Gujarat Board GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Revision 1 Textbook Exercise Important Questions and Answers, Notes Pdf.
Gujarat Board Textbook Solutions Class 8 Social Science Revision 1
GSEB Class 8 Social Science Revision 1 Textbook Questions and Answers
Let us revise:
Efforts of the great social reformers ranged from Raja Ram Mohan Roy to Thakkar Bapa.
as a social reformer, Rammohun Roy founded the Brahmo Sabhato campaign against the social evils like polygamy child marriage. etc.
Pollution and its types.
The word pollution comes from the Latin ‘polluter that simply means contamination. Hence, in layman terms, pollution is something that contaminates the environment. The presence of harmful substances in the air, land, and water, which can have an adverse effect on living beings and on the environment is pollution. Referring to harmful gases, fluid or other pernicious matter that are released or introduced in the natural environment.
It is also toxic material that makes the soil and air impure, pollutants, contaminants, or hazardous substances that makes the environment unsuitable or unsafe. Pollution is also consequential after effect of activities which upsets the biodiversity of the ecosystem. It also poses a threat to the sustainability of the environment.
The different types of pollution are as follows:-
Air Pollution: – It is the contamination of the natural air by mixing it with different pollutants such as harmful fumes and chemicals. This type of contamination can be caused by burning material or by gases emitted by vehicles or harmful fumes emitted as a by-product of industries. Global warming is one of the biggest side effects of air pollution as per the experts.
Water Pollution:- It is the contamination of the water on the planet Earth. It includes water contamination by pollutants such as bacterial, chemical, and particulate that reduces the purity of the water. Oil seepage, as well as littering, is one of the most common forms of pollution. It mainly occurs in lakes, oceans, rivers and even underground reservoirs.
Soil Pollution:- It is also known as land pollution. It is the contamination of the soil or the land that prevents the growth of natural life. It includes land usage for irrigation, wildlife as well as habitation. The very common causes of soil pollution include hazardous wastage, mining as well as littering, non-sustainable farming practice, seepage into the soil, etc.
Noise Pollution:- It is the loud noises which are fashioned by human activities that disturb the standard of living in the affected area. It can shoot from things such as railroads, traffic, loud music, concerts, aeroplanes, fireworks etc. This can even result in permanent or temporary loss of hearing as well as disturbances to wildlife.
Radioactive Pollution:- This is one of the most dangerous forms of pollution. It is enormously harmful and can even result in death. We are witting this type of pollution from the 20th century. It evolved with the rise of atomic physics and nuclear weapons. Radioactive pollution results in the pollution of the air and land with radioactive poisoning. Leakages or accidents at nuclear power plants, as well as from improper disposal of nuclear waste are also reasons for this pollution. This pollution results in birth defects, cancer, deteriorating of health and even death.
Thus, somewhere we can understand that all types of pollutions are interrelated and indirectly can be a cause for each other. As air pollution has a direct relation to thermal pollution. Light pollution is caused by energy companies that require burning fossil fuels. In return, they increase air pollution and it increases water pollution.
As one can see, there is a connexion between all the types of pollution. To fight the pollution, it might seem like a frightening task for one person, but even doing a little bit sometimes helps. In fact, reduction in water wastage, consuming less light or even not littering can result in reducing pollution massively.
Rise of the Indian National Congress and Subhash Chandra Bose.
Subhash Chandra Bose’s Role in Indian Independence Struggle:
Bose was sent to prison in Mandalay for nationalist activities in 1925. He was released in 1927 and became the INC’s general secretary.
He worked with Jawaharlal Nehru (Born on November 14 – 1889) and the two became the Congress Party’s young leaders gaining popularity among the people. He advocated complete Swaraj and was in favour of the use of force to gain it. He had differences with Gandhi and he wasn’t keen on non-violence as a tool for independence. Bose stood for and was elected the party’s president in 1939 but was forced to resign due to differences with Gandhi’s supporters. Bose’s ideology tilted towards socialism and leftist authoritarianism. He formed the All India Forward Bloc in 1939 as a faction within the Congress.
At the start of the Second World War, Bose protested against the government for not consulting Indians before dragging them into the war. He was arrested when he organised protests in Calcutta
for the removal of the monument memorialising the Black Hole of Calcutta.
He was released after a few days but was kept under surveillance. He then made his escape from the country in 1941 to Germany via Afghanistan and the Soviet Union. He had previously travelled to Europe and met with Indian students and European political leaders.
