Our Revision Notes for GSEB Class 9 Social Science Notes Chapter 6 World After 1945 summarises the key points of a chapter and useful resource to prepare effectively for the upcoming board exams.
World After 1945 Class 9 GSEB Notes Social Science Chapter 6
World After 1945 Class 9 GSEB Notes
→ India solved the tremendous problem of their rehabilitation and restoration very skilfully and patiently.
→ The then Deputy Prime Minister and Home Minister SardarVallabhbhaiPatel merged about 562 small and big Princely States of India into ‘Indian Union’.
→ Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel’s strong determination, iron will and diplomatic negotiations solved the problems.
The United Nations’ Charter
→ The United Nations’ Charter starts with the Preamble and it explains the goals of UNITED NATIONS. Below given are the goals :
(1) There is a determination to save the future generation from the pangs of all destructive war. Here,emphasis has been laid on responsibilities bom out of international laws and mutual understanding.
(2) Emphasis has been laid on developing tolerance mutually so that the whole world develops socially.
(3) Economic, Social and Cultural problems should be solved with the intervention of United Nations and human rights as well as basic freedom should be disseminated irrespective of caste, language, gender or religion.
(4) Lastly, appeal to all the nations for co-operation to achieve these objectives.
→ Thus, United Nations’ Charter concludes that dismissal of war and constant urge for peace is the main objective of United Nations.
→ objective of United Nations. Cold War (1945-1962) —Reasons and Consequences
→ Though the World War II got over, it resulted into creation of America and Russia as superpowers while taking the place of England and France.
→ A strong competition between the two super powers, i.e., America and Russia, to establish supremacy over the world emerged after Second World War. ‘
→ The power was centralized between two poles i.e., America and Russia. Therefore, this time period is considered as bi-polar world order.
→ Owing to extremely tense relations between two power blocs this phase is known as the ‘Cold War Phase’.
→ There was a basic change in relations among powerful nations of the world after the World War.
→ America and the Soviet Union, who had once allied and fought against the Nazi Germany and the Fascist Italy, emerged as leaders of two rival power blocs and military powers. Thus the Cold War started between them.
→ After the War, the Soviet Union (Russia) captured the eastern areas of Germany.
→ During 1949, by conducting a nuclear test, the Soviet Union directly challenged the monopolistic nuclear powers of America.
→ One of the most important aspects of the conflict of ideology was mutual distrust and sense of doubt on the intention of the rival group.
→ Owing to fear bom out of mutual distrust and doubts, both the power established their own
→ The Cold War, which was meant for dominance over the world, gave rise to fierce competition among superpowers.
→ And for the sake of dominance, armament race was given high priority.
→ America had used atom bomb for the first time on two cities of Japan, namely Hiroshima and Nagasaki (1945).
→ This way America proved its supremacy.
→ Within next four years, the Soviet Union too proved its capacity of making atom bomb by conducting a nuclear
test. This created a Power Balance between the superpowers.
→ America declared blockade of the communist Cuba, which was on southeast.
→ To defend Cuba against possible attacks of America, the Soviet Union sent ships loaded with nuclear missiles in the Caribbean Sea.
→ Both the superpowers threatened each other to use nuclear weapons. The world was almost on the verge of nuclear war.
→ Finally, leaders of America and the Soviet Union had a talk on the ‘Hotline’ for the first time.
→ The whole episode is known as ‘Cuban Crisis’. This episode is very important episode in world politics. It begins communication between two superpowers.
→ America, the Soviet Union, and the Britian agreed on maintaining control over nuclear production, experi- ment and proliferation.
→ This agreement is known as Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty.
→ France and China refuse this treaty.
→ India has always welcomed this treaty but it is always a supporter of disarmament. ‘
→ India and Pakistan achieved independence in 1047.
→ In the same way, Britishers, countries like Srilanka and Myanmar got independence in (1948).
→ In the case of Indonesia, the United Nations played an important role (1949).
