dioxide that the industries release. Many factories break the laws and release their industries waste in the rivers, lakes, streams, etc. This had heavily polluted the water. The sound of machines cause noise pollution. Noise pollution is one of the reason for deafness in Old and worn out machineries in industries and means of transportation also cause a lot of noise.

V. Fill in the blanks

1. Up to ……………. century. India was ahead in shipbuilding industry.
2. In ……………. AD, the first industrial complex of iron furnace based on charcoal was founded.
3. In 1874 AD, a factory was founded at ……………. for making iron ore.
4. In 1907 AD, a new direction was prompted with the founding of Tata Iron and Steel company at ………………..
5. The first cotton textile mill was established at ……………….
Answer:
1. 18th
2. 1853
3. Kulti
4. Jamshedpur
5. Mumbai

GSEB Solutions Class 10 Social Science Chapter 13 Manufacturing Industries

VI. Write whether the following statements are true or false.

1. A mini steel plant has been established near Hajira in Gujarat.
2. India ranks fifth in the world in the production of iron and steel.
3. Garment industry leads in industrial economy of India.
4. India holds important place in production of chemical industry.
5. India hold fifth place in the production of commercial vehicles in the world.
Answer:
1. Ture
2. True
3. False
4. True
5. True

VII. Math the following.

GSEB Solutions Class 10 Social Science Chapter 13 Manufacturing Industries 1
Answer:
1. (d)
2. (c)
3. (b)
4. (a)

VIII. Answer in one word

Question 1.
At which place was BEL established in 1956?
Answer:
Bengaluru

Question 2.
In which state is Sindri located?
Answer:
Bihar

Question 3.
At which place is Diesel Locomotive Work established?
Answer:
Varanasi

Question 4.
Which is considered the ‘Cotton polis’ of cotton cloth?
Answer:
Mumbai

Question 5.
At which place is ISRO located in Gujarat?
Answer:
Ahmedabad

IX. Identify me

1. I am known as main cent5re of cotton textile industry of Tamil Nadu.
2. I possess maximum woollen textile mills.
3. I hold the fifth position in the world in the production of Iron and Steel industry.
4. I am a place of mini steel plant in Gujarat.
5. I am considered as Silicon Valley of India.
Answer:
1. Coimbatore,
2. Punjab,
3. India,
4. Hajira,
5. Bengaluru

X. Map-based question

Question 1.
On an outline political map of India, locate and label the following.

  1. Cotton Textile Industries: Mumbai, Indore, Ahmedabad, Surat
  2. Woollen Industries: Srinagar, Amritsar, Ludhiana, Mirzapur, Agra
  3. Silk Industries: Belgaon, Murshidabad, Mysore, (Mysuru).

Answer:
GSEB Solutions Class 10 Social Science Chapter 13 Manufacturing Industries 2

GSEB Solutions Class 10 Social Science Chapter 13 Manufacturing Industries

Question 2.
Locate and label the following on an outline map of India.

Iron and Steel Plants: Bumper, Durgapur, Bokaro, Jamshedpur, Raurkela, Bhilai, Vijayanagar, Bhadravari, Visakhapatnam, Salem, Hajira.
Answer:
GSEB Solutions Class 10 Social Science Chapter 13 Manufacturing Industries 3

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