GSEB Solutions Class 12 Economics Chapter 11 Emerging Issues in Indian Economy

GSEB Gujarat Board Textbook Solutions Class 12 Economics Chapter 11 Emerging Issues in Indian Economy Textbook Exercise Important Questions and Answers, Notes Pdf.

Gujarat Board Textbook Solutions Class 12 Economics Chapter 11 Emerging Issues in Indian Economy

GSEB Class 12 Economics Emerging Issues in Indian Economy Text Book Questions and Answers

1. Choose the correct option for the following questions :

Question 1.
In which year were economic reforms introduced in India?
(A) 1990
(B) 1991
(C) 1999
(D) 2008
Answer:
(B) 1991

Question 2.
What type of effects are there for migration due to attraction (pull factors)?
(A) Negative
(B) Positive
(C) Zero
(D) Relative
Answer:
(D) Relative

Question 3.
By 2050, how much of the world population will be in cities?
(A) 1/2
(B) 1/4
(C) 2/3
(D) 3/4
Answer:
(C) 2/3

Question 4.
The definition of an urban area given in which year was liberal?
(A) In 1991
(B) In 1981
(C) In 1971
(D) In 1951
Answer:
(A) In 1991

Question 5.
Approximately, what was the percentage of population living in cities in 2011? .
(A) 20%
(B) 32%
(C) 35%
(D) 25%
Answer:
(B) 32%

GSEB Solutions Class 12 Economics Chapter 11 Emerging Issues in Indian Economy

Question 6.
According to the Indian Constitution, compulsory and free education should be made available to the children of which age group?
(A) 4-14 years
(B) 5-15 years
(C) 6-14 years
(D) 7-15 years
Answer:
(C) 6-14 years

Question 7.
What was the extant of literacy in _______ India in 2011?
(A) 50%
(B) 60%
(C) 70%
(D) 74%
Answer:
(D) 74%

Question 8.
When was railway started for the first time in India?
(A) In 1953
(B) In 1853
(C) In 1975
(D) In 1901
Answer:
(B) In 1853

Question 9.
In which year was ONGC set up?
(A) In 1947
(B) In 1951
(C) In 1955
(D) In 1959
Answer:
(D) In 1959

2. Answer the following questions in one line :

Question 1.
What is meant be internal migration?
Answer:
Movement of a person from one place to another within the geographical boundary of a country is known as internal migration.

Question 2.
What is meant by development based migration.
Answer:
When people residing in a particular region are made to migrate to another region so that some developmental project can be undertaken at that place.it is known as development based migration. For example, lot of people were made to migrate when Gujarat, started Sardar Srovar Yojana.

Question 3.
What is meant by urbanisation?
Answer:
Urbanization is a socio-economic process in which the population gets concentrated or centralized i.e. increases in one area. This eventually converts that area into a town or a city.

Question 4.
What are the ways through which electricity can be produced.
Answer:
Electricity can be produced irrthe following ways:
(A) Thermal power – Through coal,
(B) Hydro power – Through water,
(C) Nuclear power – Through nuclear energy and
(D) Others – Windmill, biogas, solar energy, etc.

GSEB Solutions Class 12 Economics Chapter 11 Emerging Issues in Indian Economy

Question 5.
Give the full form of ONGC.
Answer:
Oil and Natural Gas Commission.

3. Answer the following questions in brief :

Question 1.
Give the meaning of migration.
Answer:
Migration:

  • Movement of a person from one place to another place, away from native place either within or outside the country for job, occupation, business or in search of better standard of living, on a permanent basis is called migration.
  • Migration becomes faster with a faster increase in economic growth. Fast-rising economy encourages people living in lesser developed areas to move and settle at places that may be distant but well developed. They migrate in search of employment and to stabilize their family and attain a higher standard of living.

On the basis of this definition, we can say that migration

  1. Is a long term aspect within or outside the country
  2. Is for job, occupation, business or for the betterment of living standard.

Question 2.
What are the pull factros for migration?
Answer:
Migration due to attraction (pull factors):

  • When a person gets attracted to the life style and modern infrastructural facilities of urban areas and migrates there, it is known as migration due to attraction.
  • Since the modern, life-style and infrastructure are pulling (attracting) the person these factors are called pull factors.

Example:

  • Migration of people from village to city can be considered as migration due to attraction because compared to villages, the life style, transportation, communication system, education, health services, etc. along with job opportunities and business prospects are much better and more in the cities.
  • Migration to other countries owing to above mentioned reasons is called migration due to attraction.

Question 3.
Give meaning of urbanisation.
Answer:
Urbanization:

  • The migration of people from rural areas to urban areas is known as urbanization.
  • Urbanization is a socio-economic process in which the population gets concentrated or centralized i.e. increases in one area. This eventually converts that area into a town or a city. This concept is also known as centralization of population.

Question 4.
State the different ways in which urbanisation takes place.
Answer:
Generally, three types of urbanization take place. They are:

  1. In towns and cities, birth rate tends to be higher than the death rate and hence the urban population increases at a higher rate. This is known as natural population growth.
  2. Due to the change in the definition of village and town areas, many rural areas have been upgraded and now they fall in the categories of cities. This results in an increase in urban population. This can be seen in cities like Ahmedabad, Vadodara, Surat, Rajkot, etc.
  3. There is large scale migration of people from rural to urban areas which increases the urban population.

GSEB Solutions Class 12 Economics Chapter 11 Emerging Issues in Indian Economy

Question 5.
State point wise, the negative effects of urbanisation.
Answer:
Negative effects of urbanization:
1. Income inequalities:
Urbanization creates income inequalities. In urban areas, on one hand’there are intellects who are very highly educated, entrepreneurs and business magnates whose income levels are very high. While on the other hand, there are poor labourers who are illiterates, who do not have any expertise and who do not know anything except physical labour and hence have very low incomes.
Thus, one can witness very large income inequalities in urban areas.

2. Social inequalities:
The rich and the educated class of the urban areas have modern thinking while the uneducated poor class has frank and age-old thinking. Hence, such poor get exploited in urban areas. This creates social inequalities.

3. Problems of slum-dwelling:
Labour class people coming to cities from villages have lower incomes and hence cannot afford to buy pucca house. As a result, they forcibly live in hutments and dirty slums.

4. Problem of law and order:
Uncontrolled urbanization leads to population explosion in urban areas. The per capita vehicle in cities is high and it rises continuously.

  • In case when migrants are not able to get proper employment and earn enough income they move to theft, dacoity, etc.
  • It becomes extremely difficult for the limited police personnel to control the city properly. The day to day law and order situation looks weak and inefficient. -» In situations like riots and natural calamities, it becomes a very challenging task for them to look after the safety and security of such a large urban population.

5. Question of infrastructural facilities:
There is shortage of transportation, health, roads, shortage of pure drinking water and other such infrastructural facilities. This results in problems of water borne diseases, sanitation, shortage of electricity due to the failure of the local administration system, etc.

6. Problems of environmental pollution:

  • Urbanization is the result of industrialization. Uncontrolled growth in industries increases pollution to manifolds.
  • This also results in dirt and filth which eventually leads to various diseases. For example, more than 50% of poor population suffers from skin and respiratory diseases in big developed cities.

4. Give answers to the point for the following questions :

Question 1.
Explain the types of migration.
Answer:
Types of Migration:
GSEB Solutions Class 12 Economics Chapter 11 Emerging Issues in Indian Economy 1

GSEB Solutions Class 12 Economics Chapter 11 Emerging Issues in Indian Economy

Question 2.
Explain in brief, the measures to reduce the problems of urbanisation.
Answer:
Measures to reduce the problems of urbanization:
1. Policy related steps:
Government has taken the following policy related measures to reduce the problems of urbanization:
(a) To control .excessive urbanization, the government has put control on setting up industries in those cities where the population is more than 10 lakh.
(b) Government has started encouraging development of small sized towns so that big cities can be stopped from further urbanization.
(c) The Indian Government has adopted policies that can prevent big cities from becoming bigger and at the same time small and medium sized towns of all the towns can also develop.
(d) Indian Government has adopted a policy of developing satellite tower near big cities.

2. Increasing employment opportunities:

  • To control the negative effects of urbanization,’ Government has implemented several employment oriented programmes to enhance self-employment opportunities in cities.
  • Government aims at maximum spread of these programmes so that the urban poor can take the benefit. This in turn will increase their income and improve their standard of living.

3. Strengthen the infrastructural facilities:

  • To ensure that the infrastructural facilities like water, road, transportation, communication system, drainage, sanitation, etc. reach each land every person the government should make its system strong. . .
  • To take the infrastructure at a much higher letef the Central Government has implemented a plan to convert some cities into smart cities.
  • The government should-make efforts to construct houses for slum dwellers. With this objective the Central Government has initiated various. housing schemes for the poor and middle income group people.

4. Education and health facilities:

  • The rich and the affluent people of the cities are easily able to afford the ultra-modern education and health facilities but the poor class are not. This causes negative effects of urbanization. Steps must be taken to reduce this.
  • if proper arrangements are rrtade to avail these facilities even to the poor, then the negative effects of urbanization can be minimized.

5. Development of cottage and small scale industries:
Government shoCild also pay good attention for developing subsidiary industries like cottage and small scale industries. This would help in reducing socio-economic inequalities caused due to urbanization.

6. Development of infrastructural facilities in rural areas:
Government should make effort to improve infrastructural facilities such as education, transportation, communication, roads, electricity, irrigation, etc. of smaller towns and cities. Doing so, people will not be forced to migrate to urban areas. This will further reduce the burden on cities and the negative effects of urbanization can be controlled.

7. Strengthen the administrative system:

  • To control the problems related to urbanization, the law and order situation should be improved. This requires that the administrative system should be strengthened and inefficiencies in administrative co-ordination should be eliminated.
  • Good governance should be put into practice to solve the problems.
  • Citizens should be continuously made aware about law and order so that administrators can improve the law and order situation in the city.

Question 3.
Write short note : Petroleum
Answer:

  • Petroleum is one of the most important sources of energy. It is a driving force for all vehicles. All modern production depends on the petroleum.
  • Modernization and industrialization are the key reasons for extremely high demand of petroleum and petroleum products.
  • Development also boosts transportation. This results in rise in number of private and public vehicles which in turn continuously increases the demand for petroleum.

Petroleum in India:

  • Owing to a very large population, fast development and low petroleum reserves, India has to depend heavily on foreign countries for importing petroleum from them.
  • In India, oil reserves were first found in Assam.
  • Realizing the importance of petroleum for economic development, ONGC (Oil and Natural Gas Commission) was set up in 1956. Later, in 1993, government converted into corporation and since then it is known as Oil and

Natural Gas Corporation.