→ Asian countries like Laos,Cambodia and Vietnam too got independence. Rise of Independent Nations in Africa
→ During the tenure of 16 years from 1951 to 1966, 40 small and large countries became free.
→ Some new nations adopted the policy of not to align with any of the two power blocs and military blocs. They
decided that they would maintain equal distance with both blocs.
→ These nations were identified as ‘Non-Aligned Nations’ and their foreign policy was called ‘Non-Aligned Policy’.
→ The organization was founded in Belgrade in 1961 known Non-Aligned Movement
→ Under the leadership of Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru the policies of Non-Alignment were framed.
→ In this Non-Alignment Council 23 countries of Asia and 6 countries of Africa were present.
→ Today more and more countries have joined the Non-Aligned Movement. Union summit was
held at Kuala Lumpur on 13″ May, 2003.
→ The Non-Aligned Nations, with their Non-Aligned policy, were successful in contributing towards World Politics.
→ The Non-Aligned movement was successful in showing off its moral impact for maintaining world peace, stopping wars, maintaning human society and nationalism as well as the Superpowers adopting an atti- tude of disarmament.
→ Germany was the main cause behind both the World Wars. It faced a humiliating defeat in World War II.
→ All its state administration and economy collapsed completely. There was not a single large party left in the whole of Germany that could rule the nation.
→ The defeated Germany was divided into four administrative segments. The ‘Soviet Red Army’, in the later phase of the war, had captured the eastern part of Germany, America would control south-western side of Germany. France would control its area near France, while Britain would control areas of Germany bordering Belgium and Holland.
→ America, France and Britain started thinking about certain alternative arrangement.
→ America and other western Euro- pean countries established “Federal Republic of Germany’. This was
administered jointly by America, Britain and France.
→ On the other side , the Soviet Union also declared ‘East Germany’ as ‘ Democratic Republic of East Germany.’
→ Thus, after the War, two independent German states came into existence, namely West Germany (democratic) and East Germany (communist). Germany’s three western segments were united, three admin- istrative segments of Berlin also united.
→ In a reaction to this, Soviet Union, in April 1948, declared ‘Berlin Blockade’T
→ This resulted into tremendous tension between the Soviet Union and the western countries.
→ Later on, a high and 42 km long wall separating western and eastern Berlin was constructed.
→Soviet Union was disintegrated.
→ Asa consequence of it, on October 3″, 1990 both the Germany united.
→ People considered demolition of the Berlin Wall as the end of the Cold War era and celebrated the occasion whole- heartedly.
→ Today unified Germany has turned out to be the strongest economic power in Europe.
→ After 1990, they have made a tremendous effort to be the strongest economic nation in the last decade.
→ During the last decade of the twentieth century, Soviet Union’s Prime Minister Mikhail Gorbachev’s liberal policy led to the disintegration of Soviet Union (Russia).
→ Peaceful disintegration of Soviet Union is considered as epoch-making in the international politics.
→ Mikhail Gorbachev became the Prime Minister from a socialistic side on 11 March, 1989. He had a liberal attitude.
→ Gorbachev adopted two policies ‘Glasnost and ‘Perestroika’. –
→ In this way Gorbachev introduced economic and political reforms in the place of single-handed communist rule.
→ The Stronghold of communist party, the Soviet bureaucracy and the Red Army started weakening.
→ In 1990, process of the disintegration of the Soviet Union began. Towards the end, out of 15 states, 14 states became independent and disintegration of Soviet Union came to an end (December, 1991).
→ India has contributed significantly at the international level during its freedom struggle and after its indepen- dence.
→India has always opposed imperialism, colonialism and evils like racial discrimination.
→ It has supported movements opposing such evils. India has always remained active in the formation of the United Nations and is actively involved in all its activities.
→ India has persistently emphasised on the need of disarmament to achieve world peace and security.
→ World peace has permanently remained India’s primary concern for its foreign policy.
