GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 1 Arrival of Europeans in India

   

Gujarat Board GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 1 Arrival of Europeans in India Textbook Exercise Important Questions and Answers, Notes Pdf.

Gujarat Board Textbook Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 1 Arrival of Europeans in India

GSEB Class 8 Social Science Arrival of Europeans in India Textbook Questions and Answers

Answer the following questions:

Question 1.
Why did the Europeans feel the need to discover a new sea-route to India ?
OR
Give reason: It was necessary for Europeans to discover a new sea-route to India.
Answer:
Merchants from various countries came to India for trade from north-west by land route. For years Arab traders used this land route for their trade. However trade via land route stopped due to changed situations. This increased the demand of Indian products like silk and cotton cloth, muslin, spices like cloves, pepper, etc. in European countries and it became necessary to discover a new sea-route to India. Taking advantage of this sit-uation many adventurous sailors from European countries tried to discover a new sea-route to India.

Question 2.
Who were the first and the last Europeans to
arrive in India?
Answer:
The Portuguese were the first and the French were the last Europeans to arrive in India.

GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 1 Arrival of Europeans in India

Question 3.
Between whom was the Battle of Plassey fought? What were its results ?
Answer:
The Battle of Plassey was fought between Siraj-ud- Daulah and the British in 1757 C.E. The British proved victorious thus marking the beginning of the British rule in India.

Question 4.
Why did the Battle of Buxar occur ? What was its result?
Answer:
As promised the British appointed Mir Jafar as the Nawab of Bengal. Robert Clive returned to England. However, with time Mir Jafar became hostile towards the British. The company replaced him with his son-in-law Mir Qasim as the Nawab. Mir Qasim was an efficient, disciplined and clever ruler and he opposed the British for non-payment of taxes. Both forces came face to face finally in 1763 but Mir Qasim was defeated. He escaped, reinforced his army by joining hands with the Nawab of ‘Y Oudh Shuja-ud-Daulah and Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II. These combined forces clashed with the British East India Company in the Battle of Buxar. The result was that the company emerged victorious and Bengal, Avadh (Lucknow) and the Mughal Empire came under British rule.

Question 5.
How did the Portuguese rule came to an end (in Bengal) ?
Answer:
Within just 100 years, the Portuguese had taken control over Mangalore, Cochin, Diu, Daman, Goa, Mumbai and the island of Lanka. Then, in the beginning of the 17th century, the Portuguese expanded their trade to -f, Bengal. The Subedar of Bengal complained about Portuguese activities to the Mughal Emperor Shahjahan who ruled India from Delhi. As per the Emperor’s orders Hugh fort was demolished and Portuguese ships were burnt. In this way the Portuguese rule came to an end (in Bengal) with the exception of Diu, Daman and Goa.

Fill in the blanks:

1. ……………….. was the Italian who accepted the challenge to discover the sea-route to India.
Answer:
Columbus

2. Robert Clive conspired to murder ………………….. .
Answer:
Siraj-ud-Daulah

GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 1 Arrival of Europeans in India
Activities

Question 1.
Make a list of Europeans who came to India during the 15th century to the 17th century in your notebook.
Answer:
Europeans who came to India during the 15th century to the 17th century were :

  1. Portuguese from Portugal,
  2. Dutch from Holland (The Netherlands),
  3. Danish from Denmark,
  4. British from England and
  5. French from France.

Question 2.
Make a list of modes of transport in your notebook.
Answer:
Modes of Transport:

  • Land route,
  • Rail route,
  • Sea-route,
  • Air route,
  • Pipeline and
  • Rope-way.

GSEB Class 8 Social Science Arrival of Europeans in India Intext Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Which areas from Europe by land are to be crossed to reach India route ?
Answer:
Venice (Italy), Turkey, Baghdad (Iraq), Iran, Arabia, etc. are to be crossed to reach India from Europe by land route.

Question 2.
Which areas are to be crossed to reach India ‘ from Portugal by sea-route ?
Answer:
Cape of Good Hope in South Africa and Mozambique are to be crossed to reach India from Portugal by sea-route.

Question 3.
Which mode of transportation is used the maximum to travel abroad in the modem times?
Answer:
Air transportation is used the maximum to travel abroad in the modern times.

Question 4.
Do the merchants from foreign countries seek permission to do such trade in India in today’s times?
Answer:
Yes, many merchants from foreign countries seek % permission to do such trade in India in today’s times.

Question 5.
Had Siraj-ud-Daulah won the Battle of Plassey, what would have been its impact?
Answer:
Had Siraj-ud-Daulah won the Battle of Plassey, the British rule would not have begun in India. The j British would have gone back from India on account of losing their forts and India would not been enslaved by the British.

GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 1 Arrival of Europeans in India

Question 6.
Draft headlines for the newspaper published from Britain and Patna with reference to the report printed on the Battle of Plassey and the death of Siraj-ud-Daulah.
Answer:
The headlines of the newspaper published from
Britain : HURRAY! BATTLE OF PLASSEY WON BY BRITISH ! SIRAJ-UD-DAULAH DEAD. BRITAIN UNDISPUTED RULERS OF INDIA.
The headlines of the newspaper published from ; Patna: DARK DAYS FOR INDIA. BRAVE KING SIRAJ-
UD-DAULAH KILLED IN BATTLE OF PLASSEY. BRITAIN UNDISPUTED RULERS OF INDIA.