  • Through ONGC, the Government has tried hard to produce petroleum products on a large scale from across India.
  • In Gujarat, petroleum resources have been discovered in Kadi, Kalol, Ankleshwar, etc.
  • ONGC has set-up an off-shore drilling platform at Bombay High near Mumbai to drill petroleum from sea.

Limitations:

  • In spite of all these efforts, India’s contribution in petroleum production is just 0.4% of the total world production.
  • The present world production and a continuous rise in demand shows that the petroleum reserves will be able to meet the world demand only for limited years. Hence, the countries of the world have seriously started thinking to make use of alternative energy sources. India has also initiated several research programmes to find out alternative means of petroleum.
  • India has started using natural gas as an alternative fuel. It is found near the regions of petroleum.
  • Natural gas is mainly used in thermal power stations, cooking gas and as . fuel for running vehicles.
  • India produces about 0.5% natural gas of the total world production.

A big advantage of natural gas is that does not pollute the environment like petroleum. Hence, government is trying to promote it more and more in vehicles too.

Question 4.
State the importance of education.
Answer:
Importance of education:
Education plays a very crucial role in the development of economy. Several importance of education are –
1. When an individual acquires knowledge he becomes eligible for several good opportunities. By grabbing and working on them his standard of living improves.

2. Education improves a person’s ability to exchange ideas and uplift his self-confidence. ,

3. A well-educated person can make profitable decisions. This helps him to create a work-life environment for leading a good and successful life.

4. Education makes a person efficient to utilize the opportunities that are generated in the society through development.

5. Education can improve productivity of factory labourers.

6. Through education one can be provided systematic technological knowledge about a respective field. One can also be educated about modes of financial help available for various business needs. The various methods uf production can be put info use and agricultural productivity can be increased in the field of agriculture.

7. Through effective education, a person’s active participation in social issues can be increased.

8. It is essential to increase and expand education to make a person understand the environmental hazards. This will then help the society at large in creating environmental balance and maintaining soil fertility.

9. Through education awareness can be brought regarding cleanliness and health.

GSEB Solutions Class 12 Economics Chapter 11 Emerging Issues in Indian Economy

Question 5.
Write short note on the development of Indian railway.
Answer:
Indian Railways:

  • World over, railways-is considered to be a revolutionary development in the field of transportation.
  • The Indian Railways was started on 16th April, 1853 by the British Government for their trade benefits.
  • The first railway line was put-up between Bombay and Thane covering a distance of 22 miles (approximately 34 kilometers).
  • After independence, the administration of railways came into the hands of the Indian Government. The government established a separate department to administer the rail network of India.
  • Today, India’s rail network is at 1st position in Asia and at 4th in the world.
  • Indian Railways is India’s biggest public enterprise employing more than 14 lakh people.
  • In 2012, 8200 million passengers travelled through railways and goods weighing 970 million tonnes were transported.

5. Answer the following questions in detail :

Question 1.
Explain the causes of migration.
Answer:
There are four main causes for migration. They are:

  1. Economic causes,
  2. Social causes,
  3. Political causes and
  4. Environmental causes (Natural calamities)

1. Economic causes:

  • For employment, occupation and business: A person migrates to another place for employment, occupation and business.
  • Transfer: When a person employed by a company is transferred from one place to another distant place, he is forced to move to that place.
  • Extant of natural resources: When a particular place has abundance of natural resources, but quite less population relatively, people migrate to that place.
    Example: Mines of gold and diamond, regions where petroleum is found, oil refineries, etc. are places that require technical staff in a huge number. Hence, people migrate to places like UAE, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, etc. where such opportunities are widely available.
  • To attain better quality education: A person aspiring for better education migrates to places that offers such facilities and later settles their permanently.
  • To get modern health services: When a person does not get required health services in his own region, he forcibly migrates either temporarily or even permanently to places that offers better health facilities.
  • Planned migration: When a family sends one or more persons away from the native place for economic activity to a distant place it is called planned or organized migration.

2. Social causes:

  • Marriage: After marriage when a woman leaves her native and migrates to live in a different place with her husband it is called social migration.
  • To get respite from social rituals: The social set-up of villages is quite traditional compared to that of cities. Urban societies also have liberal thinking and modern life style. As a result, village youth get attracted to such a lifestyle and like to settle in urban areas.

3. Political reasons:

  • War and unrest: A region which is war-prone witnesses several small and big wars time and again. This makes the area unrest and unsafe with unstable employment opportunities.
    Hence, people residing in those areas migrate to safe, peaceful and progressive areas that give ample amount of employment opportunities.
  • Avoid friction: People migrate from places where riots and friction takes place frequently to safer and peaceful places.

4. Natural calamities or environmental factors:
People tend to migrate to safer places from places where natural calamities such as flood, famine, earthquake, etc. occur frequently.

Developmental migration:

  • In order to develop a particular region if people residing in that region are made to migrate to another region it is called developmental migration. For example, lots of people were made to migrate when Gujarat started Sardar Srovar Yojana.
  • Similarly, when projects related to National Park or afforestation are executed, people residing in those areas are made to move to different areas.

Question 2.
Discuss the positive effects of migration.
Answer:
Positive effects of migration:
1. Growth of income:
People migrate mainly to either generate or increase their income.

  • People moving to cities from villages for livelihood send a major portion of their income to their families. This in turn improves the standard of living of people living in villages.
  • People also invest a part of this income in agriculture. This boosts agricultural production and productivity. Thus, agri-business and agro industries also grow with this.

2. Contribution towards a faster economic development:

  • When Indians migrate to other countries, they send a part of their earnings to their families.
  • They also invest a part of their income in Indian businesses, trading and industries. The investment comes to India in foreign currency. Hence, our foreign exchange, increases which then results in faster economic growth and economic development of our country.
    It should be noted that the migration has rised especially after the new economic reforms of 1991. This has led to greater inflow of foreign exchange in India and faster rise in its economic development.
  • Another advantage of migration is that when Indians go abroad for higher education they gain rich experience from the foreign systems and methodologies. When they return they use the same in India and help India develop more.

GSEB Solutions Class 12 Economics Chapter 11 Emerging Issues in Indian Economy

Question 3.
Discuss the negative effects of migration.
Answer:
Negative effects of migration:
1. Unregulated urbanization:

  • Poor migrants are generally very less educated and do not possess much skills. When they migrate from villages to cities they cannot afford to buy proper houses. Hence, they have to helplessly live in slums and in the city peripheries.
  • Hutments and slums expand. All this results in uncontrolled urbanization in cities.

2. Shortage of infrastructural facilities:

  • Facilities in the cities are planned considering its population. Sharp rise in urbanization, hutments and dirty slum dwellings make it difficult for the city administrators to provide enough water, drainage, road, transportation, communication, toilets, education, school, health services, etc. considering the limited resources and budget.
  • As a result, serious problems like dirt, filth and life-threatening diseases spread among poor.

3. Problem of environmental pollution:

  • Increased hutments and dirty slum dwellings give rise to shortage of toilets and drainage, waste removal system and hence increases environmental pollution.
  • Cities like Ahmedabad, Ankleshwar, Surat, Mumbai, Kolkata, Delhi, etc. are few of the top cities facing these problems at a large scale.
  • Over-migration in cities of Gujarat, especially Ahmedabad increases problem of transportation tremendously. Use of both public as well as private transport increases and hence serious problems of air pollution are created.
  • Migration also causes noise pollution and water pollution.

4. Social evils:

  • At times, people who migrate from villages to cities in search of a higher and regular income are unable to get desired job or life style.
  • Owing to extreme poverty and helplessness sometimes these people get involved to antisocial activities like theft and loots which disturbs the social life of cities.
  • Social frictions arise because of differences in the language, culture, life style, etc. between migrants and local people.

Question 4.
Explain the effects of urbanisation.
Answer:
Effects of urbanization:
At world level, after China, the fastest urbanization is happening in India.
There are two major effects of urbanization. They are:
(A) Positive effects of urbanization and
(B) Negative effects of urbanization

(A) Positive effects of urbanization:
1. Increase in infrastructural facilities:

  • Due to urbanization, infrastructural facilities like education, health, banking, transportation, communication, insurance, electricity, etc. keep on increasing in the urban areas.
  • Development and maintenance of these facilities create more employment opportunities. When people get employment their purchasing power for goods and services increases. This increases demand for goods and services which in turn leads to setting up more industries.
  • Thus, the cycle of setting up of more industries
  • Creation of more employment opportunities
  • Rise in income and rise in purchasing power
  • Rise in purchasing power necessitating the setup of new industries. This cycle keeps going on.

2. Reduction in poverty:
Poverty and unemployment are mutually related. Due to urbanization, industry and service sector creates large scale employment in cities which reduces poverty.
Moreover, rural poor and unemployed who come to urban areas get employment according to their capabilities and skills. This also helps in reducing poverty.

3. Cultural development:
Cities have well-developed educational facilities that too for various discipline. People take benefit of these facilities and gain overall development which in turn helps in establishing a rich cultured society.

Libraries with modern amenities, book stalls and various cultural programmes that take place in cities enrich people culturally.

4. Ultra-modern health services:
Rise in urban population demands more and better health-care facilities. Today, we can see number of multispecialty hospitals flourishing in cities like Ahmedabad where ultra-modern treatment is available for every disease at one place.

Along with private hospitals, government and local self-government institutions also set-up hospitals for the benefit of the poor and the middle class. Better health facilities create a positive impact on the health and the productivity of people.

5. Social effects – modern thinking:
Cities have better education, cultural development and modern means of communication. As a result, the thinking of urban population is modern compared to villages.
Migrants from villages quickly adapt themselves to the modern world by having a decent and polite approach.

6. High standard of living:
Urbanization increases the income of people. This combined with the growth and development of modern infrastructural facilities makes the standard of living of people higher as compared to those living in rural areas.

(B) Negative effects of urbanization:
1. Income inequalities:
Urbanization creates income inequalities. In urban areas, on one hand’there are intellects who are very highly educated, entrepreneurs and business magnates whose income levels are very high. While on the other hand, there are poor labourers who are illiterates, who do not have any expertise and who do not know anything except physical labour and hence have very low incomes.
Thus, one can witness very large income inequalities in urban areas.

2. Social inequalities:
The rich and the educated class of the urban areas have modern thinking while the uneducated poor class has frank and age-old thinking. Hence, such poor get exploited in urban areas. This creates social inequalities.
Problems of slum-dwelling:
Labour class people coming to cities from villages have lower incomes and hence cannot afford to buy pucca house. As a result, they forcibly live in hutments and dirty slums.

3. Problem of law and order:
Uncontrolled urbanization leads to population explosion in urban areas. The per capita vehicle in cities is high and it rises continuously.

In case when migrants are not able to get proper employment and earn enough income they move to theft, dacoity, etc.

It becomes extremely difficult for the limited police personnel to control the city properly. The day to day law and order situation looks weak and inefficient. -» In situations like riots and natural calamities, it becomes a very challenging task for them to look after the safety and security of such a large urban population.