In Germany, he met with the Nazi leaders and hoped to stage an armed struggle against the British to gain independence. He hoped to befriend the Axis powers since they were against his ‘enemy’, the British. He founded the Indian Legion out of about 4500 Indian soldiers who were in the British army and had been taken prisoners by the Germans from North Africa.
In 1943, he left Germany for Japan disillusioned with the lukewarm German support for Azad Hind.
Bose’s arrival in Japan revived the Indian National Army (Azad Hind Fauj) which had been formed earlier with Japanese help.
Azad Hind or the Provisional Government of Free India was established as a government-in-exile with Bose as the head. Its headquarters was in Singapore. The INA was its military. Bose motivated the troops with his fiery speeches. His famous quote is, “Give me blood, and I shall give you freedom!”
The INA supported the Japanese army in its invasion of northeast India and also took control of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. However, they were forced to retreat by the British forces following the Battles of Kohima and Imphal in 1944. Candidates can find UPSC Questions for History Mains paper by visiting the linked article.
If you are not satisfied with the judgment of the High Court then you have to go to the Supreme Court. Why?
In criminal cases, an appeal lies to the Supreme Court if the High Court (a) has on appeal reversed an order of acquittal of an accused person and sentenced him to death or to imprisonment for life or for a period of not less than 10 years, or (b) has withdrawn for trial before itself any case from any Court. If a person is not satisfied with the judgment of the court of sessions judge, he should appeal to the High Court.
The revolutionary movement in India for the freedom struggle:
The First Case:
Chapekar Brothers (1897)
- The first political assassination of a British officer in India post-1857 Revolt.
- Brothers Damodar, Balkrishna and Vasudeo Chapekar shot at WC Rand, ICS, Chairman of the Special Plague Committee in 1897.
- Rand’s military escort Lieutenant Ayerst died on the spot whereas Rand died a few days later due to wounds.
- The brothers were against the atrocities committed by the British authorities under Rand during the plague epidemic in Pune.
- The government in order to curb the spread of the epidemic ended up harassing Indians and employing extreme measures.
- All the three brothers were hanged for the assassination.
Alipore Bomb Conspiracy Case (1908):
- Also called Muraripukur conspiracy or Manicktolla bomb conspiracy.
- Douglas Kingsford was an unpopular British Chief Magistrate who was the target of the bomb thrown at Muzaffarpur (Northern Bihar).
- Unfortunately, the carriage at which the bomb was targeted contained two English ladies and not Kingsford. The two women died in the attack.
- Revolutionaries who threw the bomb were Prafulla Chaki and Khudiram Bose.
- Chaki committed suicide while Bose, then only 18 years of age, was caught and sentenced to death by hanging.
- The other people who were tried in the case were Aurobindo Ghosh and his brother Barin Ghosh, Kanailal Dutt, Satyendranath Bose and more than 30 others.
- They were all members of the Anushilan Samiti in Calcutta.
- Aurobindo Ghosh was acquitted due to lack of evidence and others served varying life terms in prison.
Curzon Wyllie’s Assassination (1909):
- The India House was an organisation in London involved in the freedom struggle of India mainly engaging Indian students in the UK as its participants.
- Patrons of this organisation included Shyamji Krishna Varma and Bhikaiji Cama.
- India House became the centre of revolutionary activities for Indian independence outside India.
- The organisation was liquidated after the assassination of an army officer Curzon Wyllie by its member Madan Lal Dhingra in 1909.
Howrah Gang Case (1910):
- Also known as Howrah-Sibpur Conspiracy case.
- In this case, 47 revolutionaries associated with the Anushilan Samiti were arrested and tried for the murder of Inspector Shamsul Alam.
- Alam was investigating the revolutionary activities of the Samiti and was trying to link and consolidate the murders and robberies into a single case.
- The case brought to light the work of revolutionary Jatindranath Mukherjee.
- Despite attempts, the case could not establish the links, mainly due to the decentralised nature of the Samiti.
- Of all the accused, only Jatindranath Mukherjee and Narendranath Bhattacharjee were sentenced to one-year imprisonment.
Delhi-Lahore Conspiracy Case (1912):
- Also known as the Delhi Conspiracy Case.
- This was an assassination attempt on Lord Hardinge, the then Viceroy of India.
- The revolutionaries were led by Rashbehari Bose.
