GSEB Solutions Class 10 Sanskrit Chapter 15 जयः पराजयो वा

   

Gujarat Board GSEB Solutions Class 10 Sanskrit Chapter 15 जयः पराजयो वा Textbook Exercise Important Questions and Answers Notes Pdf.

Gujarat Board Textbook Solutions Class 10 Sanskrit Chapter 15 जयः पराजयो वा

GSEB Class 10 Sanskrit  जयः पराजयो वा Textbook Questions and Answers

1. अधोलिखितेभ्यः विकल्पेभ्यः समुचितम् उत्तरं चिनुत
Choose the correct answer from the given alternatives:

1. अर्जुनः किं द्रष्टुकामः भूलोकम् आगच्छत्?
(क) युद्धम्
(ख) विजयोत्सवम्
(ग) पृथिवीम्
(घ) जनस्थितिम्
उत्तरम्:
(ग) पृथिवीम्

2. तृषातुरः अर्जुनः कुत्र गतवान्?
(क) नगरम्
(ख) नदीम्
(ग) सागरम्
(घ) सरोवरम्
उत्तरम्:
(घ) सरोवरम्

3. प्रकृतिनिर्मिताः सरोवराः कीदृशाः भवन्ति?
(क) अपेयजलाः
(ख) अगाधजला:
(ग) उष्णजलाः
(घ) पेयजला:
उत्तरम्:
(घ) पेयजला:

GSEB Solutions Class 10 Sanskrit Chapter 15 जयः पराजयो वा

4. युवकः कीदृशः आसीत्?
(क) भग्नहस्तः
(ख) भग्नदन्तः
(ग) भग्नदण्डः
(घ) भग्नपादः
उत्तरम्:
(ख) भग्नदन्तः

5. महाभारतकालिकाः जनाः कीदृशाः आसन्?
(क) स्थूलकायाः
(ख) हतबला:
(ग) कृशकायाः
(घ) स्थूलोदराः
उत्तरम्:
(क) स्थूलकायाः

6. भटस्य (सैनिकस्य) पुत्रः कीदृशे कूपे पतितः?
(क) निर्जले
(ख) गभीरे
(ग) क्षीणजले
(घ) विशाले
उत्तरम्:
(ख) गभीरे

7. कीदृशः अर्जुनः पुनः स्वर्ग प्रस्थितः?
(क) गृहीतचिन्तः
(ख) गृहीतजल:
(ग) क्रोधाविष्टः
(घ) पराजितः
उत्तरम्:
(क) गृहीतचिन्तः

GSEB Solutions Class 10 Sanskrit Chapter 15 जयः पराजयो वा

2. एकवाक्येन संस्कृतभाषायाम् उत्तरं लिखत –
Answer in one Sanskrit sentence:

1. अर्जुनः कस्य समीपं गच्छति?
उत्तरम्:
अर्जुनः जयघोषकारकस्य जनसमूहस्य समीपं गच्छति।

2. सरोवरस्य जलं कीदृशम् आसीत्?
उत्तरम्:
सरोवरस्य जलं सगरम् (विषमयम्) आसीत्।

3. अपरिचितः (जन:) स्वरेण कीदृशः आसीत्?
उत्तरम्:
अपरिचितः (जनः) स्वरेण युवकः आसीत्।

4. सर्व वस्तुजातं केन प्रदूषितं विषमयं च सञ्जातम्?
उत्तरम्:
सर्वं वस्तुजातं शस्त्रास्त्रनिर्गतैः प्रदूषितैः प्रदूषितं विषमयं च सञ्जातम्।

GSEB Solutions Class 10 Sanskrit Chapter 15 जयः पराजयो वा

5. कः विगतदृष्टिः जातः?
उत्तरम्:
अपरिचितस्य जनस्य पुत्रः विगतदृष्टिः (अन्धः) जातः।

3. ह्यस्तनभूतकाले धातुरूंपाणि परिवर्तयत
Chance form of verb in ह्यस्तनभूतकालेः
1. स्मरति – अस्मरत्
2. पश्यामि – अपश्यम्
3. वदति – अवदत्

4. समासप्रकारं लिखत –
Write the correct type of compounds:
1. लब्धविजयाः – बहुव्रीहि समासः
2. तृषातुरः – तृतीया तत्पुरुष समासः
3. धवलकेशः – बहुव्रीहि समासः
4. प्रकृतिनिर्मिताः – तृतीया तत्पुरुष समासः
5. सशोकः – सहबहुव्रीहि समासः

