This GSEB Class 8 Social Science Notes Chapter 4 How the Traders Became Rulers covers all the important topics and concepts as mentioned in the chapter.
How the Traders Became Rulers Class 8 GSEB Notes
→ To ensure that the French did not become powerful in India, Governor-General Wellesley introduced the policy of ‘Subsidiary Alliance’ to expand British rule in native states.
→ States like Hyderabad, Mysore, Ayodhya, Jodhpur, and princely dynasties like Gaekwads of Vadodara and Scindias of Gwalior accepted this Subsidiary
→ Alliance and became some of its first victims.
→ This Subsidiary Alliance was like slow poison for the princely states of our nation.
→ Wellesley implemented the ‘Divide and Rule Policy’ and expanded the British rule in India.
→ After the expansion of the British rule in South India, the British entered into friendship with Nepal; won the battle with the Afghans and established their rule in Sindh.
→ Ranjit Singh the King of Punjab was a powerful ruler. The British did not succeed in conquering Punjab until he was alive. After his death, Punjab suffered due to anarchy. Taking the benefit of this chance, the British interfered in the administration of Punjab.
→ Lord Dalhousie brought in the policy of Annexation which meant bringing an end to the rule of native kings and bringing his state under the British rule directly.
→ Absolute mismanagement of states due to irresponsible kings enabled Dalhousie to annex many states. If a king died without a son, his state was annexed while others were annexed by defeating them in battle. Thus, Dalhousie made British rule free from rivals with the help of ‘Victory, Confiscation and Annexation’.
→ During Dalhousie’s tenure the first railway line was started from Mumbai to Thane in the year 1853 C.E. in India.
→ English education spread in India with the help of three Universities that were established in Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata in the year 1857 C.E. Lord Dalhousie passed laws banning child marriage and advocating widow remarriage.
→ Introduction of railways and telegraph got different reactions. Some people felt that the British were out to destroy their culture, others felt they were trying to enslave them. Thus, there was terrific dissatisfaction in the whole country.
→ The Subsidiary Alliance, the Annexation policies created, dissatisfaction among people. This reached saturation point and people rebelled. This resulted in the freedom movement of 1857.