- A homemade bomb was thrown into the viceroy’s howdah (elephant carriage) during a ceremonial procession in Delhi. The occasion was the transfer of the British capital from Calcutta to Delhi.
- Lord Hardinge was injured while an Indian attendant was killed.
- Bose escaped being caught whereas a few others were convicted for their roles in the conspiracy.
Kakori Conspiracy (1925):
- This was a case of a train robbery that occurred near Kakori in Uttar Pradesh.
- The attack was led by the youth of the Hindustan Republican Association (later renamed Hindustan Socialist Republican Association) including Ram Prasad Bismil, Ashfaqulla Khan, Chandrashekhar Azad, Rajendra Lahiri, Thakur Roshan Singh and others.
- It was believed that the train carried money bags belonging to the British government.
One person was killed during the robbery.
- The revolutionaries were arrested and tried in court.
- Bismil, Khan, Lahiri and Roshan Singh were sentenced to death. Others were sentenced to deportation or imprisonment.
Chittagong Armoury Raid (1930):
- Also known as Chittagong Uprising.
- This was an attempt by revolutionaries to raid the police armoury and the auxiliary forces armoury from Chittagong (now in Bangladesh).
- They were led by Surya Sen. Others involved were Ganesh Ghosh, Lokenath Bal, Pritilata Waddedar, Kalpana Dutta, Ambika Chakraborty, Subodh Roy, etc.
- The raiders were not able to locate any arms but were able to cut telephone and telegraph wires.
After the raid, Sen hoisted the Indian flag at the police armoury.
- Many of the revolutionaries involved escaped but some were caught and tried.
- The government came down heavily on the revolutionaries. Many were sentenced to imprisonment, deported to the Andaman, and Surya Sen was sentenced to death by hanging. Sen was brutally tortured by the police before he was hanged.
Central Assembly Bomb Case (1929) & Lahore Conspiracy Case (1931):
- Revolutionaries Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt sought to draw attention to their revolution by throwing a bomb along with leaflets in the Assembly House at Delhi.
- They did not attempt to escape and were arrested and jailed for the act.
- Their intention was not to hurt anyone but to popularise their revolutionary activities and philosophy.
- Bhagat Singh was re-arrested in connection with the murder of a British police officer, JP Saunders. This case was called the Lahore Conspiracy Case.
- Saunders was killed mistakenly as the real target was another police officer, James Scott, who was responsible for the lathi charge that killed Lala Lajpat Rai.
- Others involved in this killing were Sukhdev, Rajguru and Chandrashekhar Azad.
They were all members of the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA).
While in prison, Bhagat Singh, Rajguru and Sukhdev along with other political prisoners went on a hunger strike to demand better conditions of prisoners in the jails. After the trial, all three were sentenced and executed by hanging in March 1931. Azad was martyred the same year in February in a gun battle with the police in a park in Allahabad.
Census and its significance.
Collecting and cataloguing information about people living in a country or any particular region of
the country is known as the ‘Census’. It is done every 10 years under the regulation of the central government.
In our country, the last census was carried out in the year 2011 (the 7th time). A census is done for the five-year development plans of the country with regard to necessities like food, water, housing facilities, industries, electricity, employment, education, conservation, etc.. It Is important to have a census.
The Indian Census is the most credible source of information on Demography (Population characteristics), Economic Activity, Literacy and Education, Housing & Household Amenities, Urbanisation, Fertility and Mortality, Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, Language, Religion, Migration, Disability and many other socio- Population Census is the total process of collecting, compiling, analyzing or otherwise disseminating demographic, economic and social data pertaining, at a specific time, of all persons in a country or a well-defined part of a country.
Satyagrah of Gandhiji (up to 1928).
In 1928 the British government increased the taxes on land by 22 % In Bardoli village of Surat district. When the government did not attend to the people’s request to lower taxes, a Satyagraha was undertaken to protest against this untimely and unjust levy.
Vallabhbhai Patel undertook the leadership of the Bardoli Satyagraha. He also got help from great leaders like Ravishankar Maharaj and Jugatram Dave for the Satyagraha. The success of the Bardoli Satyagraha made people confer the title of ‘Sardar’ on Vallabhbhal Patel.
Sardar Patel played a significant role in the negotiations during 1945-47 for the freedom of India. He was among the prominent leaders of the freedom struggle from 1918 onwards and became the president of Indian National Congress in 1931.
Let us understand
Brahmo Samaj and Ramkrishna Mission.