GSEB Solutions Class 10 Sanskrit Chapter 15 जयः पराजयो वा

5. अधोदत्तानां शब्दरूपाणं विभक्ति वचनं च लिखत –
Write fauf and number of following word forms:
1. नगरात् – पञ्चमी एकवचनम्
2. बलिष्ठान् – द्वितीया बहुवचनम्
3. स्थितिम् – द्वितीया एकवचनम्
4. मासेषु – सप्तमी बहुवचनम्
5. बहूनाम् – षष्ठी बहुवचनम्

6. अधोलिखितानां प्रश्नानाम् उत्तराणि आङ्ग्लभाषायां लिखत –
Answer the following questions in English:

Question 1.
What did the unfamiliar man tell अर्जुन, when he went to drink the water of the lake?
Answer:
When अर्जुन proceeded to drink the water of the lake that was out of the city, an unknown man said, “Gentleman, this water is poisonous. Now it is not suitable for drinking.”

GSEB Solutions Class 10 Sanskrit Chapter 15 जयः पराजयो वा

Question 2.
One seeing the unfamiliar person, why was अर्जुन astonished?
Answer:
The unfamiliar person that अर्जुन saw had the voice of a young man but his body was like that of an old man. He had no teeth. His hair were all white. He had a stick in his hand to support him. अर्जुन remembered strong and stout men of his times so he was astonished to see the youth who looked very old.

Question 3.
What things were polluted by arms and weapons used in the war?
Answer:
The various weapons and missiles used in the war were very dangerous. The pollutants that came out from them polluted everything in the world. The air, soil, water and living beings were badly affected by them.

GSEB Solutions Class 10 Sanskrit Chapter 15 जयः पराजयो वा

Question 4.
What was the condition of the son of the unfamiliar man?
Answer:
The son of the unfamiliar man has gone blind as a result of drinking the polluted water of the lake. He fell into a deep well and died.

Question 5.
What is the difference between war of the modern age and that of Mahabharata times?
Answer:
In the good old days of Mahabharata, the war was confined to the battlefield. The five great elements i.e., the earth, water, light, air and space were not adversely affected. In the modern age, the war has become a great nuisance. It is not confined to the battlefield. Its effects on the atmosphere are felt long after the actual war is over.

GSEB Class 10 Sanskrit  जयः पराजयो वा Additional Important Questions and Answers

1. आङ्ग्लभाषायां संक्षिप्ता टिप्पणी लिखित –
Write a short note in English:

Question 1.
The difference between modern warfare and that of the times of Mahabharata.
Answer:
In the days of Mahabharata, the war was confined to the battlefield and that too during the day time only. After the sunset, the battle for the day was over, children and women were spared. In modern warfare the whole country becomes the battlefield because of planes dropping bombs everywhere. The five elements, i.e., the earth, water, light, air, and space are polluted and people suffer long after the war is over. Chemical and biological wars are the new additions.

2. भूलोक (The Earth).
Answer:
According to Indian mythology, there are seven worlds above the earth. They are: भूः, भुवः, स्वः, महः, जनः, तपः and सत्यः similarly there are seven worlds below the earth, i.e., अतल, वितल, सुतल, रसातल, तलातल, महातल and पाताल। In all there are fourteen worlds or levels.

2. अधोलिखितानां वाक्यानाम् आङ्ग्लभाषायाम् अनुवाद कुरुत –
Translate the following words in English:

1. एकदा स्वर्गस्थितः अर्जुनः पृथिवीं द्रष्टुकामः भूलोकमागच्छत् तान् दृष्ट्वा अजुर्नोऽपि पुरातनं महाभारतविजयं तदानीन्तनान् प्राप्तविजयाम् जनान् च स्मरति।
Answer:
Once अर्जुनः a who was in heaven came to the mortal world with a desire to see the earth. Seeing it अर्जुन also remembers the ancient victory in the महाभारत war and the people of these times who had achieved the victory.

GSEB Solutions Class 10 Sanskrit Chapter 15 जयः पराजयो वा

2. मदीया भार्या विषमयस्य वायो : प्रभावेन निरुद्ध श्वासादिवंगता। प्रतिदिनं जलस्यास्य पानेन गतप्राणान् जीवान् पश्यन् भुक्तभोगः अहमत्र स्थित्वा पशुपक्षिमानवान् अस्य जलपानात् वारयामि।”
Answer:
My wife unable to breathe due to the influence of poisonous gas expired. Seeing the living beings dying by drinking this water, I who have suffered dissude the birds, beasts and human beings from drinking this water waiting here..