5. Question of infrastructural facilities:
There is shortage of transportation, health, roads, shortage of pure drinking water and other such infrastructural facilities. This results in problems of water borne diseases, sanitation, shortage of electricity due to the failure of the local administration system, etc.

6. Problems of environmental pollution:

  • Urbanization is the result of industrialization. Uncontrolled growth in industries increases pollution to manifolds.
  • This also results in dirt and filth which eventually leads to various diseases. For example, more than 50% of poor population suffers from skin and respiratory diseases in big developed cities.

GSEB Solutions Class 12 Economics Chapter 11 Emerging Issues in Indian Economy

Question 5.
Explain in detail, about India’s educational scenario.
Answer:
In India, one can get educated either in government run institutions or private.
On the basis of age of the child, education in India is classified into following stages:

  • Primary education: Standard 1 to 5
  • Higher Primary education: Standard 6 to 8
  • Secondary education: Standard 9 to 10
  • Higher Secondary education: Standard 11 to 12
  • College or higher education : Standard 12 onwards
  • Apart from this if one wishes, he can also stop schooling after class 8 and join ITI to gain expertise in some technical field of his choice.

The educational sector can.be studied in two aspects. They are:
(A) Positive aspect:

  • The Constitution of India has made primary education for children between. 6-14 years age group, free and compulsory. It is the responsibility of the state government to see that they follow these guidelines and provide education in their respective states.
  • There has been a huge development and expansion right from kindergarten up to the higher education institutes during the various plans. As a result, by 2013-14, there were 1.4 million primary schools in India where 7.7 million teachers taught.
  • Gujarat state has made special effort by launching programmes like ‘Gunotsav’ and ‘Praveshotsav’ to encourage more enrollments in schools.
  • In 2013-14, 95% children were registered in primary education.
  • ‘Education to All’ (Sarva Shikhsan Abhiyan) programme and RTE (Right to Education) have worked considerably to spread awareness for providing education to every child of the country.

(B) Negative aspect:
In spite of several effort of the government, education sector is still weak. Poverty and illiteracy to educate the existing and next generation are the chief reasons for underdevelopment of educational sector.

  • Even today, the situation of primary education in small villages is a matter of great concern. 29% of the children drop out of school before completing their 5th standard.
  • Over and above this India also does not have trained teachers in proper number. In 2013-14, the student-teacher ratio was 46: 1 and that in higher primary education was 34:1.
  • In 2013-14, 69% pupils were enrolled in secondary standards and only 25% in higher education.
  • The scenario of education in India can be understood from the table below.

Extent of literacy

Year Extent of literacy in India (percent) Extent of literacy in Gujarat (percent)
1981 43.57 44.92
1991 52.21 61.29
2001 64.83 69.14
2011 74.04 79.31

Source: Census of India

Conclusion:
Thus, in spite India has made several efforts to educate its masses, a big percentage of population is still illiterate.

GSEB Class 12 Economics Emerging Issues in Indian Economy Additional Important Questions and Answers

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Define migration.
Answer:
Movement of a person from one place to another place, away from native place either within or outside the country for job, occupation, business or in search of better standard of living, on a permanent basis is called migration.

Question 2.
What can be concluded from the definition of migration?
Answer:
We can conclude that migration,

  1. Is a long term aspect within or outside the country.
  2. Is for job, occupation, business of for the betterment of living standard.

Question 3.
List the different types of migration.
Answer:
1. Region based migration
(a) Internal migration and
(b) International migration

2. Cause based migration
(a) Migration based on attraction (pull factors) and
(b) Forceful migration (push factors).

GSEB Solutions Class 12 Economics Chapter 11 Emerging Issues in Indian Economy

Question 4.
Give an example of internal migration.
Answer:
When a person from Gujarat settles in another state or a city or when a person from any other state or city settles in Gujarat then it is known as internal migration

Question 5.
What is meant by international migration?
Answer:
Movement of a person from one country to another is known as international migration.

Question 6.
Give an example of international migration.
Answer:
When a person from Gujarat or from any other part of India moves to some other country in search of job, occupation, business or for better standard of living or for permanent settlement or when people from other parts of the country come to India tor settlement on a permanent basis it is known as international migration.

Question 7.
What is migration based on attraction?
Answer:
When a person gets attracted to the life style and modern infrastructural facilities of urban areas and migrates there it is known as migration due to attraction.

Question 8.
Give an example of migration based on attraction.
Answer:
Migration of people frcition village to city can be considered as migration due to attraction because compared to villages, the life style-, transportation, communication system, education, health services, etc. along with job opportunities and business prospects are much better and more in the cities.

Question 9.
Explain forceful migration with help of an example.
Answer:
[When people living in villages have lack of business or occupational opportunities or when there are no or deficient educational facilities and hence people are forcibly pushed to cities to avail these facilities it is known as migration due to push factors or forceful migration.

Question 10.
Explain planned migration
Answer:
When a family sends one or more persons away from the native place for economic activity to a distant place it is called planned or organized migration.

Question 11.
What are the main causes of migration?
Answer:
(A) Economic causes,
(B) Environmental causes and
(C) Political causes

Question 12.
State the economic causes of migration
Answer:
(a) Employment, occupation and business,
(b) Transfer,
(c) Extant to natural resources,
(d) To attain better quality education, and
(e) To get modern health services

GSEB Solutions Class 12 Economics Chapter 11 Emerging Issues in Indian Economy

Question 13.
Explain ‘transfer’ as a main cause of migration.
Answer:
Transfer is an economic cause of migration. Migration due to transfer is when a person is transferred from one place to another distant place and hence is forced to move to that place.

Question 14.
Explain ‘extant to natural resources’ as a cause of migration.
Answer:
When a particular place has abundance of natural resources, but relatively quite less population, people migrate to that place. This is known as extant to natural resources

Question 15.
State one example of ‘extant to natural resources’ as a cause of migration.
Answer:
Mines of gold and diamond, regions where petroleum is found, oil refineries, etc. are places that require technical staff in a huge number. Hence, people migrate to places like UAE, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, etc. where such opportunities are widely available. This is an example of extant to natural resources

Question 16.
Explain migration taking place due to modern health services with the help of an example.
Answer:
When a person does not get required health services in his own region, he forcibly migrates temporarily or even permanently to places that offers better health facilities. For e.g., a person residing in Bangladesh suffering from a serious disease which can only be treated in U.S. shifts to U.S. temporarily because of modern health services available in U.S

Question 17.
List down the social causes for migration.
Answer:

  1. Marriage and
  2. To get respite from social rituals.

Question 18.
How do social rituals become a reason for migration?
Answer:
Social rituals are more existent in villages as compared to cities. Moreover, urban societies have liberal thinking and modern life style. As a result, village youth get attracted to such a lifestyle away from social rituals and responsibilities and like to settle in urban areas.

Question 19.
List down the social causes for migration
Answer:

  1. War and unrest and
  2. Avoid friction

GSEB Solutions Class 12 Economics Chapter 11 Emerging Issues in Indian Economy

Question 20.
How do ‘war and unrest’ become a reason for migration?
Answer:
War and unrest is a political reason for migration. In this, a region which is war- prone witnesses several small and big wars time and again. This makes the area unrest and unsafe and hence lacks stable employment opportunities. Hence, people residing in those areas migrate to safe, peaceful and progressive areas that give ample amount of employment opportunities.

Question 21.
How do ‘environmental factors’ become a reason for migration?
Answer:
People tend to migrate to safer places from places where natural calamities such as flood, famine, earthquake, etc. occur frequently. This is how ….

Question 22.
Explain the migration that happened to the people residing at Sardar SrovarYojana in Gujarat
Answer:
To develop some part of Gujarat, the government initiated a project called Sardar Sarovar Yojna. So, the people residing in that area were made to migrate elsewhere. This migration serves as an example of developmental migration.

Question 23.
List down the different reasons for Indians to migrate to foreign countries.
Answer:

  1. To generate and increase income,
  2. For further studies,
  3. To get good job or employment,
  4. To improve’ standard of living

Question 24.
List down positive effects of migration.
Answer:

  1. Growth of income and
  2. Contribution towards a faster economic development.

Question 25.
How does migration help to improve the standard of living of people living in villages?
Answer:
People moving to cities from villages for livelihood send a major portion of their income to their families. This in turn improves the standard of living of people living in villages.

Question 26.
How does migration help the growth of agriculture sector?
Answer:
The main reason for migration is growth in income. If the family of migrants belongs to agriculture, the migrants send a part of income to the family so that they can invest it in agriculture. This boosts agricultural production and productivity. Thus, agri¬business and agro industries also grow with this.

Question 27.
How does migration lead to increase in foreign exchange?
Answer:
When Indians migrate to other countries, they send a part of their earnings to their families. They also invest a part of their income in Indian businesses, trading and industries. The investment comes to India in foreign currency. Hence, our foreign exchange increases.

Question 28.
How does migration of Indians for education help India’s economy to grow?
Answer:
When Indians go abroad for higher education they gain rich experience from the foreign systems and methodologies. When they return they use the same in India and hence help lndia‘s economy to grow.

GSEB Solutions Class 12 Economics Chapter 11 Emerging Issues in Indian Economy

Question 29.
List down negative effects of migration.
Answer:

  1. Unregulated urbanization,
  2. Shortage of infrastructural facilities,
  3. Problem of environmental pollution and
  4. Social evils.

Question 30.
What is unregulated urbanization?
Answer:
Poor migrants are generally very less educated and do not possess much skills. When they migrate from villages to cities they cannot afford to buy proper houses. Hence, they have to helplessly live in slums and in the city peripheries.

Question 31.
Name few cities of India that face problems due to environmental pollution
Answer:
Ahmedabad, Ankleshwar, Surat, Mumbai, Kolkata, Delhi, etc.

Question 32.
How does migration lead to shortage of infrastructural facilities?
Answer:
Migration leads to sharp rise in urbanization. Facilities in the cities are planned considering its population. This sharp rise in urbanization makes it difficult for the city administrators to provide enough water, drainage, road, transportation, communication, toilets, education, school, health services,.etc. considering the limited resources and budget.

Question 33.
How does migration lead to increase in environmental pollution?
Answer:
Over-migration in cities leads to increase in hutments and dirty slum dwellings which in turn gives rise to shortage of toilets and drainage, waste removal system, water pollution and hence increases environmental pollution. Over-migration also tremendously increases problems of transportation which leads to air pollution and noise pollution.

Question 34.
How can we say that social evils are arising due to migration?
Answer:
At times people who migrate from villages to cities in search of a higher and regular income are unable to get desired job or life style. This leads to extreme poverty and helplessness forcing them to get into antisocial activities like theft and loots which disturbs the social life of cities. Hence, we can say that ….