Swami Vivekanand’s original name was Narendranath. He came in contact with Ram Krishna
Paramhans who reciprocated his quest for knowledge. So Narendra became a disciple of Ram Krishna Paramhans and then an ascetic acquiring the name of Swami Vivekanand.
He studied Indian and Western philosophy extensively. Swami Vivekanand advised people to Serve the poor and seek God in needy people. He imbibed pride for our rich cultural heritage and faith In a bright future for Indian youngsters. He gave the slogan of ‘Arise, awake and stop not till the goal is achieved to the people of India. He explained Indian culture and philosophy with his influential speech at the Parliament of Religions in Chicago, USA. He propagated Indian culture to countries like the US, Egypt, China, Japan, etc. by touring all over the world. In 1897 C.E. Swami Vivekanand established the ‘Ram Krishna Mission’ at Kolkata in the name of his guru. The headquarters were at Bellur.
The mission adopted Swami Vivekanand’s ideals as well as the slogan ‘Service to man Is service to God.’ The mission opened schools to impart education. Unfortunately, In 1902 C.E. this great man, Swami Vivekanand died at the young age of 40. A memorial has been erected In his memory at the southern tip of India In Kanniyakumarl.
Raja Ram Mohan Roy who was born In 1772 C.E. at Radhanagar village In Hooghly district of Bengal
was the first social reformer of Indian society. He protested strongly against the evil practices of ‘sail’, child marriage, caste system. the ritual of female Infanilcide (dudhplti), etc. and made great efforts to abolish them from Indian society. He started two newspapers viz, the Samvad Kaumudi’ m Bengali and the ‘Mirat-ul-Akbar’ in Persian.
He established the ‘Brahmo Samaj’ in 1828 C.E. He also established a Hindu college in Kolkata. He recommended many changes to the British government like freedom of press. freedom of speech, women’s rights, keeping the judiciary and the administration separate. etc. Raja Ram Mohan Roy requested the British government to legally ban the ‘sati’ system. So, in 1829 C.E. British Governor,
Lord William Bentinck framed a law banning the sati’ system. Thus in the 19th century, Raja Ram Mohan Roy laid the foundation for a New Awakening with social, religious and political revolutions. Raja Ram Mohan Roy passed away In 1833 C.E. at Bristol in England. He was
the first social reformer of India.
In this way, Raja Ram Mohan Roy laid the foundation for social, religious and political awakening in India in the 19th century. He Is, therefore, considered as the ‘First Torch-bearer’ of the complete development of India.
Why was Jyoitba Phule called ‘Mahatma’?
Mahatma means mahatma- a great soul. Is it necessary that there should only be one?
Both of them – mahatma Phule, as well as mahatma Gandhi, had worked in two different spheres.
One was able to bring about revolution of education and opportunities among the depressed classes of his time.
Other was instrumental in getting participation of the masses in the independence struggle. Although I wonder if Mahatma Phule had not been there, would Gandhi would have been able to galvanise mass support?
I would not like to compare them, instead would prefer to salute them both. A biography of Jyotiba was penned by Dhananjay Keer in 1974 titled, ‘Mahatma Jyotibha Phule: Father of Our Social Revolution’. The Mahatma Phule Museum in Pune was set up in honour of the great reformer.
The Government of Maharashtra introduced the Mahatma Jyotiba Phule Jeevandayeeni Yojana which is a cashless treatment scheme for poor. A number of statues of the Mahatma have been erected as well as several street names and educational institutes have been rechristened with his name – eg. Crawford Market in Mumbai is rechristened as Mahatma Jyotiba Phule Mandai and the Maharashtra Krishi Vidyapeeth at Rahuri, Maharashtra was renamed Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth.
Rise of the Indian National Congress.
The Indian National Congress is one of two major political parties in India. It was influential in the 20th-century Indian independence movement and dominated much of the republic’s early political scene.
The Indian National Congress was founded in 1885, initially with the goal of pursuing moderate reform under the British raj in India. Its roots are in the early Indian nationalist movement that arose from the Indian Rebellion of 1857.
The Indian National Congress was initially focused on moderate reform under the British raj in India. However, some early 20th-century activists began to boycott British imports and promote Indian goods, garnering the support of a wide swath of social classes. In the 1920s and ’30s, party leader Mahatma Gandhi supported nonviolent acts of civil disobedience. Although tensions between the Congress Party and the raj escalated during World War II, by 1947 these tactics had secured independence for India.