3. याचिताश्वोऽसौ अश्वमाररूह्य जलं पातुं नगराबहिः स्थितमेकं परिचितपूर्वं सरोवरं गतवान्। तत्र यदा सः जलपानाय उद्यतो भवति, तदा कस्यचित् पुरुषस्य ध्वनिं श्रुतवान्।
Answer:
Having asked for a horse, riding the horse he went to the lake which was situated out of the city and was known to him in the past. When he was about to drink water there, he heard a certain man’s voice.

GSEB Solutions Class 10 Sanskrit Chapter 15 जयः पराजयो वा

4. अर्जुनः वृत्तान्तमेतं श्रुत्वा पुरातनीयस्य महाभारता भिधस्य युद्धस्य परिणाम स्मृतिपथमानयति। स विचारयति यत् तदा बहूनां जनानां संहारः सञ्जातः, तेन च परिवारेषु आपदानां परम्परा प्रवर्तिता।
Answer:
Having heard this account, अर्जुन remembered the effect of the ancient war called the Mahabharata war. He thought that at that time many persons were killed and on account of that series of calamities befell their families.

3. सन्धिविच्छेदं कुरुत –
Dissolve the sandhis:

1. ‘विजयोत्सवमनुभावयन्तः’ एतस्य सन्धिविच्छेदः कः?
(क) विजय + उत्सवम् + नुभावयतन्तः
(ख) विजयोत्सवम् + अनुभावयन्तः
(ग) विजयोत्सव + मनुभावयन्तः
(घ) विजय + उत्सवम् + अनुभावयन्तः
उत्तरम्:
(ख) विजयोत्सवम् + अनुभावयन्तः

2. ‘जनाश्चस्मत् एतस्य सन्धिविच्छेदः कः?
(क) जनां + च + स्मरत्
(ख) जनान् + च + स्मरत्
(ग) जनान् + च + अस्मरत्
(घ) जनान् + चास्मरत्
उत्तरम्:
(ग) जनान् + च + अस्मरत्

GSEB Solutions Class 10 Sanskrit Chapter 15 जयः पराजयो वा

3. ‘तवेदृश्यवस्था’ एतस्य सन्धिविच्छेदः कः?
(क) तव + इदृश्य + वस्था
(ख) तव + ईदृशी + अवस्था
(ग) तव + एदृशी + वस्था
(घ) तव + ईदृशी + अवस्था
उत्तरम्:
(ख) तव + ईदृशी + अवस्था

4. सन्धिं कुरुत –
Make sandhis:
1. ‘देशस्य + एकः’ एतस्य सन्धियुक्तः शब्दः कः?
(क) देशस्यैकः
(ख) देशस्येकः
(ग) देशस्यएकः
(घ) देशस्येक
उत्तरम्:
(क) देशस्यैकः

2. ‘जलम् + अपि + एतस्मात् + एव’ एतस्य सन्धियुक्तः शब्द: क:?
(क) परिवारेषूपदानाम्
(ख) परिवारेष्वापदानाम्
(ग) परिवारेस्वापदानाम्
(घ) परिवारेष्वपदानाम्
उत्तरम्:
(ख) परिवारेष्वापदानाम्

GSEB Solutions Class 10 Sanskrit Chapter 15 जयः पराजयो वा

जयः पराजयो वा Introduction

Man considers himself superior to other animals but there are no wars in animal kingdom. Individual killing does take place among animals but war which can be called a mass murder is unknown to other animals. You might have heard the phrases like ‘chemical warfare’ or biological warfare’. We do not know how many more will be added to the vocabulary of war.

This lesson points out the difference between the ancient wars and modern war. In the days of रामायण and महाभारतम Ra, war was fought on the battlefield and that too during the day. Now the civil population is not spared. Night are more suitable for attacking the enemy country. The effects of war are felt long after the war is over. Even generations in future suffer. The old proverb ‘Sins of the parents are visited on the children has never been so true as it is in modern times. If man learns from the history.’ He well not make the same mistakes and history will not repeat itself.

GSEB Solutions Class 10 Sanskrit Chapter 15 जयः पराजयो वा

जयः पराजयो वा Summary Of The Chapter

Once अर्जुन, living in the heaven desirous to see the earth came down on the earth. Having reached the earth he heard loud proclamation of victory. He went near the group of people who were proclaiming victory. People, who had scored a victory in the world war that had just ended were celebrating the victory. Having seen them अर्जुन also remembered the victory in the ancient Mahabharata war and the victorious people (of the times). The people included this अर्जुन who was not known to them before (and) who had appeared there in their celebration of victory. Being delighted अर्जुन also joined them.