Question 35.
How does a place/village get converted into a town or a city?
Answer:
If a place has 5000 or more people living in that area, 75% or more employed in non-agriculture sectors and if the density of population is more per square kilometer then it gets converted into a town or a city.

Question 36.
List down the positive effects of urbanization.
Answer:

  1. Increase in infrastructural facilities,
  2. Reduction in poverty,
  3. Cultural development,
  4. Ultra-modern health facilities,
  5. Social effects-modern thinking and
  6. High standard of living.

Question 37.
List down negative effects of urbanization.
Answer:

  1. Income inequalities,
  2. Social inequalities,
  3. Problem of slum-dwelling,
  4. Problem of law and order
  5. Question of infrastructural facilities and
  6. Problems, of environmental pollution.

GSEB Solutions Class 12 Economics Chapter 11 Emerging Issues in Indian Economy

Question 38.
Mention some facilities which are included in infrastructural facilities.
Answer:
Facilities of education, health, banking, , transportation, communication, insurance, electricity, etc.

Question 39.
What is the positive effect of urbanization on infrastructural facilities?
Answer:
Increase in infrastructural facilities creates more employment opportunities which in turn increases the purchasing power. This increase leads to setting up new industries and provision of more employment leading to economic growth.

Question 40.
What do you understand by the word ‘purchasing power’?
Answer:
The financial ability to buy goods and services is known as purchasing power. In other words, purchasing power is the value of a currency expressed in terms of the amount of goods or services that one unit of money can buy.

Question 41.
How does urbanization help to reduce poverty?
Answer:
Poverty and unemployment are mutually related. Due to urbanization, industry and service sector creates large scale employment in cities which reduces poverty. Even rural poor and unemployed people who come to urban areas get employment which reduces poverty.

Question 42.
How does urbanization nurture and protect Indian culture?
Answer:
Cities have well-developed educational facilities. People take benefit of these facilities and gain overall development which in turn helps in establishing a rich cultured society. Enrichment of culture in people also happens due to the presence of libraries with modern amenities, book stalls and various cultural programmes that take place in cities.

Question 43.
Explain the positive effect of urbanization on ultra-modern health services.
Answer:
Rise in urban population demands more and better health-care facilities. This demand has led to increase in number of multispecialty hospitals flourishing in cities like Ahmedabad where, ultra-modern treatment is available for every disease at one place.

Question 44.
Why is it said that people staying in urban areas have modern thinking?
Answer:
Cities have better education, cultural development and modern means of communication. As a result the thinking of urban population is modern compared to villages.

Question 45.
‘Urbanization leads to income inequalities.’ Explain.
Answer:
In urban areas, on one hand there are intellectuals who are very highly educated, entrepreneurs and business magnates whose income levels are very high. While on the other hand, there are poor labourers who are illiterate, who do not have any expertise and who do not know anything except physical labour and hence have very low incomes. Hence

Question 46.
What do you mean by slum-dwelling?
Answer:
When labour class people come to cities from villages they have lower incomes and hence cannot afford to buy pucca house. As a result, they forcibly live in hutments and dirty slums. This is known as slum-dwelling.

Question 47.
What do you mean by ‘population explosion’?
Answer:
A sudden and rapid increase in the size of the population of humans is known as population explosion.

Question 48.
Why is it important to develop cottage and small scale industries?
Answer:
Developing cottage and small scale industries would help in reducing socio¬economic inequalities caused due to urbanization.

Question 49.
Define human capital investment
Answer:
Capital investment through which physical and mental capabilities of humans are developed is called human capital investment. Investment done in education, training, grooming, research, etc. of humans is part of human capital investment.

GSEB Solutions Class 12 Economics Chapter 11 Emerging Issues in Indian Economy

Question 50.
Classify Indian education on the basis of age of the child.
Answer:
(A) Primary education: Standard 1 to 5,
(B) Higher Primary education: Standard 6 to 8,
(C) Secondary education: Standard 9 to 10,
(D) Higher Secondary education: Standard 11 to 12 and
(E) College or higher education: Standard 12 onwards.

Question 51.
What is ITI?
Answer:
The full form of ITI is Industrial Training Institute. ITI offers a student the facility to stop schooling after class 8 and join ITI to gain expertise in some technical field of his choice.

Question 52.
Give the count of number of primary schools and number of teachers in India in the year 2013-2014.
Answer:
In 201-14, there were 1.4 million primary schools in India where 7.7 million teachers taught.

Question 53.
Give the names of two initiatives taken by Gujarat state to enroll more students in the schools.
Answer:
Gujarat state has made special effort by launching programmes like ‘Gunotsav’ and ‘Praveshotsav’ to enroll more students in the schools.

Question 54.
Name two programs for ‘Education to all’ initiative.
Answer:
Sarva Shikhsa Abhiyan and RTE (Right to Education) are the two programmes initiated to provide education to all.

Question 55.
Define ‘health
Answer:
World Health Organisation (WHO) defines health as ‘A state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity’.

Question 59.
Explain the flow of poor health of labourer and economic growth of a country?
Answer:
The productivity of a labour depends on his health. The flow is as follows: Poor health of labour -> poor production and productivity low national income low economic growth. This is how poor health of a labour affects economic growth.

Question 60.
What are the two necessary aspects of good health?
Answer:
Balanced diet and good medical treatment.

Question 61.
Which is the most common deficiency seen in Indian females?
Answer:
Iron deficiency.

Question 62.
What is the meaning of life expectancy and infant mortality rate?
Answer:
Life expectancy is a measure of the average time an organism is expected to live and infant mortality refers to deaths of young children, typically those less than one year of age.

Question 63.
What is the current life expectancy rate and infant mortality rate of India?
Answer:
In India, the current life expectancy rate is 69.6 years and infant mortality rate is 49.19.

Question 65.
Which type of development can benefit the rural area with electricity?
Answer:
Development of agriculture, irrigation, cottage and small scale industries, etc.

GSEB Solutions Class 12 Economics Chapter 11 Emerging Issues in Indian Economy

Question 66.
When did Indian railway start? Between which places did the first train run?
Answer:
The Indian Railway was started on 16th April 1853 by the British Government for their trade benefits. The first railway line was put-up between Bombay and Thane covering a distance of 22 miles (approximately 34 kilometers).

Question 67.
Name two modern trains of the world.
Answer:
Talgo and Bullet trains.

Question 69.
Where are the petroleum resources been discovered in Gujarat?
Answer:
Mostly in Kadi, Kalol and Ankleshwar.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
State and explain Region-based migration.
Answer:
Region-based migration:
Migration done from one place (region) to another within the country boundaries or outside is called Region-based migration.

Types:

  1. Internal migration and
  2. International migration

1. Internal migration:
Movement of a person from one place to another within the geographical boundary of q country is known as internal migration.

Example:
When a person from Gujarat settles in another state or a city or when a person from any other state or city settles in Gujarat then it is known as internal migration.

2. International migration:
Movement of a person from one country to another is known as international migration.

Example:
When a person from Gujarat or from any other part of India moves to some other country in search of job, occupation, business or for better standard of living or for permanent settlement or when people from other parts of the country come to India for settlement on a permanent basis it is known as international migration.

Question 2.
Explain internal migration.
Answer:
Internal migration:
Movement of a person from one place to another within the geographical boundary of q country is known as internal migration.

Example:
When a person from Gujarat settles in another state or a city or when a person from any other state or city settles in Gujarat then it is known as internal migration.

Question 3.
Explain international migration.
Answer:
International migration:
Movement of a person from one country to another is known as international migration.

Example:
When a person from Gujarat or from any other part of India moves to some other country in search of job, occupation, business or for better standard of living or for permanent settlement or when people from other parts of the country come to India for settlement on a permanent basis it is known as international migration.

GSEB Solutions Class 12 Economics Chapter 11 Emerging Issues in Indian Economy

Question 4.
State and explain Cause-based migration.
Answer:
Migration due to reasons (causes) such as attraction of better life style, modern infrastructure or due to forced reasons such as lack of work opportunities or higher education facilities in villages is called cause-based migration.

Types:

  1. Migration based on attraction (pull factors)
  2. Forceful (push factors) migration.

1. Migration due to attraction (pull factors):

  • When a person gets attracted to the life style and modern infrastructural facilities of urban areas and migrates there, it is known as migration due to attraction.
  • Since the modern, life-style and infrastructure are pulling (attracting) the person these factors are called pull factors.

Example:

  • Migration of people from village to city can be considered as migration due to attraction because compared to villages, the life style, transportation, communication system, education, health services, etc. along with job opportunities and business prospects are much better and more in the cities.
  • Migration to other countries owing to above mentioned reasons is called migration due to attraction.

2. Migration due to push factors (Forceful migration):
When people living in villages have lack of business or occupational opportunities or when there are no or deficient educational facilities and hence people are forcibly pushed to cities to avail these facilities it is known as migration due to push factors or forceful migration.

Question5.
Write a short note on types of migration.
Answer:
Types:

  1. Internal migration and
  2. International migration
  3. Migration due to attraction (pull factors):
  4. Migration due to push factors (Forceful migration):

1. Internal migration:
Movement of a person from one place to another within the geographical boundary of q country is known as internal migration.

Example:
When a person from Gujarat settles in another state or a city or when a person from any other state or city settles in Gujarat then it is known as internal migration.

2. International migration:
Movement of a person from one country to another is known as international migration.

Example:
When a person from Gujarat or from any other part of India moves to some other country in search of job, occupation, business or for better standard of living or for permanent settlement or when people from other parts of the country come to India for settlement on a permanent basis it is known as international migration.

3. Migration due to attraction (pull factors):

  • When a person gets attracted to the life style and modern infrastructural facilities of urban areas and migrates there, it is known as migration due to attraction.
  • Since the modern, life-style and infrastructure are pulling (attracting) the person these factors are called pull factors.

Example:

  • Migration of people from village to city can be considered as migration due to attraction because compared to villages, the life style, transportation, communication system, education, health services, etc. along with job opportunities and business prospects are much better and more in the cities.
  • Migration to other countries owing to above mentioned reasons is called migration due to attraction.

4. Migration due to push factors (Forceful migration):
When people living in villages have lack of business or occupational opportunities or when there are no or deficient educational facilities and hence people are forcibly pushed to cities to avail these facilities it is known as migration due to push factors or forceful migration.

Question 6.
Explain briefly the economic causes of migration.
Answer:
Economic causes:
1. For employment, occupation and business:
A person migrates to another place for employment, occupation and business.

2. Transfer:
When a person employed by a company is transferred from one place to another distant place, he is forced to move to that place.

3. Extant of natural resources:
When a particular place has abundance of natural resources, but quite less population relatively, people migrate to that place.
Example:
Mines of gold and diamond, regions where petroleum is found, oil refineries, etc. are places that require technical staff in a huge number. Hence, people migrate to places like UAE, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, etc. where such opportunities are widely available.