GSEB Class 8 Social Science Arrival of Europeans in India Additional Important Questions and Answers

Choose the correct alternative from those given to below each question:
1.
Question 1.
Columbus was an inhabitant of ………………… .
A. England
B. Portugal
C. Italy
D. Spain
Answer:
C. Italy

Question 2.
Which port did Columbus reach accidentally when he started out to discover a new sea-route to India?
A. America
B. Australia
C. Africa
D. New Zealand
Answer:
A. America

Question 3.
Vasco-da-Gama was an inhabitant of ………………….. .
A. Italy
B. Spain
C. France
D. Portugal
Answer:
D. Portugal

Question 4.
When did Vasco-da-Gama’s ship reach the port of Calicut?
A. On 22nd May, 1500
B. On 12th March, 1492
C. On 22nd May, 1498
D. On 10th March, 1480
Answer:
C. On 22nd May, 1498

Question 5.
On which port did the Portuguese first establish their fort in 1502 C.E. ?
A. Calicut
B. Surat
C. Marmagoa
D. Mangalore
Answer:
A. Calicut

Question 6.
In which year did the Portuguese gain victory over Goa ?
A. In 1498
B. In 1506
C. In 1510
D. In 1500
Answer:
B. In 1506

GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 1 Arrival of Europeans in India

Question 7.
Which Mughal Emperor ruled over Delhi when the Portuguese established their fort on the banks of Hugh?
A. Aurangzeb
B. Akbar
C. Jahangir
D. Shahjahan
Answer:
D. Shahjahan

Question 8.
The Dutch are inhabitants of ………………… .
A. Norway
B. Denmark
C. Sweden
D. Holland (The Netherlands)
Answer:
D. Holland (The Netherlands)

Question 9.
Whose competition could the Dutch not withstand ?
A. Portuguese
B. Spainish
C. British
D. French
Answer:
C. British

Question 10.
When was the ‘British East India Company’ established ?
A. In 1600
B. In 1608
C. In 1613
D. In 1602
Answer:
A. In 1600

2.
Question 11.
When did the first British ship reach India ?
A. In 1610
B. In 1600
C. In 1608
D. In 1611
Answer:
C. In 1608

Question 12.
Which Mughal Emperor permitted the British to start trade in Surat?
A. Aurangzeb
B. Jahangir
C. Shahjahan
D. Akbar
Answer:
B. Jahangir

GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 1 Arrival of Europeans in India

Question 13.
Which Mughal Emperor permitted the British to start trade in Bengal?
A. Aurangzeb
B. Akbar
C. Jahangir
D. Shahjahan
Answer:
D. Shahjahan

Question 14.
When was the ‘French East India Company’ established ?
A. In 1664
B. In 1668
C. In 1646
D. In 1675
Answer:
A. In 1664

Question 15.
From where did the British first start their trade?
A. From the banks of river Padma
B. From the banks of river Hugli
C. From Calicut port
D. From the banks of river Meghana
Answer:
B. From the banks of river Hugli

Question 16.
From which Mughal Emperor did the British get permission for tax-free trade ?
A. From Jahangir
B. From Shahjahan
C. From Akbar
D. From Aurangzeb
Answer:
D. From Aurangzeb

Question 17.
When was the Battle of Plassey fought?
A. In 1764
B. In 1775
C. In 1757
D. In 1857
Answer:
C. In 1757

Question 18.
Who became the Nawab of Bengal in 1756 C.E. ?
A. Siraj-ud-Daulah
B. Alivardi Khan
C. Shuja-ud-Daulah
D. Murshid Ali khan
Answer:
A. Siraj-ud-Daulah

GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 1 Arrival of Europeans in India

Question 19.
When was the Battle of Buxar fought?
A. In 1757
B. In 1765
C. In 1761
D. In 1764
Answer:
D. In 1764

Question 20.
Whom did the British appoint as the Nawab of Bengal after the Battle of Plassey?
A. Shah Aalam
B. Mir Jafar
C. Mir Hasim
D. Mir Qasim
Answer:
B. Mir Jafar

Fill in the blanks with proper words:
1.
(1) ……………… discovered America.
Answer:
Columbus

(2) Even today natives of America are called ……………….. and the group of islands is known as ………………. .
Answer:
Red Indians, West Indies

(3) discovered the new sea-route from Europe to India.
Answer:
Vasco-da-Gama

(4) Vasco-da-Gama first reached the port of ………………… in India.
Answer:
Calicut

(5) In 1498 C.E. King ………………… ruled over Calicut.
Answer:
Zamorin

GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 1 Arrival of Europeans in India

(6) The Portuguese set up a trade centre in Calicut, fortified the centre and appointed ……………….. as the commander-in-chief.
Answer:
Albuquerque

(7) In 1663 C.E. the Dutch established a fort in ………………… .
Answer:
Agra

(8) ………………. was captain of the British ship that first landed in India.
Answer:
Hawkins