After some time he got thirsty. He who was a guest asked for a house. Having, asked for a horse, riding the horse he went to the lake which was out of the city and was known to him in the past. When he was about to drink water there, he heard a certain man’s voice, “Gentleman, this water is poisonous. Now it is not suitable for drinking.” Being surprised अर्जुन asked the man whom he had not seen before, “How is this water poisonous? The takes created by nature are always full of water worthy for drinking.”

GSEB Solutions Class 10 Sanskrit Chapter 15 जयः पराजयो वा

A man with the voice of youth, body of an old man who had lost his teeth, whose hair were white and who was with a walking-stick came near अर्जुन, seeing the man like that, not having seen before अर्जुन was surprised. He felt sorry remembering the stout, strongest people in an era of Mahabharata. Having observed such condition of this man अर्जुन asked with surprise, “Who are you? Why are you reduced to this condition?”

He replied, “I am a soldier of this country. For the past many month’s many countries were at war with one another. Many kinds of weapons were used there. Because of it the many kinds of the world such as water, land, living beings have been affected in various ways. What should I tell you? All the things have been polluted and become poisonous by the pollutants shot out from arms and missiles, the water of this lake is also poisoned due to this reason only.

This condition of mine is the result of having drunk the water that is here again and again. My son who lost his sight as a result of drinking this water only fell into a deep well and died. My wife due to the influence of poisonous gas suffocated and expired. Seeing the living beings dying by drinking this water I, who have suffered dissuade the birds, beasts and human beings from drinking this water saying here.”

GSEB Solutions Class 10 Sanskrit Chapter 15 जयः पराजयो वा

Having heard this account, अर्जुन remembered the effect of the ancient war called the Mahabharata war. He through that at that time many persons were killed and on account of that series of calamities befell their families. But the great elements such as earth, water, air, light and space were (as) pure as before. They were useful for living beings as in the past. Now what I see is more lamentable. What is this that has taken place is it man’s victory or is this victory.

जयः पराजयो वा Prose, Translation And Glossary

1. संस्कृतम्:
एकदा स्वर्गस्थितः अर्जुनः पृथिवीं द्रष्टुकामः भूलोकमागच्छत्। प्राप्तभूलोकः सः महान्तं जयघोषं श्रुतवान्। सः जयघोषकारकं जनसमूहस्य समीपं गच्छति। सद्यः विरमिते विश्वयुद्धे लब्धविजयाः जनाः विजयोत्सवम् अनुभावयन्तः आसन्। तान् दृष्ट्वा अर्जुनोऽपि पुरातनं महाभारतविजयं तदानीन्तनान् प्राप्तविजयाम् जनान् च स्मरति। एतम् अपरिचितपूर्वं समुपस्थितम् अजुनं ते जनाः। स्वकीये विजयोत्सवे योजितवन्तः अर्जुनाऽपि जातहर्षः तैः सह संलग्नोऽभवत्।

Translation:
Once अर्जुन, living in the heaven desirous to see the earth came down on the earth. Having reached the earth he heard loud proclamation of victory. He went near the group of people who were proclaiming victory. People, who had scored a victory in the world war that had just ended were celebrating the victory. Having seen them अर्जुन also remembered the victory in the ancient Mahabharata war and the victorious people (of the times). The people included this अर्जुन who was not known to them before (and) who had appeared there in their celebration of victory. Being delighted अर्जुन also joined them.

GSEB Solutions Class 10 Sanskrit Chapter 15 जयः पराजयो वा

Glossary:
स्वर्गस्थितः – स्वर्गे स्थितः – सप्तमी तत्पुरुष समास, residing in the heaven; adjective of the substantive, ‘अर्जुन’ पृथिवीम् – the earth; object of द्रष्टुम् (to see) so the accusative form, द्रष्टुकामः – द्रष्टुम कामः यस्य सः – बहुव्रीहि समास, who had desire (कामः) to see the earth, भूलोकमागच्छत् – भूलोकम् + आगच्छत् – came to the earth. According to our scriptures there are seven higher regions rising from the earth one above the other, i.e., भूर्लोक, भुवर्लोक, स्वर्गर्लोक, मह:लोक, जन:लोक, तप:लोक and सत्यलोक similarly there are seven regions descending from the earth one below the other, i.e., अतल, वितल, सुतल, रसातल, तलातल, महातल and पाताल, प्राप्तभूलोकः – प्राप्तः भूलोकः येन सः – बहुव्रीहि समास;

one who has reached the earth, the adjective of सः (अर्जुनः) महान्तम् जयघोषम् – a loud sound proclaiming victory, जयघोषम् is in the accusative case being the object of the verb, श्रुतवान, महान्तम् is the adjective of जयघोषम् so it is in the accusative case, श्रुतवान् अशृणोत् – (he) heard), जयघोषकारकम् – making the proclamation of victory; adjective of the noun जनसमूहस्य, the word should be, जयघोषकारकस्य, सद्यः – recently,a short time back, this is an indeclinable, विरमिते विश्वयुद्धे – यदा विश्वयुद्धम् विरमितम् तदा, – when thw world war came to an end, लब्धविजयाः – लब्धः विजयः यैः ते-बहुव्रीहि समास, those who got the victory, adjective of the noun ‘जनाः’ विजयोत्सवम् – विजयस्य उत्सवः, तम् – षष्ठी तत्पुरुष समास, a celebration of victory, अनुभावयन्तः आसन् – they were celebrating, अनु + भू (1P) causal present active.