Prior to Indian independence, the Indian National Congress was a champion of moderate reform, although during the 1920s and ’30s it transitioned to a focus on independence through nonviolent civil disobedience. Since independence, the party has traditionally supported socialist economic policies within a mixed economy, although in the 1990s it supported more conservative economic reforms. Its social policies have included secular government and equal rights, irrespective of caste.
The Indian National Congress’s prominent Gandhi family is not related to Mahatma Gandhi. Jawaharlal Nehru and his daughter Indira Gandhi, who both served as prime minister of India, were close associates of the Mahatma. However, Indira’s surname came from her husband, Feroze Gandhi. Feroze and the Mahatma were not related.
Does the judgment of the Supreme Court mean the final judgment?
The Final Judgment Rule (sometimes called the “One Final Judgment Rule”) is the legal principle that appellate courts will only hear appeals from the “final” judgment in a case. A plaintiff or defendant cannot appeal rulings of the trial court while the case is still ongoing.
A judgment in criminal case becomes final after the lapse of the period for perfecting an appeal, or when the sentence has been partially or totally satisfied or served, or the defendant has expressly waived in writing his right to appeal.
A judgment is the statement given by the Judge, on the grounds of a decree or order. It is the end product of the proceedings in the Court. The writing of a judgment is one of the most important and time-consuming task performed by a Judge.
Revolutionary activities of Bhagat Singh, Rajguru, Sukhdev, Fadke and Bismil.
Bhagat Sinh was born on 281h September 1907 in Banga village of Lyalpur district in Punjab. He studied European revolutionary movements and was attracted to anarchist and Marxist ideologies. He became involved in numerous revolutionary organisations and quickly rose through the ranks of the Hindustan Republican Association to become one of its main leaders. He came in contact with Shukhdev, Bhagwat Charan and Yashpal while he studied at Lahore National College. Bhagat Sinh and Batukeshwar Dutt threw a bomb in the Legislative Assembly on 8th April 1928.
Samrajyavad ka naash ho!!
Duniya ke Mazdoor ek ho!!!
They dispersed pamphlets with a revolutionary message, fired shots In the air and then surrendered themselves peacefully. Bhagat Sinh, Sukhdev and Rajguru killed British officer Saunders to avenge the murder of Lala Lajpat Rai. The trio was hanged on 23 March 1931.
Ramprasad Bismil was born ¡n Shahjahanapur in the United Province (Uttar Pradesh) in 1897 C.E. He was the kingpin of the Kakori conspiracy where the revolutionary hatched a plan to rob a train carrying the treasury for which he was sentenced to death.
Ramprasad was one of the members who formed revolutionary organization Hindustan Republican
Association. Bhagat Singh praised him as a great poet-writer of Urdu and Hindi. Bismil’ was his pen
name. Fie had translated the books, Catherine, from English and Bolshevikon Kl Kartoot from Bengali. His poems inspired patriotic fervour among the Indians.
Dar-o-diwar pe hasrat se nazar karte hain,
Khush raho ahie vatan, hum to safar karte hain.
Shivaram Hari Rajguru was born on August 24, 1908, to Parvati Devi and Harinarain Rajguru. He was inspired by the revolutionary ideology of Lokmanya Tilak. He joined the Hindustan Socialist Republican Army. He was a revolutionary from the Maharashtra state of India. Shivaram Rajguru aimed to gain freedom from the rule of Britishers. He sacrificed his life in the freedom struggle at a very early age. On March 23, 1931, he was hanged by the British government along with revolutionary Bhagat Singh and Sukhdev Thapar.
Some Quotes On Freedom Fighters:
A freedom fighter learns the hard way that it is the oppressor who defines the nature of the struggle, and the oppressed is often left no recourse but to use methods that mirror those of the oppressor.
At a point, one can only fight fire with fire-Nelson Mandela They call them terrorists, I call them freedom fighters-Louis Farrakhan
They may kill me, but they cannot kill my ideas. They can crush my body, but they will not be able to crush my spirit-Shaheed Bhagat Singh
Vasudev Balwant Fadke was the pioneer of the revolutionary activities in India. He worked in Pune.
Injust and partial approach of the British government irritated him so much that he left his job. He took a vow of not applying Tilak on his forehead and not to cut his hair till he did not free India from the clutches of the Britishers. He formed a secret armed group of revolutionaries called Ramoshi to fight against the British.