4. To attain better quality education:
A person aspiring for better education migrates to places that offers such facilities and later settles their permanently.

5. To get modern health services:
When a person does not get required health services in his own region, he forcibly migrates either temporarily or even permanently to places that offers better health facilities.

6. Planned migration:
When a family sends one or more persons away from the native place for economic activity to a distant place it is called planned or organized migration.

Question 7.
How does extent of natural resources encourage migration?
Answer:
Extant of natural resources:
When a particular place has abundance of natural resources, but quite less population relatively, people migrate to that place.

Example:
Mines of gold and diamond, regions where petroleum is found, oil refineries, etc. are places that require technical staff in a huge number. Hence, people migrate to places like UAE, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, etc. where such opportunities are widely available.

Question 8.
Explain briefly social causes of migration.
Answer:
Social causes:
1. Marriage:
After marriage when a woman leaves her native and migrates to live in a different place with her husband it is called social migration.

2. To get respite from social rituals:
The social set-up of villages is quite traditional compared to that of cities. Urban societies also have liberal thinking and modern life style. As a result, village youth get attracted to such a lifestyle and like to settle in urban areas.

GSEB Solutions Class 12 Economics Chapter 11 Emerging Issues in Indian Economy

Question 9.
Explain briefly political causes of migration.
Answer:
Political reasons:
1. War and unrest:
A region which is war-prone witnesses several small and big wars time and again. This makes the area unrest and unsafe with unstable employment opportunities.
Hence, people residing in those areas migrate to safe, peaceful and progressive areas that give ample amount of employment opportunities.

2. Avoid friction:
People migrate from places where riots and friction takes place frequently to safer and peaceful places.

Question 10.
Explain briefly natural calamities of environmental factors of migration.
Answer:
Natural calamities or environmental factors:
People tend to migrate to safer places from places where natural calamities such as flood, famine, earthquake, etc. occur frequently.

Developmental migration:

  • In order to develop a particular region if people residing in that region are made to migrate to another region it is called developmental migration. For example, lots of people were made to migrate when Gujarat started Sardar Srovar Yojana.
  • Similarly, when projects related to National Park or afforestation are executed, people residing in those areas are made to move to different areas.

Question 11.
What is developmental migration? Explain with examples.
Answer:
Developmental migration:

  • In order to develop a particular region if people residing in that region are made to migrate to another region it is called developmental migration. For example, lots of people were made to migrate when Gujarat started Sardar Srovar Yojana.
  • Similarly, when projects related to National Park or afforestation are executed, people residing in those areas are made to move to different areas.

Question 12.
Discuss the effects of migration.
Answer:
By studying the effects of migration the government gets guidelines for framing policies related to migration.
The effects of migration from the perspective of economics can be studied as
(A) Positive effects of migration
(B) Negative effects of migration

(A) Positive effects of migration:
1. Growth of income:
People migrate mainly to either generate or increase their income.

  • People moving to cities from villages for livelihood send a major portion of their income to their families. This in turn improves the standard of living of people living in villages.
  • People also invest a part of this income in agriculture. This boosts agricultural production and productivity. Thus, agri-business and agro industries also grow with this.

2. Contribution towards a faster economic development:

  • When Indians migrate to other countries, they send a part of their earnings to their families.
  • They also invest a part of their income in Indian businesses, trading and industries. The investment comes to India in foreign currency. Hence, our foreign exchange, increases which then results in faster economic growth and economic development of our country.
  • It should be noted that the migration has rised especially after the new economic reforms of 1991. This has led to greater inflow of foreign exchange in India and faster rise in its economic development.
  • Another advantage of migration is that when Indians go abroad for higher education they gain rich experience from the foreign systems and methodologies. When they return they use the same in India and help India develop more.

(B) Negative effects of migration:
1. Unregulated urbanization:

  • Poor migrants are generally very less educated and do not possess much skills. When they migrate from villages to cities they cannot afford to buy proper houses. Hence, they have to helplessly live in slums and in the city peripheries.
  • Hutments and slums expand. All this results in uncontrolled urbanization in cities.

2. Shortage of infrastructural facilities:

  • Facilities in the cities are planned considering its population. Sharp rise in urbanization, hutments and dirty slum dwellings make it difficult for the city administrators to provide enough water, drainage, road, transportation, communication, toilets, education, school, health services, etc. considering the limited resources and budget.
  • As a result, serious problems like dirt, filth and life-threatening diseases spread among poor.

3. Problem of environmental pollution:

  • Increased hutments and dirty slum dwellings give rise to shortage of toilets and drainage, waste removal system and hence increases environmental pollution.
  • Cities like Ahmedabad, Ankleshwar, Surat, Mumbai, Kolkata, Delhi, etc. are few of the top cities facing these problems at a large scale.
  • Over-migration in cities of Gujarat, especially Ahmedabad increases problem of transportation tremendously. Use of both public, as well as private transport increases and hence serious problems of air pollution, are created.
  • Migration also causes noise pollution and water pollution.

4. Social evils:

  • At times, people who migrate from villages to cities in search of a higher and regular income are unable to get desired job or life style.
  • Owing to extreme poverty and helplessness sometimes these people get involved to antisocial activities like theft and loots which disturbs the social life of cities.
  • Social frictions arise because of differences in the language, culture, life style, etc. between migrants and local people.

GSEB Solutions Class 12 Economics Chapter 11 Emerging Issues in Indian Economy

Question 13.
How hope of rise in income becomes a reason for migration?
Answer:
Growth of income:
People migrate mainly to either generate or increase their income.

  • People moving to cities from villages for livelihood send a major portion of their income to their families. This in turn improves the standard of living of people living in villages.
  • People also invest a part of this income in agriculture. This boosts agricultural production and productivity. Thus, agri-business and agro industries also grow with this.

Question 14.
How does migration lead to faster economic development?
Answer:
Contribution towards a faster economic development:

  • When Indians migrate to other countries, they send a part of their earnings to their families.
  • They also invest a part of their income in Indian businesses, trading and industries. The investment comes to India in foreign currency. Hence, our foreign exchange, increases which then results in faster economic growth and economic development of our country.
  • It should be noted that the migration has rised especially after the new economic reforms of 1991. This has led to greater inflow of foreign exchange in India and faster rise in its economic development.
  • Another advantage of migration is that when Indians go abroad for higher education they gain rich experience from the foreign systems and methodologies. When they return they use the same in India and help India develop more.

Question 15.
How is unregulated urbanization caused?
Answer:
Unregulated urbanization:

  • Poor migrants are generally very less educated and do not possess much skills. When they migrate from villages to cities they cannot afford to buy proper houses. Hence, they have to helplessly live in slums and in the city peripheries.
  • Hutments and slums expand. All this results in uncontrolled urbanization in cities

Question 16.
How do cities face shortage of infrastructural facilities?
Answer:
Shortage of infrastructural facilities:

  • Facilities in the cities are planned considering its population. Sharp rise in urbanization, hutments and dirty slum dwellings make it difficult for the city administrators to provide enough water, drainage, road, transportation, communication, toilets, education, school, health services, etc. considering the limited resources and budget.
  • As a result, serious problems like dirt, filth and life-threatening diseases spread among poor.

Question 17.
Explain the problem of environmental pollution in cities due to migration.
Answer:
Problem of environmental pollution:

  • Increased hutments and dirty slum dwellings give rise to shortage of toilets and drainage, waste removal system and hence increases environmental pollution.
  • Cities like Ahmedabad, Ankleshwar, Surat, Mumbai, Kolkata, Delhi, etc. are few of the top cities facing these problems at a large scale.
  • Over-migration in cities of Gujarat, especially Ahmedabad increases problem of transportation tremendously. Use of both public, as well as private transport increases and hence serious problems of air pollution, are created.
  • Migration also causes noise pollution and water pollution.

Question 18.
Migration leads to social evils. Give reason.
Answer:
Social evils:

  • At times, people who migrate from villages to cities in search of a higher and regular income are unable to get desired job or life style.
  • Owing to extreme poverty and helplessness sometimes these people get involved to antisocial activities like theft and loots which disturbs the social life of cities.
  • Social frictions arise because of differences in the language, culture, life style, etc. between migrants and local people.

Question 19.
State the criteria for defining/declaring a region as a town or a city.
Answer:
The definition of a town or a city was very broad in 1951. By 1961 the definition became narrow.
The following criteria were adopted during the census of 1971,1981,1991 and 2001 to call a place a town or a city:
1. All those areas which are planned/managed by Municipality, Corporation Cantonment Board or Notified Town Area committee.

2. All those areas which fulfill the following three criteria:
(a) 5000 or more people live in that area
(b) 75% or more population is employed in non-agricultural sectors
(c) The density of population is 400 or more per square kilometer

GSEB Solutions Class 12 Economics Chapter 11 Emerging Issues in Indian Economy

Question 20.
Why has urbanization increased rapidly after independence?
Answer:

  • During the British rule in India our industries were not well developed.
  • After India became independent, government took several constructive steps
    and adopted policies to boost economic growth via. industrialization. This resulted in rise in urbanization.
  • This rise became extremely sharp after the government adopted the economic reforms of liberalizing industries in 1991.
  • Under such reforms and policies the government gave various incentives tor industrial development. This also boosted service sector. All this resulted in faster economic development and urbanization.
  • Urbanization in the entire world is on the rise due to urbanization. It is estimated that if this growth continues than by 2050 2/3rd of the total world population will be residing in urban areas.

Question 21.
Demonstrate rise in urbanization with the help of statistical evidence.
Answer:
Owing to several industrial and other policies there has been a continuous rise in urbanization after Indian independence. This has become rapid after the economic reforms of 1991.
The rise can be studied with the help of data given in the table below.

Trends of urbanization in India

Year Percentage of Urban Population
1961 17.97%
1971 19.91%
1981 23.34%
1991 25.32%
2001 27.86%
2011 31.16%

Source: Census of India

Conclusion:

  • The data shows a steady rise in urbanization since 1961.
  • Looking to the data we can say that according to the census of 2011, 31.16% (approximately 32%) which constituted of 37.7 crore people lived in urban areas.

Question 22.
Write a short note on positive effects of urbanization.
Answer:
1. Increase in infrastructural facilities:

  • Due to urbanization, infrastructural facilities like education, health, banking, transportation, communication, insurance, electricity, etc. keep on increasing in the urban areas.
  • Development and maintenance of these facilities create more employment opportunities. When people get employment their purchasing power for goods and services increases. This increases demand for goods and services which in turn leads to setting up more industries.
  • Thus, the cycle of setting up of more industries
  • Creation of more employment opportunities
  • Rise in income and rise in purchasing power
  • Rise in purchasing power necessitating the setup of new industries. This cycle keeps going on.

2. Reduction in poverty:
Poverty and unemployment are mutually related. Due to urbanization, industry and service sector creates large scale employment in cities which reduces poverty.