GSEB Solutions Class 10 Sanskrit Chapter 15 जयः पराजयो वा

2. संस्कृतम्:
कञ्चित्कालानन्तरं सः तृषामनुभूतवान्। अभ्यागतेन तेन अश्व एको याचितः। याचिताश्वोऽसौ अश्वमाररुह्य जलं पातुं नगराबहिः स्थितमेकं परिचितपूर्वं सरोवरं गतवान्। तत्र यदा सः जलपानाय उद्यतो भवति, तदा कस्यचित् पुरुषस्य ध्वनि श्रुतवान्-“महाशय, सगरम् इदं जलम्। अधुना अपेयमस्ति।” अर्जुनः साश्चर्यः तमदृष्टपूर्वं पुरुषं पृच्छति, “कथमिदं सगरंजलम्। प्रकृतिनिर्मिताः सरोवराः तु सर्वदैव पेयजलाः एव भवन्तीति।”

Translation:
After some time he got thirsty. He who was a guest asked for a horse. Having asked for a horse, riding the horse he went to the lake which was of the city and was known to him in the past when he was about to drink water there, he heard a certain man’s voice, “Gentleman, this water is poisonous. Now it is not suitable for drinking.” Being surprised 34547 asked the man whom he had not seen before. “How is this water poisonous? The takes created by nature are always full of water worthy, for drinking.”

GSEB Solutions Class 10 Sanskrit Chapter 15 जयः पराजयो वा

Glossary:
कञ्चित् कालानन्तरम् – after a gap of time, तृषाम् अनुभूतवान् – he experienced thirst, he got thirsty, अभ्यागतेन तेन – by the guest who had come, याचिताश्वः (असौ) – याचितः अश्वः येन सः – बहुव्रीहि समास – who had asked for a horse, अश्वम् आरुह्य – riding the horse; आ + रुह् (1P) सम्बन्धक भूतकृदन्त or ल्यबन्त gerund, पातुम् – to drink, नगराबहिः – नगरात् + बहिः – outside the city; Note that the indeclinable बहि, used with the ablative case so TRICafe:, used with the ablative case so नगरात् बहिः स्थितम् एकम् – one (lake) that lay or existed, परिचितपूर्वम् – पूर्वम् परिचितः, तम् – कर्मधारय समासः, that was known (to him) in the past adjective of the noun,

सरोवरम् Note सरस् (N) but सरोवर (M) thought both the words are synonyms, जलपानाय – जलस्य पानम्, तस्मै – षष्ठी तत्पुरुष समास; for drinking water, उद्यतः – ready prepared, ध्वनि श्रुतवान् – he heard a voice, श्रु (5P) past active participle, तवत् प्रत्ययान्त कर्तरि भूतकृदन्त, masculine nominative singular, सगरम् – poisonous, गर means poison so, सगरम् – गरेण सहितम् – सहबहुव्रीहि समास, अपेयम्, न पेयम् – नञ् तत्पुरुष समास, not worthy of drinking, साश्चर्यः – आश्चयेण सह – सहबहुव्रीहि समास – surprised, तम्दृष्टपूर्वम् पुरुषम् – तम् + अदृष्टपूर्वम् – पुरुषम् – to the man whom, अर्जुन – had not seen (met) before, प्रकृतिनिर्मिताः – प्रकृत्या निर्मिता: – तृतीया तत्पुरुष समासः – created by nature; adjective of the masculine noun, सरोवराः सर्वदेव – सर्वदा + एव – always, पेयजला: – पेयम् जलम् येषाम् ते – बहुव्रीहि समास – whose water is suitable for drinking.