British government declared him ‘Wanted’ with a bounty of Rs. 4000/-. He trained young men to attack the British camps, to rob the government treasury and to use guns and other weapons. The British government became desperate to arrest him at any cost.
Vasudev Fadke was arrested at 3:00 a.m. while he was asleep in a village in Hyderabad district. He was put into jail but he fled from there by jumping over the wall. He was caught after a chase of 25 km. He was tortured in the Jail. He died in Aden Prison in February 1883 C.E. as a result of his protest in the form of hunger strike.
100% literacy in India Is the only solution.
India’s literacy growth over the years:
According to Census 2011, India managed to achieve a literacy rate of 74.04% as opposed to 64.80% in 2001. This notable shift also highlights an increase in female literacy over the years. While the female literacy rate in India as per Census 2001 was 53.7%, Census 2011 recorded it at 65.5%. Though not radical but some progress has been made in improving literacy in India especially after the implementation of free education in rural areas for both men and women.
States and Union Territories like Mizoram, Tripura, Goa, Kerala, Puducherry, Chandigarh, Lakshadweep, Daman and Diu, National Capital Territory of Delhi and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands have shown massive or great improvement in the last one decade. These states have a literacy rate of almost 85% according to the 2011 Census.
Census 2011 was the 15th official survey conducted in India. After the end of the British Rule in India in 1947, the literacy rate of India stood at 12%. Since then, the country has advanced economically, socially and globally but a lot is yet to be done.
The Constitution of India recognizes the importance of education for all. Therefore, it lays down several provisions to ensure proper and effective implementation of educational rights in the country. These provisions include:
Education of Minorities: Article 30 of the Indian Constitution gives all minorities the right to establish and administer institutions of their own choice. Free and Compulsory Education: The Constitution of India (u/a 41, 45 and 46 of the Directive Principles of State Policy) instructs the state to ensure that all citizens receive free education.
Equality of Opportunity in Educational Institutions: The fundamental right of equality clearly signifies that in the eyes of law no one can be discriminated on the basis of status, caste, sex, class or creed. Equal opportunities should be provided to everyone in the country including those related to education.
Article 21 (A) of the Constitution of India was amended to provide free and compulsory education as a fundamental right to all children aged between 6-14 years. Education of Weaker Sections: Article 15, 17, and 46 of the Indian Constitution safeguard the educational interests of weaker sections of the society.
These comprise socially, economically, and educationally backward families including those belonging to scheduled castes (SCs), and scheduled tribes (STs). In the censuses prior to 1981, the literacy rate in India was calculated by taking into account the entire population. This method was modified in 1991 after finding out a more precise and accurate way of calculating the literacy rate in India.
It involved excluding people aged between 0-6 years from the calculating process. Therefore, from 1991, the literacy rate in India was calculated for people of or above seven years of age. Literacy in India has embedded in it the problem of gender disparity for many years. Despite the government’s effort to ensure equality for both men and women in our society, the literacy rate of women in India, especially in rural areas still remains very poor.
The reason behind this gap is improper or lack of education for women, and deep-set patriarchal norms that is discriminatory towards women. Steps were taken by the government to improve literacy standards in India The government conducts various scholarship examinations and provides school uniforms, textbooks and stationery in order to encourage students and adults to take up studying.
The Mid Day Meal Scheme was launched by the government in 1995 to provide students free food grain so as to improve enrolment, attendance, and retention in government schools. Samagra Shiksha Programme was launched by the government with the broader goal of improving school effectiveness. This will be measured in terms of equal opportunities for schooling and equitable learning outcomes. Awareness campaigns were launched in rural areas to create awareness among people about the importance of education. They were encouraged to attend or send their children to schools.
Compare between the Non-Cooperation Movement and the Bardoli Satyagrah.
In his book, ‘Hind Swaraj’ Gandhiji wrote that the British could establish their rule over India only because Indians cooperated with them. Therefore, to get rid of British supremacy, Gandhljl launched the non-cooperation movement in 1920 by returning the title of ‘Kaiser-e-Hind’.
The two aspects of the non-cooperation movement were:
- Boycott and
1. Boycott: Complete boycott of government jobs and honours, legislative meetings, government educational institutions, foreign clothes and other goods.
2. Creativity: This included spinning of khadi, eradication of untouchability, communalism, alcohol consumption and encouraging Hindu-Muslim unity along with propagation of Swadeshi goods and national education.