Moreover, rural poor and unemployed who come to urban areas get employment according to their capabilities and skills. This also helps in reducing poverty.

3. Cultural development:
Cities have well-developed educational facilities that too for various discipline. People take benefit of these facilities and gain overall development which in turn helps in establishing a rich cultured society.

Libraries with modern amenities, book stalls and various cultural programmes that take place in cities enrich people culturally.

4. Ultra-modern health services:
Rise in urban population demands more and better health-care facilities. Today, we can see number of multispecialty hospitals flourishing in cities like Ahmedabad where ultra-modern treatment is available for every disease at one place.

Along with private hospitals, government and local self-government institutions also set-up hospitals for the benefit of the poor and the middle class. Better health facilities create a positive impact on the health and the productivity of people.

5. Social effects – modern thinking:
Cities have better education, cultural development and modern means of communication. As a result, the thinking of urban population is modern compared to villages.
Migrants from villages quickly adapt themselves to the modern world by having a decent and polite approach.

6. High standard of living:
Urbanization increases the income of people. This combined with the growth and development of modern infrastructural facilities makes the standard of living of people higher as compared to those living in rural areas.

Question 23.
How does urban infrastructure increases with rise in urbanization?
Answer:
Increase in infrastructural facilities:

  • Due to urbanization, infrastructural facilities like education, health, banking, transportation, communication, insurance, electricity, etc. keep on increasing in the urban areas.
  • Development and maintenance of these facilities create more employment opportunities. When people get employment their purchasing power for goods and services increases. This increases demand for goods and services which in turn leads to setting up more industries.
  • Thus, the cycle of setting up of more industries
  • Creation of more employment opportunities
  • Rise in income and rise in purchasing power
  • Rise in purchasing power necessitating the setup of new industries. This cycle keeps going on.

Question 24.
Urbanization reduces poverty. Give reason.
Answer:
Reduction in poverty:
Poverty and unemployment are mutually related. Due to urbanization, industry and service sector creates large scale employment in cities which reduces poverty.

Moreover, rural poor and unemployed who come to urban areas get employment according to their capabilities and skills. This also helps in reducing poverty.

GSEB Solutions Class 12 Economics Chapter 11 Emerging Issues in Indian Economy

Question 25.
How does urbanization help in developing the culture?
Answer:
Cultural development:
Cities have well-developed educational facilities that too for various discipline. People take benefit of these facilities and gain overall development which in turn helps in establishing a rich cultured society.

Libraries with modern amenities, book stalls and various cultural programmes that take place in cities enrich people culturally.

Question 26.
Ultra-modern healthcare facilities is a gift of urbanization. Explain.
Answer:
Ultra-modern health services:
Rise in urban population demands more and better health-care facilities. Today, we can see number of multispecialty hospitals flourishing in cities like Ahmedabad where ultra-modern treatment is available for every disease at one place.

Along with private hospitals, government and local self-government institutions also set-up hospitals for the benefit of the poor and the middle class. Better health facilities create a positive impact on the health and the productivity of people.

Question 27.
Urbanization injects modern thinking. Explain.
Answer:
Social effects – modern thinking:
Cities have better education, cultural development and modern means of communication. As a result, the thinking of urban population is modern compared to villages.
Migrants from villages quickly adapt themselves to the modern world by having a decent and polite approach.

Question 28.
How does standard of living of people improve when they move to big cities?
Answer:
High standard of living:
Urbanization increases the income of people. This combined with the growth and development of modern infrastructural facilities makes the standard of living of people higher as compared to those living in rural areas.

Question 29.
How does urbanization causes income disparity?
Answer:
Income inequalities:
Urbanization creates income inequalities. In urban areas, on one hand’there are intellects who are very highly educated, entrepreneurs and business magnates whose income levels are very high. While on the other hand, there are poor labourers who are illiterates, who do not have any expertise and who do not know anything except physical labour and hence have very low incomes.
Thus, one can witness very large income inequalities in urban areas.

Question 30.
What types of law and order problems are faced by the urban administrators?
Answer:
Problem of law and order:
Uncontrolled urbanization leads to population explosion in urban areas. The per capita vehicle in cities is high and it rises continuously.

In case when migrants are not able to get proper employment and earn enough income they move to theft, dacoity, etc.

It becomes extremely difficult for the limited police personnel to control the city properly. The day-to-day law and order situation looks weak and inefficient. -» In situations like riots and natural calamities, it becomes a very challenging task for them to look after the safety and security of such a large urban population

Question 31.
Explain briefly problems related to slum dwelling and infrastructure caused due to urbanization.
Answer:
Problems of slum-dwelling:
Labour class people coming to cities from villages have lower incomes and hence cannot afford to buy pucca house. As a result, they forcibly live in hutments and dirty slums.

Question of infrastructural facilities:
There is shortage of transportation, health, roads, shortage of pure drinking water and other such infrastructural facilities. This results in problems of water borne diseases, sanitation, shortage of electricity due to the failure of the local administration system, etc.

Question 32.
How does urbanization pollute environment?
Answer:
Problems of environmental pollution:

  • Urbanization is the result of industrialization. Uncontrolled growth in industries increases pollution to manifolds.
  • This also results in dirt and filth which eventually leads to various diseases. For example, more than 50% of poor population suffers from skin and respiratory diseases in big developed cities.

Question 33.
Attraction towards urbanization is always on rise. Explain.
Answer:

  • The migration of people from rural areas to urban areas is known as urbanization.
  • The attraction towards urbanization started increasing more after India became independent and India stressed development of industries in cities.
  • Moreover, after the economic reforms of 1991, India adopted several policies which focused on boosting the industrial and service sector.
  • Higher opportunities of jobs and business, higher incomes, better and modern life-style, better education, health and infrastructure all becomes reasons for attraction towards urbanization.

Question 34.
Urbanization leads to urban unemployment. Explain.
Answer:
A majority of Indian population lives in rural areas. So, the rate of migration toward urban areas is very high.

  • After the economic reforms of 1991, India adopted several policies which focused on boosting the industrial and service sector. As a result, people from rural areas migrated to urban areas for employment in these sectors.
  • On the other hand, the urban areas are unable to raise and provide job opportunities to all who migrate. This at times creates competition as there are more takers for a given work opportunity. This leads to urban unemployment.

GSEB Solutions Class 12 Economics Chapter 11 Emerging Issues in Indian Economy

Question 35.
Urbanization is a coin with two sides. Explain.
Answer:
Urbanization has both positive effects and negative effects. These two sided
effects work as the two sides of the same coin.

  • On the positive note, infrastructural facilities like education, health, banking, transportation, communication, insurance, electricity, etc. keep on increasing in the urban areas due to urbanization.
  • People get jobs and so poverty gets reduced. Urban areas have libraries with modern amenities, book stalls and various cultural programmes that take place in cities enrich people culturally.
  • The thought process of people become modern and their standard of living goes high.
  • On the negative side, large income as well as social inequalities can be seen in urban areas.
    People who do not get proper employment live in slums. Increased population makes it difficult to maintain law and order, environmental problem increases and many such problems increase.
  • Hence, one can rightly say urbanization is a coin with two sides.

Question 36.
State the policy related steps as a means to control urbanization.
Answer:
Policy related steps:
Government has taken the following policy related measures to reduce the problems of urbanization:
(a) To control excessive urbanization, the government has put control on setting up industries in those cities where the population is more than 10 lakh.
(b) Government has started encouraging development of small sized towns so that big cities can be stopped from further urbanization.
(c) The Indian Government has adopted policies that can prevent big cities from becoming bigger and at the same time small and medium sized towns of all the towns can also develop.
(d) Indian Government has adopted a policy of developing satellite tower near big cities.

Question 37.
What role has government played to increase employment opportunities to control urbanization?
Answer:
Increasing employment opportunities:

  • To control the negative effects of urbanization,’ Government has implemented several employment oriented programmes to enhance self-employment opportunities in cities.
  • Government aims at maximum spread of these programmes so that the urban poor can take the benefit. This in turn will increase their income and improve their standard of living.

Question 38.
Why and how does government strengthen infrastructure to control urbanization?
Answer:
Strengthen the infrastructural facilities:

  • To ensure that the infrastructural facilities like water, road, transportation, communication system, drainage, sanitation, etc. reach each land every person the government should make its system strong. . .
  • To take the infrastructure at a much higher letef the Central Government has implemented a plan to convert some cities into smart cities.
  • The government should-make efforts to construct houses for slum dwellers. With this objective the Central Government has initiated various. housing schemes for the poor and middle income group people.

Question 39.
How can providing education and health facilities control urbanization?
Answer:
Education and health facilities:

  • The rich and the affluent people of the cities are easily able to afford the ultra-modern education and health facilities but the poor class are not. This causes negative effects of urbanization. Steps must be taken to reduce this.
  • If proper arrangements are rrtade to avail these facilities even to the poor, then the negative effects of urbanization can be minimized

Question 40.
Explain – Developmental works in rural areas as a means to solve urbanization.
Answer:
Development of infrastructural facilities in rural areas:
Government should make effort to improve infrastructural facilities such as education, transportation, communication, roads, electricity, irrigation, etc. of smaller towns and cities. Doing so, people will not be forced to migrate to urban areas. This will further reduce the burden on cities and the negative effects of urbanization can be controlled.

Question 41.
How will strengthening the administration help in controlling urbanization?
Answer:
Strengthen the administrative system:

  • To control the problems related to urbanization, the law and order situation should be improved. This requires that the administrative system should be strengthened and inefficiencies in administrative co-ordination should be eliminated.
  • Good governance should be put into practice to solve the problems.
  • Citizens should be continuously made aware about law and order so that administrators can improve the law and order situation in the city.

Question 42.
State and explain the meaning of education.
Answer:
Education:
The process of teaching and learning is called education.

Human capital investment:

  • When capital is invested in humans so that their physical and mental capabilities can be developed it leads to formation of human capital.
  • All investment made for educating, training, grooming, research work, etc. is known as human capital investment.
  • When humans acquire skills from all such training they become asset i.e. human capital for the country. These humans then apply their skills in various sectors, earn money and hence fuel the economy.

Question 43.
What are Marshall’s views on education?
Answer:
Views of Prof Marshall:

  • With reference to capital investment on humans, Prof Marshall says that “Every generation inherits values from their ancestors which are the true -inheritance. If the physical wealth of the world gets destroyed but if the ideas to create physical wealth are not destroyed, we can retrieve the resources quickly but if the ideas are destroyed the physical wealth will remain unutilized and with time such resources and the world will be at the doorstep of poverty.”
  • Thus we can say that education, training, research, technology, knowledge, expertise, etc. highly influences development. Hence, education is considered as the most important factor affecting economic development.

Question 44.
How is education classified in various stages?
Answer:
In India, one can get educated either in government run institutions or private.