GSEB Solutions Class 10 Sanskrit Chapter 15 जयः पराजयो वा

3. संस्कृतम्‌:
स्वरेण‌ ‌युवक:‌ ‌कायेन‌ ‌वृद्धः‌ ‌इव‌ ‌कश्चित्‌ ‌भग्नदन्तः‌ ‌धवलकेशः‌ ‌सदण्डः‌ ‌एकः‌ ‌जनः‌ ‌अर्जुनस्य‌ ‌ समीपमागतवान्।‌ ‌अदृष्टपूर्वं‌ ‌तादृशं‌ ‌जनं‌ ‌दृष्ट्वा‌ ‌अर्जुनः‌ ‌आश्चर्यचकितः‌ ‌सञ्जातः।‌ ‌महाभारतकालिकान्‌ ‌ स्थूलकायान्‌ ‌बलिष्ठान्‌ ‌जनान्‌ ‌स्मरन्‌ ‌स‌ ‌कष्टमपि‌ ‌अनुभूतवान्।‌ ‌अस्य‌ ‌एतादृशी‌ ‌स्थितिं‌ ‌दृष्ट्वा‌ ‌अर्जुनः‌ ‌साश्चर्यं‌ ‌पृष्ठवान्-“को‌ ‌भवान्?‌ ‌कस्मात्‌ ‌तव‌ ‌ईदृशी‌ ‌अवस्था‌ ‌जाता।”‌ ‌

Translation‌‌:‌
‌A‌ ‌man‌ ‌with‌ ‌the‌ ‌voice‌ ‌of‌ ‌youth,‌ ‌body‌ ‌of‌ ‌an‌ ‌old‌ ‌man‌ ‌who‌ ‌had‌ ‌lost‌ ‌his‌ ‌teeth‌ ‌ whose‌ ‌hair‌ ‌were‌ ‌white‌ ‌and‌ ‌who‌ ‌was‌ ‌with‌ ‌a‌ ‌walking-stick‌ ‌came‌ ‌near‌ ‌अर्जुन.‌ ‌Seeing‌ ‌the‌ ‌ man‌ ‌like‌ ‌that,‌ ‌not‌ ‌having‌ ‌seen‌ ‌before‌ ‌अर्जुन ‌was‌ ‌surprised.‌ ‌He‌ ‌felt‌ ‌sorry‌ ‌remembering‌ ‌the‌ ‌ stout.‌ ‌Strongest‌ ‌people‌ ‌in‌ ‌an‌ ‌era‌ ‌of‌ ‌Mahabharata.‌ ‌Having‌ ‌observed‌ ‌such‌ ‌condition‌ ‌of‌ ‌this‌ ‌ man‌ अर्जुन‌ ‌asked‌ ‌with‌ ‌surprise,‌ ‌who‌ ‌are‌ ‌you?‌ ‌“Why‌ ‌are‌ ‌you‌ ‌reduced‌ ‌to‌ ‌this‌ ‌condition?’‌ ‌

Glossary:‌
‌स्वरेण‌ ‌युवकः‌ ‌–‌ ‌young‌ ‌by‌ ‌voice,‌ ‌whose‌ ‌voice‌ ‌was‌ ‌like‌ ‌that‌ ‌of‌ ‌a‌ ‌young‌ ‌man,‌ ‌कायेन‌ ‌वृद्धः‌ ‌-‌ ‌ (but)‌ ‌old‌ ‌by‌ ‌body,‌ ‌इव‌ ‌—‌ ‌like,‌ ‌this‌ ‌is‌ ‌an‌ ‌indeclinable,‌ ‌भग्नदन्तः‌ ‌-‌ ‌भग्नाः‌ ‌दन्ताः‌ ‌यस्य‌ ‌सः‌ ‌-‌ ‌बहुव्रीहि‌ ‌समास;‌ ‌ whose‌ ‌teeth‌ ‌had‌ ‌fallen,‌ ‌धवलकेशः‌ ‌–‌ ‌धवलाः‌ ‌केशाः‌ ‌यस्य‌ ‌सः‌ ‌-‌ ‌बहुव्रीहि‌ ‌समास‌ ‌-‌ ‌whose‌ ‌hair‌ ‌were‌ ‌(had‌ ‌turned)‌ ‌white,‌ ‌सदण्डः‌ ‌-‌ ‌दण्डेन‌ ‌सहितः‌ ‌-‌ ‌सहबहुव्रीहि‌ ‌समास‌ ‌-‌ ‌with‌ ‌(having)‌ ‌a‌ ‌stick‌ ‌(in‌ ‌his‌ ‌hand),‌ ‌ आश्चर्यचकितः‌ ‌-‌ ‌आश्चर्येण‌ ‌चकितः‌ ‌-‌ ‌तृतीया‌ ‌तत्पुरुष‌ ‌समास‌ ‌-‌ ‌surprised,‌ ‌महाभारतकालिकान्‌ ‌–‌ ‌of‌ ‌the‌ ‌time‌ ‌of‌ ‌ महाभारत‌ ‌adjective‌ ‌of‌ ‌the‌ ‌noun‌ ‌-‌ ‌substantive‌ ‌जनान्,‌