During the non-cooperation movement many national educational institutions like Gujarat Vidyapith (in Ahmedabad), Bihar Vidyapith, Kashi Vidyapith, Jamia Muja Islamia (in Delhi), Tilak Vidyapith (in Pune), etc. were established.
Gandhiji was always against violence of any kind. So when, in 1922, angry farmers of Chauri-chaura village of Gorakhpur district of Uttar Pradesh revolted against the sudden attack of the police on a peaceful rally and set fire to a police station killing all the 22 polIcemen inside, Gandhiji withdrew the non-cooperation movement.
In 1928 the British government increased the taxes on land by 22 % In Bardoli village of Surat district. When the government did not attend to the people’s request to lower taxes, a Satyagraha was undertaken to protest against this untimely and unjust levy. Vallabhbhai Patel undertook the leadership of the Bardoll Satyagraha.
He also got help from great leaders like Ravishankar Maharaj and Jugatram Dave for the Satyagraha. The success of the Bardoll Satyagraha made people confer the title of Sardar’ on Vallabhbhal Patel.
Let us think
Evil customs and superstitions.
Being blinded by superstitions is the main reason why such evil customs prevail, she reasoned. “Some Indians tend to believe that the spirit enters the foetus only in the sixth month of pregnancy and any killing before that is non-violent and totally acceptable. Image result for Evil customs and superstitions.
Types of Social Evils in India:
- Caste System.
- Patriarchal Society.
- Child marriage.
- Child Labour.
- Female infanticide.
- Domestic violence.
How can we prevent pollution? Give examples.
Man-made pollutions are:
- Air pollution.
- Water pollution,
- Noise pollutIon
- Food pollution and
- Space pollution.
To prevent air pollution due to vehicles: Air is polluted due to smoke from vehicles like buses, cars, motorcycles scooters, etc. The use of petrol and diesel should be very limited and pollution-free fuels such as CNG and LPG should be used instead. Vehicles that can run with the aid of solar batteries or solar energy should be invented. PU.C. checks should be strictly Implemented.
To prevent air pollution from industrIes: Coal and fossil fuels should be used minimally In Industries and the use of hydroelectricity, nuclear power or solar energy should be encouraged.
Remedies to prevent air pollution:
- Rules are necessary for industries and vehicles and these must be strictly implemented.
- Equipment which can filter smoke and poisonous gases should be developed and Installed
- Petrol and diesel should be used very judiciously. Pollution-free fuels such as CNG or LPG used
in vehicles will help to a great extent and PU.C. (Pollution Under Control) checks should be strictly Implemented.
- Forests and vegetation cover should be increased.
What happens If the government divides your village or city into divisions for the purpose of administration?
If my village or city should be divided into two parts, there would be a lot of difficulties. The facilities present In the village/city would have to be divided into two or new facilities would have to be created. Due to this, the administrative expenses would shoot up. Consequently, taxation would increase on the village folk. There can even be fights between the villagers over the distribution of facilities.
What happened after India became independent?
India After Independence:
After independence, many progressive tasks were undertaken in the country with the help of 5-year plans. These were successful to a certain extent. Due to these 5-year plans, there has been noteworthy progress in the fields of agriculture, industries, education, abolishing poverty, employment, vehicular traffic and communication, cleanliness and general public health, women empowerment. animal health, nuclear energy. science and technology, films, sports, etc. India has gained a lot of fame as a fast developing country in the whole world.
Judgments of the Supreme Court.
The various judgements given by different courts in the case of Ratlam Municipality are as follows:
1. Verdict by the Taluka Court: The Municipality and Town Improvement Trust have failed in their duty of maintaining cleanliness. Both the Institutions are ordered to cleanse the place with Immediate effect. The work of a closed drainage should be completed wIthin 15 days. However, the Municipality challenged this verdict in the Ratlam District Court.
The following is the ruling of the District Court:
2. The judgement of the Taluka Court is hereby declared unfair. This verdict was challenged by the residents. They went to the High Court. The High Court sustained the judgement of the Taluka Court but added the some words to It.
The following is the verdict of the High Court:
3. For a closed drainage system 7 months’ time is given instead of 15 days. The pits should be filled with soil to stop water accumulation and mosquito breeding. The work should be completed within two years. The Ratlam Municipality being unhappy with the verdict appealed to the Supreme Court. However, the Supreme Court sustained the judgement of the Taluka Court and further ordered that:
4. The chemical and dye plants which were responsible for the pollution should be closed with the joint effort of the Municipality and the state government.