On the basis of age of the child, education in India is classified into following stages:

  1. Primary education: Standard 1 to 5
  2. Higher Primary education: Standard 6 to 8
  3. Secondary education: Standard 9 to 10
  4. Higher Secondary education: Standard 11 to 12
  5. College or higher education: Standard 12 onwards
  6. Apart from this if one wishes, he can also stop schooling after class 8 and join ITI to gain expertise in some technical field of his choice.

The educational sector can.be studied in two aspects. They are:
(A) Positive aspect:

  • The Constitution of India has made primary education for children between. 6-14 years age group, free and compulsory. It is the responsibility of the state government to see that they follow these guidelines and provide education in their respective states.
  • There has been a huge development and expansion right from kindergarten up to the higher education institutes during the various plans. As a result, by 2013-14, there were 1.4 million primary schools in India where 7.7 million teachers taught.
  • Gujarat state has made special effort by launching programmes like ‘Gunotsav’ and ‘Praveshotsav’ to encourage more enrollments in schools.
  • In 2013-14, 95% children were registered in primary education.
  • ‘Education to All’ (Sarva Shikhsan Abhiyan) programme and RTE (Right to Education) have worked considerably to spread awareness for providing education to every child of the country.

(B) Negative aspect:
In spite of several effort of the government, education sector is still weak. Poverty and illiteracy to educate the existing and next generation are the chief reasons for underdevelopment of educational sector.

  • Even today, the situation of primary education in small villages is a matter of great concern. 29% of the children drop out of school before completing their 5th standard.
  • Over and above this India also does not have trained teachers in proper number. In 2013-14, the student-teacher ratio was 46: 1 and that in higher primary education was 34:1.
  • In 2013-14, 69% pupils were enrolled in secondary standards and only 25% in higher education.
  • The scenario of education in India can be understood from the table below.

Extent of literacy

Year Extent of literacy in India (percent) Extent of literacy in Gujarat (percent)
1981 43.57 44.92
1991 52.21 61.29
2001 64.83 69.14
2011 74.04 79.31

Source: Census of India

Conclusion:
Thus, in spite India has made several efforts to educate its masses, a big percentage of population is still illiterate.

GSEB Solutions Class 12 Economics Chapter 11 Emerging Issues in Indian Economy

Question 45.
Explain the positive (constructive) aspects of education in India.
Answer:
Positive aspect:

  • The Constitution of India has made primary education for children between. 6-14 years age group, free and compulsory. It is the responsibility of the state government to see that they follow these guidelines and provide education in their respective states.
  • There has been a huge development and expansion right from kindergarten up to the higher education institutes during the various plans. As a result, by 2013-14, there were 1.4 million primary schools in India where 7.7 million teachers taught.
  • Gujarat state has made special effort by launching programmes like ‘Gunotsav’ and ‘Praveshotsav’ to encourage more enrollments in schools.
  • In 2013-14, 95% children were registered in primary education.
  • ‘Education to All’ (Sarva Shikhsan Abhiyan) programme and RTE (Right to Education) have worked considerably to spread awareness for providing education to every child of the country.

Question 46.
Explain the negative aspects of education in India.
Answer:
Negative aspect:
In spite of several effort of the government, education sector is still weak. Poverty and illiteracy to educate the existing and next generation are the chief reasons for underdevelopment of educational sector.

  • Even today, the situation of primary education in small villages is a matter of great concern. 29% of the children drop out of school before completing their 5th standard.
  • Over and above this India also does not have trained teachers in proper number. In 2013-14, the student-teacher ratio was 46: 1 and that in higher primary education was 34:1.
  • In 2013-14, 69% pupils were enrolled in secondary standards and only 25% in higher education.
  • The scenario of education in India can be understood from the table below.

Extent of literacy

Year Extent of literacy in India (percent) Extent of literacy in Gujarat (percent)
1981 43.57 44.92
1991 52.21 61.29
2001 64.83 69.14
2011 74.04 79.31

Source: Census of India

Conclusion:
Thus, in spite India has made several efforts to educate its masses, a big percentage of population is still illiterate.

Question 47.
State the meaning and importance of health.
Answer:
Health:
World Health Organization (WHO) defines health as ‘A state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity’.

Importance of health:
The productivity of a labour is dependent on his health. The way education is a means for healthy mind, health services and its infrastructure is a means for physical health of the body.

A National income is directly dependent on the public health. If the labour is not healthy he may fall ill frequently which will then adversely affect his productivity and overall production.

Improvement in health can help in economic growth in three ways. They are:

  1. When productivity of individuals increases due to good health, it increases overall output.
  2. Natural resources can be better utilized and wastage of resources can be stopped.
  3. Rise in incomes of labour, leads to higher standard of living which in turn boosts economy.

Question 48.
Write a short note on health situation of India.
Answer:
(A) Health situation of India:

  • Balanced diet and good medical treatment are the two aspects necessary for good health.
  • It is quite obvious that a healthy mother can give birth to a wealthy child. However, in India, 50% of females between the age of 15 and 49 suffer from iron deficiency and anaemia. Out of this 19% women die due to lack of nutritive food.

(B) Life expectancy and infant mortality:

  • The average life expectancy of the people of a country is an important indicator of people’s health.
  • In 1951, the life expectancy of an average Indian was 32 years. With increasing awareness for balanced diet, intake of nutritional food and good treatment the life expectancy increased to 63.5 years in 2011.
  • The infant mortality rate was 146 in 1951 which fell to 44 in 2012.

(C) Rural health:

  • Even today, 70% of India’s total population lives in villages. Contrary to this only 1/5th of the total number of hospitals of the country are in rural areas. As a result, the rural areas are deprived of necessary medical services. One can see a vast difference between the medical services available in rural and urban areas.
  • Rural areas do not have specialists like child specialists (Peadiatrist), specialist for woman (Gynaecologists) anesthetist, eye specialist (Ophthalmologists) like M.D., M.S. and other such highly qualified doctors. Hence, rural population cannot avail these treatments on time in their vicinities.

(D) Solution:

  • Problems related to better health and hygiene can be solved by the spread of education and expansion and spread of health services.
  • The World Bank Report shows that India spends 4.4% on health out of its Gross Domestic Product (GDP), while America spends 20.3% and China 12.5%. This means that India is spending a very less amount on the health of its citizens as compared to developed nations.
  • Indian Government is consistently increasing the expenditure on health. This will help her build a healthy nation by expanding and extending health services even to the rural areas.

Question 49.
Give a brief idea about the life expectancy and infant mortality rate in India.
Answer:
Life expectancy and infant mortality:

  • The average life expectancy of the people of a country is an important indicator of people’s health.
  • In 1951, the life expectancy of an average Indian was 32 years. With increasing awareness for balanced diet, intake of nutritional food and good treatment the life expectancy increased to 63.5 years in 2011.
  • The infant mortality rate was 146 in 1951 which fell to 44 in 2012.

GSEB Solutions Class 12 Economics Chapter 11 Emerging Issues in Indian Economy

Question 50.
Discuss the situation of rural health.
Answer:
Rural health:

  • Even today, 70% of India’s total population lives in villages. Contrary to this only 1/5th of the total number of hospitals of the country are in rural areas. As a result, the rural areas are deprived of necessary medical services. One can see a vast difference between the medical services available in rural and urban areas.
  • Rural areas do not have specialists like child specialists (Peadiatrist), specialist for woman (Gynaecologists) anesthetist, eye specialist (Ophthalmologist) like M.D., M.S. and other such highly qualified doctors. Hence, rural population cannot avail these treatments on time in their vicinities.

Question 51.
Health is necessary for the economic development of the country. Explain.
OR
Explain the relation between health and economic development of a nation.
OR
“A country’s health and economic development has special relation”. Explain.
Answer:

  • The productivity of a labour is dependent on his health.
  • The way education is a means for healthy mind, health services and its infrastructure is a means for physical health of the body.
  • National income is directly dependent on the public health.
  • If the labour is not healthy he may fall ill frequently which will then adversely affect his productivity and overall production.
  • Natural resources can be better utilized and wastage of resources can be stopped if the countrymen are healthy.
  • Better health can enable a person to work efficiently. This will then increase his income. Rise in incomes of labour, leads to higher standard of living which in turn boosts economy.

Question 52.
Explain in detail about India’s electricity scenario.
Answer:
Electricity scenario in India:

  • Electricity is a very important aspect for economic development at both rural and urban level.
  • Proper electrical infrastructure has resulted in good growth in the fields of agriculture, irrigation, cottage and small scale industries in rural areas. Electricity has played an equally important role for industrial development and service sector development in urban areas.
  • In 1950-51, India’s capacity to produce electricity was 2300 megawatts which increased to 1,54,574 MW in July 2009. Thus in the span of 61 years from 1950-51 to 2011-12’electricity production has increased multiple times.
  • We can see the direct benefits of this increase in the fields of agriculture, industry and service sector.
  • At world level, India ranks 7th in electricity production and 5th in electricity consumption. .
  • In India, Central Government, State Government and even private sector produce electricity.

(A) Sources of production:
Owing to its topography and resources, India has following four ways of
producing electricity:

  1. Thermal power – Through coal
  2. Hydro power – Through water
  3. Nuclear power – Through nuclear energy
  4. Others – Windmill, biogas, solar energy, etc.

The distribution of power production in the year 2012-13 is shown in table.

Type of power source Percentage production
Thermal 70%
Hydro 16%
Nuclear 2%
Others 12%
Total 100%

(B) Focus on renewable sources of energy:

  • The government is consistently making efforts to spread the use of solar power. It is encouraging people to use solar power by giving several types of subsidies for purchasing solar cooker, solar geyser, installing roof-top solar plants, etc.
  • Government is also encouraging other renewable sources such as hydro power and wind power (through windmills) since these sources also do not cause pollution. Moreover, it is quite test to produce energy through these sources.

(C) Use of electricity:
India uses majority of electricity for

  1. Agriculture,
  2. Industries,
  3. Household,
  4. Transportation and
  5. Others.

Use of electricity by different sectors (in percentage)

No. Sectors Year: 2012-13
(1) Household 22%
(2) Agriculture 18%
(3) Industries 45%
(4) Transportation 02%
(5) Other wastage and distribution and consumption 12%
Total 100%

(D) Challenges faced by electricity sector:

  1. The biggest and the most important challenge that India faces is that the electricity sector is’ noi able to fully utilize its production capacity.
  2. The second challenge is that the availability of electricity is not enough to meet the requirement of economy which aims to grow at th_ rate of 7-8%.
  3. The production of electricity is less than the production capacity.
  4. Apart from these problems, improper electricity distribution, wastage of electricity, theft of electricity, etc. are also important challenges faced by the electricity sector.
  5. Electricity production is also affected by factors like high cost, frequent power cuts, scarcity of coal, etc.