GSEB Solutions Class 10 Sanskrit Chapter 15 जयः पराजयो वा

‌स्थूलकायान्‌ ‌-‌ ‌स्थूल:‌ ‌कायः‌ ‌येषाम्‌ ‌ते,‌ ‌तान्‌ ‌-‌ ‌बहुव्रीहि‌ ‌समासः‌ ‌-‌ ‌whose‌ ‌body‌ ‌was‌ ‌big‌ ‌or‌ ‌stout,‌ ‌बलिष्ठान्‌ ‌जनान्‌ ‌स्मरन्‌ ‌–‌ ‌remembering‌ ‌the‌ ‌strongest‌ ‌people,‌ ‌ बलिष्ठ‌ ‌-‌ ‌is‌ ‌the‌ ‌superlative‌ ‌of‌ ‌बलवत्‌ ‌or‌ ‌बलिन्,‌ ‌कष्टम्‌ ‌अपि‌ ‌अनुभूतवान्‌ ‌-‌ ‌(he)‌ ‌experienced‌ ‌sorrow,‌ ‌felt‌ ‌ sorry;‌ ‌अनु‌ ‌+‌ ‌भू‌ ‌(1P)‌ ‌past‌ ‌active‌ ‌participle,‌ ‌तवत्‌ ‌प्रत्ययान्त‌ ‌कर्तरि‌ ‌भूतकृदन्त,‌ ‌masculine‌ ‌nominative,‌ ‌ singular,‌ ‌एतादृशीम्‌ ‌स्थितिम्‌ ‌-‌ ‌this‌ ‌kind‌ ‌of‌ ‌condition,‌ ‌such‌ ‌condition,‌ ‌पृष्टवान्‌ ‌-‌ ‌अपृच्छत्‌ ‌-‌ ‌he‌ ‌asked,‌ ‌कस्मात‌ ‌-‌ ‌कस्मात्‌ ‌कारणात्‌ ‌–‌ ‌why,‌ ‌ईदृशी‌ ‌–‌ ‌like‌ ‌this,‌ ‌ईदश्‌ ‌-‌ ‌तादृश्‌ ‌-‌ ‌कीदृश‌ ‌are‌ ‌adjectives‌ ‌and‌ ‌change‌ ‌ Turn on screen reader support

4. संस्कृतम्:
सः प्रत्यवदत्-“अहम् अस्य देशस्य एकः सैनिकः। विगतेषु कतिपयेषु मासेषु बहूनां देशानां परस्परं युद्धम् अभवत्। तत्र विविधानि शस्त्राणि प्रयुक्तानि। तस्मात् कारणात् जलं स्थलं वायुः प्राणिनिः इत्येवं बहुविधं जगत् विविधरूपेण प्रभावितमस्ति। किं ते कथयामि, शस्त्रास्त्रनिर्गतैः प्रदूषितैः सर्वं वस्तुजातं प्रदूषितं विषमयं च सञ्जातम्। अस्य सरोवरस्य जलमपि एतस्मादेव कारणात् सगरमस्ति। अत्रव्यं जलं पीत्वा मदीया एषा स्थितिः सञ्जाता। मदीयः पुत्रः इदमेव जलं पीत्वा विगतदृष्टिः गभीरे कूपे पतितो मृतश्च। मदीया भार्या विषमयस्य वायोः प्रभावेन निरुद्धश्वासा दिवंगता। प्रतिदिनं जलस्थास्य पानेन गतप्राणान् जीवान् पश्यन् भुक्तभोगः अहमत्र स्थित्वा पशुपक्षिमानवान् अस्य जलपानात् वारयामि।”

Translation:
He replied, “I am a soldier of this country. For the past many months many countries were at war with one another. Many kinds of weapons were used there. Because of it the many kinds of world such as water, land, living beings have been affected in various ways. What should I tell you? All the things have been polluted and become poisonous by the pollutants shot out from arms and missiles. The water of this lake is also poisoned due to this reason only.

This condition of mine is the result of having drunk the water that is here again and again. My son who lost his sight as a result of drinking this water only fell into a deep well and died. My wife due to the influence of poisonous gas suffocated and expired. Seeing the living beings dying by drinking this water I, who have suffered dissuade the birds, beasts and human beings from drinking this water staying here.’