Let’s do and learn
Survey and prepare a report on the units creating pollution in your area
State survey analysis:
One school each from districts Begusarai and Patna participated in the survey namely Out of these cities Patna is a non-attainment city and it reflects clearly in the responses. Overall, 70 per cent of the respondents think that air quality is while from Patna, more than 80 per cent think so.
Traffic and smoky vehicles has been accounted as the biggest reason for air pollution in the city Mapping
exercise findings states that the school is surrounded by residential area and one small industry is located in the area. More than 90 per cent respondents state they face issues like cough, sneezing, breathing and headache.
Mapping exercise submitted by students of MLZ Begusarai revealed the following sources of air pollution in the 1 km radius of school
- Burning of rotten food
- Welding work in small industries and garages
- Burning of garbage, wood and coal
- Burning of hawks, straw and weeds
- Use of diesel generator
55 per cent of respondents say they feel discomfort in breathing during smog and 48 per cent think
the air quality is very bad in their city and around the school Survey Responses
1. How many of the respondents think that air pollution is worsening?
Approximately, 70 per cent of the survey respondents know that air pollution is worsening. However, 14 per cent believe it has in fact improved while 16 per cent think it has neither improved nor declined over time but has remained the same.
Spread awareness about prevalent air pollution concentrations and the state of air quality by having
a display board mentioning the air quality of the day (http://cpcb.nic.in/) Students can help develop a protocol based on the prevalent AQI to minimize outdoor exposure for students such as avoid unnecessary outdoor activities on “Very Poor, Severe and Emergency” days.
2. What are the sources of pollution?
Almost 76 per cent of the survey respondents think that traffic and smoky vehicles contribute
primarily to the problem of air pollution. Followed by 14 per cent of the respondents listing smoke
from garbage burning and any industry and commercial activities by 5 per cent as sources of air
pollution where they are more exposed.
Make students aware of the different sources of pollution. Most of the tiniest particles and gases
come from combustion sources like vehicles, cooking fumes, industry, power plants and waste
burning. If waste being burnt is witnessed, students can report/take pictures and send to concerned
authorities. Enable mechanisms to report these instances.
3. Observed proximity of the air pollution sources:
It was observed that the major source of pollution close to residence is from garbage burning, cooking, construction & demolition and hotel & restaurants as reported by 52 per cent, 48 per cent, 42 per cent and 39 per cent respondents, respectively. While commuting to school and near the school the main source of pollution is road dust, vehicle exhaust emissions and diesel gen-sets as reported by 44 per cent, 39 per cent and 36 per cent respondents, respectively. 31 per cent of respondents opted for Not Applicable.
Students can create an awareness group in the school to generate awareness in the community as 52
per cent pollution is due to cooking only. Also, they can approach local municipal bodies to take relevant steps and stop the garbage burning in the area.
4. Indoor air quality at home 56 per cent respondent says that indoor air quality at home gets affected by smoking and other sources such as cookstoves, incense sticks, etc., or also from intrusion from outdoor pollution inside home.
Indoor air quality is generally ignored while discussing air pollution, though in many studies, indoor
air has been found to be more polluted than the outdoor air. A few steps such use of clean cooking fuel, planting indoor plants and reducing use of paints and chemicals which release volatile organic carbon, etc, go a long way in keeping the indoor air clean.
5. How do we commute to school?
Approximately 70 per cent of the survey respondents use bus asthe mode of transport followed by use of car by 15 per cent. Those who live far from the schools are using bus and car as the main mode of transport. All of the schools have performed well and reported more than 95 per cent of sustainable and nonpolluting mode of transport in the GSP Audit
Almost 15 students are using car as mode of transport, these students need to be aware about the
sustainable mode of transport and schools should encourage them to use bus for commuting. Schools could undertake promotional events for children from time to time, whereby cycling and walking can be promoted as fun and healthy activity and promote sustaining the current mobility practices Other precautionary initiatives: Regulate third-party service providers: Cabs, rickshaws and autorickshaws that ferry children to school should be registered and kids should be encouraged to opt for only registered vendors. This will allow the school to have a say in the vehicle being safe and less polluting and hold the service provider accountable for any gaps.
Provide information on effect of commuting on environment: Students should be made to undertake exercises to calculate their carbon footprint based on their travel choice. This can help them to become aware of what they can do daily to help the environment, and early practices that get inculcated can stick around for a lifetime.
Find out the literacy rate and the population density in your area.