(9) The head of the French East India Company,
situated in India, was …………………. .
Answer:
Dupleix

2.
(10) Robert Clive bribed ……………… the Nawab’s commander-in-chief and appointed him as the Nawab of Bengal.
Answer:
Mir Jafar

(11) …………………. became the Nawab of Bengal after the Battle of Plassey.
Answer:
Mir Jafar

GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 1 Arrival of Europeans in India

(12) The British company dismissed Mir Jafar as the Nawab of Bengal and appointed …………….. as the Nawab.
Answer:
Mir Qasim

(13) After the death of Mir Jafar, ……………….. became the Nawab of Bengal.
Answer:
Robert Clive

(14) The Battle of ………………… is considered to be a turning point in the history of India.
Answer:
Plassey

State whether the following statements are true or false:

1. Columbus discovered a sea-route to India.
Answer:
False

2. Vasco-da-Gama was an inhabitant of Portugal.
Answer:
True

GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 1 Arrival of Europeans in India

3. The British fort at Hugli was demolished on the orders of Mughal Emperor Jahangir.
Answer:
False

4. Mughal Emperor Shahjahan permitted the British to start trade in India.
Answer:
True

5. The Battle of Buxar was the first battle fought by the British East India Company in India.
Answer:
False

6. The British company appointed Mir Qasim as the Nawab of Bengal after the Battle of Plassey.
Answer:
False

7. The British were defeated in the Battle of Buxar.
Answer:
False

Match the pairs correctly:
(1)

Section ‘A’ Section ‘B’
(1 ) 1498 C.E. (1) British ship reached Surat port
(2) 1600 C.E. (2) French East India Company was established
(3) 1608 C.E. (3) British East India Company was established
(4) 1664 C.E. (4) Dutch people established a fort in Agra

Answer:
(1 – 5), (2 – 3) (3 – 1), (4 – 2).

(2)

Section ‘A’ Section ‘B’
(1) 1502 C.E. (1) Albuquerque gained victory over Goa
(2) 1663 C.E. (2) Battle of Plassey was fought ( 3 ) Battle of Buxar was fought
(3) 1757 C.E. (4) Portuguese established fort at Calicut
(4) 1764 C.E. (5) Dutch people established fort at Agra

Answer:
(1 – 4), (2 – 5), (3 – 2), (4 – 3).

Answer the following questions in one or two sentences:

Question 1.
Which Indian commodities were in great demand in European countries ?
Answer:
Indian commodities like silk, cotton clothes, * muslin, black-pepper, spices, etc. were in great demand in European countries.

GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 1 Arrival of Europeans in India

Question 2.
Who made the first effort to discover a new sea-route to India?
Answer:
Columbus, the adventurous Italian sailor made the first effort to discover a new sea-route to India.

Question 3.
By what name are the natives of America and the island group known as today?
Answer:
The natives of America are known as ‘Red Indians’ and the island group is known as ‘West Indies’.

Question 4.
Who discovered the new sea-route to India ?
Answer:
Vasco-da-Gama, the brave Portuguese sailor, discovered the new sea-route to India.

GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 1 Arrival of Europeans in India

Question 5.
When did Vasco-da-Gama’s ship reach India ? How?
Answer:
Vasco-da-Gama’s ship reached India (port of Calicut) on 22nd May, 1498. He went round ‘Cape of Good Hope’ in the Indian Ocean to reach Calicut.

Question 6.
Where did the Portuguese establish their forts in India ?
Answer:
The Portuguese established their forts in Calicut, Goa, Mangalore, Cochin, Diu, Daman and coasts of Mumbai.

Question 7.
To which place did Dutch inhabitants belong ?
At which places in India did they establish forts ?
Answer:
Dutch inhabitants belonged to Holland (The Netherlands). They established their forts in Pulicut, Chennai and Agra in India.

Question 8.
Where, when and why was the British East India Company established?
Answer:
The British East India Company was established in 1600 C.E. in England by merchants who wanted to undertake trade with India.

Question 9.
When and on which Indian port did the first British ship land?
Answer:
The first British ship landed at Surat port in ** India in 1608 C-E.

Question 10.
Where in India did the French East India Company establish their forts ?
Answer:
The French East India Company established their forts at Surat, Machhalipatnam, Pondicherry, etc. in India.

GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 1 Arrival of Europeans in India

Question 11.
From where did the British first start trade in Bengal ?
Answer:
The British first started trade in India in 1613 C.E. at Surat. They started their trade from the banks of River Hugli in Bengal after obtaining permission from Emperor Jahangir.

Question 12.
How did revenue generated from tax reduce in Bengal ?
OR
Give reason: Income received from tax in Bengal reduced.
Answer:
The British started trade in 1651 C.E. in Bengal on the banks of river Hugli. They got permission from Aurangzeb to trade without paying taxes against annual payment. Only the British East India Company could avail the benefit of tax-free trade as per the order passed in Bengal. But officials of the company who engaged in personal trade, did not pay tax. As a result the income generated from tax in Bengal reduced.

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