GSEB Solutions Class 10 Sanskrit Chapter 15 जयः पराजयो वा

Glossary:
प्रभावेण – by the influence, निरुद्धश्वासा – निरुद्धः श्वासः यस्याः सा – बहुव्रीहि समास – whose breathing is abstracted, suffocated, दिवंगता – (she) went to heavens expired, प्रतिदिनम् – ‘ दिने-दिने-अव्ययीभाव समास – everyday, गतप्राणान् जीवान् पश्यन् – seeing the living beings, dying, गतप्राणान् — गताः प्राणाः येषाम् ते तान् – बहुव्रीहि समास – whose life has gone (ended); गतप्राणान् – is the adjective of, जीवान्, पशुपक्षिमानवान् – पशवः च पक्षिणः च मानवाः च, तान – इतरेतर द्वंद्व समास – beasts, birds and human beings; object of theverb, वारयामि, जलपानात् वारयामि – I am preventing (them) from drinking water, वारयामि – वृ (10U) P. Present tense, लट् लकार first person singular,

प्रत्यवदत् – replied, विगतेषु कतिपयेषु मासेषु – during the several months that passed, प्रयुक्तानि – used, employed, बहुविधम् जगत् – many types of world, विविधरूपेण – in various forms/ways, शस्त्रास्त्रनिर्गतैः – शस्त्राणि च अस्त्रणि च, शस्त्रास्त्राणि – इतरेतर द्वंद्व समास, शस्त्रास्त्रेभ्यः निर्गतानि, तैः – पञ्चमी तत्पुरुष समास – by the (polluted objects) shut out from arms and weapons, सर्वम् वस्तुजातम् – all the things, everything, प्रदूषितम् – polluted, अत्रत्यम् – belonging to this place, पीत्वा पीत्वा – drinking repeatedly, मदीया – mine, एषा स्थितिः – this condition, विगतदृष्टिः – विगता दृष्टिः यस्य सः – बहुव्रीहि समास – whose eyesight is lost, गभीरे कूपे this condition, विगतदृष्टिः – विगता दृष्टिः यस्य सः – बहुव्रीहि समास – whose eyesight is lost, गभीरे कूपे – in a deep well, विषमयस्य वायोः – of the poisonous gas.

GSEB Solutions Class 10 Sanskrit Chapter 15 जयः पराजयो वा

5. संस्कृतम्:
अर्जुनः वृत्तान्तमेतं श्रुत्वा पुरातनीयस्य महाभारताभिधस्य युद्धस्य परिणामं स्मृतिपथमानयति। स विचारयति यत् तदा बहूनां जनानां संहारः सञ्जातः, तेन च परिवारेषु आपदानां परम्परा प्रवर्तिता। परन्तु जलवायुभूम्याकाशादयो महाभूतास्तथैव शुद्धाः आसन्। ते जीवानां कृते यथापूर्वम् उपयोगिनः एवासन्। सम्प्रति यदहं पश्यमि तत् अधिकं शोचनीयमस्ति। किमयम् अधुना प्रवर्तितः मानवस्य जयः, जयः अस्ति पराजयो वा? एवं सशोकः अर्जुनः अपीतजलः एव गृहीतचिन्तश्च पुनः स्वर्गं प्रत्यावर्ततः।

Translation :
Having heard this account, अर्जुन remembered the effect of the ancient war called Mahabharata was. He thought that at that time many persons were killed and on account of that series of calamities befell their families. But the great elements such as earth, water, air, light, and space were (as) pure as before. They were useful for the living being as in the past. Now what I see is more lamentable. What is this that has taken place – is it man’s victory or is this victory a defeat? Thus the distressed अर्जुन returned to heaven without drinking water has become worried.

Glossary:
स्मृतिपथम् आनयति – स्मृतेः पन्थाः , तम् – षष्ठी तत्पुरुष समास; recalls; literally it means (he) brings it within the reach of memory, आपदानाम् परम्परा – series of calamities, महाभूताः – elements, जीवानाम् कृते – for the sake of living beings; कृते – is an indeclinable and it is used with the genitive case; e.g., छात्रणाम् कृते ग्रन्थालयः वर्तते, अन्धानाम् कृते ब्रेललिपिः उपयुक्ता यथापूर्वम् – as in the past, शोचनीयम् – lamentable, शुच – (1P) potential passive participle विध्यर्थ कर्मणि कृदन्त – neuter nominative-accusative singular, शोचतुम् योग्यतम् शोचनीयम् सशोकः – शोकेन सहितः – सहबहुव्रीहि समास, sorry, अपीतजलः – न पीतम्, अपीतम् – नञ् तत्पुरुष समास; अपीतम् जलम् येन सः बहुव्रीहि समास – without drinking water, गृहीतचिन्तः – worried, प्रत्यावर्तत् – returned.

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