→ India has always remained active to achieve an atmosphere of co-operation, trust and under¬standing among nations.
→ Relation between India and United States (US)
→ Both India and the United States are democratic countries. Apart from having lot of similarities, there has been
lot of ups and downs in the relationship also.
→ Taken seriously and certain sanctions were imposed against India as US aided financially and
→ There is a remarkable change in relations between both countries after terrorist attack on New York’s World Trade Centre on September 11, 2001.
→ The Soviet Union has helped India considerably in establishing heavy and key industries.
→ The Soviet Union has taken India’s side in the issue of Jammu-Kashmir. They also have often exercised their
‘veto’ power in the United Nation’s Security Council to see that proposal against India pertaining to Jammu-Kashmir issue should not pass.
→ In this way, Russia and India has a very close friendly relations.
→ India-Pakistan: Immediately after India’s Independence, the relation between India and Pakistan were always stressful.
→ Three gruesome wars took place between India and Pakistan in the year 1948, 1965 and 1971, and in all these wars Pakistan was defeated.
→ Both the countries have Tashkent and Shimla Treaty, but Pakistan does not follow it with utmost devotion.
→ In 1999, Kargil war between India and Pakistan took place.
→ India – China : India and China relations started in the year 1954.
→ When China displayed its boundary regions on map, it disturbed the relations between India and China.
→ China attacked India in 1962 and captured the regions which were displayed in their map.
→ India – Bangladesh : Bangladesh got freedom after many struggles.
→ In the year 1971 , Bangladesh became an independent and sovereign country as earlier it was a part of
→ As a new upcoming country, India helped Bangladesh financially, technically and physically by giving equipment for its growth and develop- ment.
→ But there are certain issues which have risen between India and Bangladesh. The utilization of water from River Ganga and its proper channelizing has been talked out between the two countries.
→ India – Bhutan : A peaceful and cordial friendship treaty had been signed between India and Bhutan in the year 1949.
→ Bhutan has trustfully sided India in its security and foreign policies.
→ India assured to aid Bhutan in telecommunication and transportation.
→ India helped Bhutan in becoming a member of United Nations in the year 1971.
→ There is never a troubled relation between India and Bhutan.
→ India – Srilanka : The relation between India and Srilanka is very old.
→ Many tamilians of India have gone to Srilanka and settled thereafter.
→ Their citizenship was the main issue between India and Srilanka but continu- ous talks has resolved it.
→ India’s Prime Minister Shri NarendraModi visited the troubled regions of Tamilians in Jaffna on 13″ March, 2015.
→ India assisted financially for the reconstruction of 27,000 houses for rehabilitation of tamilians.
→Today India and Srilanka have very cordial relation.
→ India – Nepal : The relation between India and Nepal started with the signing of Treaty in the year 1950.
→ According to the treaty, both countries are considered to be sovereign and to preserve regional unity as well as commutation of citizens in both the countries. ‘
→ India has helped Nepal socially and economically.
→ Nepali students visit India for higher studies.
→ The rivers flowing from Himalaya come from the various regions of Nepal. Due to this, during rain it affects India badly.
→ To stop the floods due to these rivers, talks have begun between these two countries.
→ India — Afghanistan : India has very friendly relation with Afghanistan.
→ India has large heartedly contributed in the reconstruction of Afghanistan like in construction, health and education. In the economic and social development, India has financially helped.
→ During Natural calamities also India helped financially. The construction of Afghanistan’s parliament building is being done by India.
→ India – Myanmar : India and Myanmar(Burma) has very cordial relation .After India got independence Myanmar got independence in 1948.
→ From that time, relationship has been friendly.
→ After independence Myanmar has demanded financial aid from India.
→ India has helped them instantly because India wants Myanmar to be financially sound.
→ India’s foreign policy is to have world peace and security.
→ Furthermore Indian Foreign Policy ensures friendly and cordial relationship with its neighbouring countries.