GSEB Solutions Class 12 Economics Chapter 11 Emerging Issues in Indian Economy

Question 53.
State the sources of electricity production in India and their percentage.
Answer:
Sources of production:
Owing to its topography and resources, India has following four ways of
producing electricity:

  1. Thermal power – Through coal
  2. Hydro power – Through water
  3. Nuclear power – Through nuclear energy
  4. Others – Windmill, biogas, solar energy, etc.

The distribution of power production in the year 2012-13 is shown in table.

Type of power source Percentage production
Thermal 70%
Hydro 16%
Nuclear 2%
Others 12%
Total 100%

Question 54.
Which efforts is government making to encourage use of renewable energy?
Answer:
Focus on renewable sources of energy:

  • The government is consistently making efforts to spread the use of solar power. It is encouraging people to use solar power by giving several types of subsidies for purchasing solar cooker, solar geyser, installing roof-top solar plants, etc.
  • Government is also encouraging other renewable sources such as hydro power and wind power (through windmills) since these sources also do not cause pollution. Moreover, it is quite test to produce energy through these sources.

Question 55.
State the usage distribution of electricity among various sectors.
Answer:
Use of electricity:
India uses majority of electricity for

  1. Agriculture,
  2. Industries,
  3. Household,
  4. Transportation and
  5. Others.

Use of electricity by different sectors (in percentage)

No. Sectors Year: 2012-13
(1) Household 22%
(2) Agriculture 18%
(3) Industries 45%
(4) Transportation 02%
(5) Other wastage and distribution and consumption 12%
Total 100%

Question 56.
What challenges lie before the electricity sector?
Answer:
Challenges faced by electricity sector:

  1. The biggest and the most important challenge that India faces is that the electricity sector is’ not able to fully utilize its production capacity.
  2. The second challenge is that the availability of electricity is not enough to meet the requirement of economy which aims to grow at th_ rate of 7-8%.
  3. The production of electricity is less than the production capacity.
  4. Apart from these problems, improper electricity distribution, wastage of electricity, theft of electricity, etc. are also important challenges faced by the electricity sector.
  5. Electricity production is also affected by factors like high cost, frequent power cuts, scarcity of coal, etc.

Question 57.
State the role of Indian Railways in the economic development of India.
Answer:
Role of railway in India’s economic development:
1. Industrialization and business has become faster.

2. Over time railways has reduced the distance between places due to high speed trains. Moreover, increased safety and comfort of travel has also encouraged people to make more and more use of railways. Hence, movement of labour from one place to another or say to the place of production has become easier, safer, faster and more comfortable.

3. Development of railways has resulted in commercialization of agriculture. Railways are widely used for transporting fertilizers, tools and other inputs from distant places to place of agriculture. Also, railways are used to transport agriculture produce to the market.

4. India’s foreign trade has also developed through the development of railway.

5. Railways have boosted tourism industry drastically.

6. Railways also act as a link for national unity and integrity by connecting and transporting people of one region to another.

From this we can say that Indian Railways has contributed significantly in ‘ the development of all the sectors namely, agriculture, industry and service and hence led the Indian economy to great heights.

Question 58.
Enlist steps taken by government of India to modernize railways.
Answer:
Owing to the immense contribution of railways in economic growth and development, modernization of railways is focused in every five year plan by government of India.

Some of the developmental steps taken to modernize railways are:

  1. Modernization is undertaken in every five year plan by speeding up conversion of railway gauges.
  2. Facilities are created to make rail travel safer.
  3. Modernization of railway system is taken up by adding various facilities.
  4. Railway compartments are modernized to,make passengers feel more comfortable during travel.
  5. Efforts are continuously made to electrify almost all rail networks so that faster trains can run on all those routes where still traditional coal rains are plying.
  6. Steps are taken to run trains that rua faster on modern rail network so that travel time can be reduced and goods and passengers can be transported faster.
  7. India is also about to start extremely fast world famous Talgo and Bullet trains.

Question 59.
What challenges lie before the Indian Railways?
Answer:
Challenges before the railway:
In spite of several efforts, railway faces number of challenges like:

  1. The modern technology is still insufficient.
  2. Facilities are insufficient compared to its demand.
  3. Shortage of finance and administrative problems.
  4. Regional imbalance in the development of railway, etc.

GSEB Solutions Class 12 Economics Chapter 11 Emerging Issues in Indian Economy

Question 60.
Write a short note on Ipdian Railways and its role in India’s economic prosperity.
Answer:
Indian Railways:

  • World over, railways-is considered to be a revolutionary development in the field of transportation. .
  • The Indian Railways .was started on 16th April, 1853 by the British Government for their trade benefits.
  • The first railway line was put-up between Bombay and Thane covering a distance of 22 miles (approximately 34 kilometers).
  • After independence, the administration of railways came into the hands of Indian Government. The government established a separate department to administer the rail network of India.
  • Today, India’s rail network is at 1st position in Asia and at 4th in the world.
  • Indian Railways is India’s biggest public enterprise employing more than 14 lakh people.
  • In 2012, 8200 million passengers travelled through railways and goods weighing 970 million tonnes were transported.

Role of railway in India’s economic development:

  1. Industrialization and business has become faster.
  2. Over time railways has reduced the distance between places due to high speed trains. Moreover, increased safety and comfort of travel has also encouraged people to make more and more use of railways. Hence, movement of labour from one place to another or say to the place of production has become easier, safer, faster and more comfortable.
  3. Development of railways has resulted in commercialization of agriculture. Railways are widely used for transporting fertilizers, tools and other inputs from distant places to place of agriculture. Also, railways are used to transport agriculture produce to the market.
  4. India’s foreign trade has also developed through the development of railway.
  5. Railways have boosted tourism industry drastically.
  6. Railways also act as a link for national unity and integrity by connecting and transporting people of one region to another.

From this we can say that Indian Railways has contributed significantly in ‘ the development of all the sectors namely, agriculture, industry and service and hence led the Indian economy to great heights.

Question 61.
Railways are the lifeline of India economy. Explain.
Answer:

  • India’s rail network is at 1st position in Asia and at 4th position in the world.
  • Indian Railways is India’s biggest public enterprise employing more than 14 lakh people.
  • In 2012, 8200 million passengers travelled tnrough railways and goods weighing 970 million tonnes were transported.
  • With continuous advancement in railways, industrialization and business has become faster.
  • Development of railways has also resulted in commercialization of agriculture.
  • India’s foreign trade has also developed through the development of railway.
  • Railways have boosted tourism industry drastically.
  • Thus, one can rightly say that railways are the lifeline of India economy.

Question 62.
Urbanization and industrialization go hand in hand. Explain.
Answer:

  • Development of industries is essential for development of economy.
  • Government provides several incentives such as cheap land, tax-free zones, modern infrastructure, etc. at urban locations to encourage industrial . development.
  • When people put industries they need workers. People from different regions migrate to these urban areas to work in these industries. This results in urbanization.
  • Again to provide various facilities and goods, both private and public sector establishes new industries.
  • Thus, this cycle goes on and hence one can say that urbanization and industrialization go hand in hand.

Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
Out of the following options, which is not the reason for people migrating from one place to another? .
(A) In search of employment
(B) For attaining high standard of living
(C) For stabilizing family
(D) For staying with friends
Answer:
(D) For staying with friends

GSEB Solutions Class 12 Economics Chapter 11 Emerging Issues in Indian Economy

Question 2.
Migration refers to movement of a person from one place to another on a
(A) Temporary basis
(B) Permanent basis
(C) Vacation
(D) None of these
Answer:
(B) Permanent basis

Question 3.
Amit has moved from Ahmedabad to Pune for a better employment opportunity. This is an example of
(A) International migration
(B) Internal migration
(C) Migration due to attraction
(D) Forceful migration
Answer:
(B) Internal migration

Question 4.
Reena has moved from Palanpur village to Ahmedabad as she liked the lifestyle of Ahmedabad and wanted to have a good standard of living. This is an example of
(A) International migration
(B) Forceful migration
(C) Migration due to attraction
(D) Migration due to social cause
Answer:
(C) Migration due to attraction

Question 5.
Rahul is working with a bank in Baroda and is staying with his family. He got a transfer letter to go to Surat. He was not willing to go but still had to shift to Surat because of job requirement. Which type, of migration is this?
(A) Forceful migration
(B) Migration due to attraction
(C) International migration
(D) Migration due to social cause
Answer:
(A) Forceful migration

Question 6.
Why do technicians move to places like UAE, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Australia etc.?
(A) For attaining high standard of living
(B) Because of abundance of natural resources leading to employment opportunities
(C) Due to better quality of education
(D) These places have excellent health facilities
Answer:
(B) Because of abundance of natural resources leading to employment opportunities

Question 7.
A family in Jodpur, Rajasthan spends high amount of money and sends Rehan, their second son to Canada for getting a good job, earning good, so as to increase the entire families’ standard of living. This is an example of .
(A) Migration due to attraction
(B) Planned/Organized migration
(C) Migration due to push factors
(D) Internal migration
Answer:
(B) Planned/Organized migration

Question 8.
What is migration due to marriage known as?
(A) Planned migration
(B) Migration due to social rituals
(C) Internal migration
(D) Social migration
Answer:
(D) Social migration

Question 9.
Why do people migrate from places prone to earthquakes and volcanoes?
(A) Because there are less job opportunities in that place
(B) For ones’ own safety and safety of their families
(C) Because there is no availability of basic necessities like food
(D) For securing the lives of future generation
Answer:
(B) For ones’ own safety and safety of their families

Question 10.
Which of the following is an example of developmental migration?
(A) Migrating to Canada for higher studies
(B) Migrating due to Sardar Srovar Yojana, Gujarat
(C) Migrating to Dubai for job and better lifestyle
(D) Migrating from village to city
Answer:
(B) Migrating due to Sardar Srovar Yojana, Gujarat

GSEB Solutions Class 12 Economics Chapter 11 Emerging Issues in Indian Economy

Question 11.
What is the main objective of people moving from villages to cities for livelihood?
(A) Contribution to economic development of country
(B) Income generation and rise in income
(C) Forceful migration
(D) Improved standard of living
Answer:
(B) Income generation and rise in income

Question 12.
Cities like Ahmedabad, Ankleshwar, Surat, Mumbai, Koikata and Delhi do not havfe proper transportation facilities. This has resulted people to opt for alternative transportation and has caused
(A) Water pollution
(B) Air pollution
(C) No migration to these places
(D) Antisocial activities
Answer:
(B) Air pollution

Question 13.
Urbanization refers to
(A) Migration from urban to rural areas
(B) Migration from India to foreign countries
(C) Migration from rural to urban areas
(D) Migration from one urban area to other urban area
Answer:
(C) Migration from rural to urban areas

Question 14.
When do people turn towards antisocial activities like theft?
(A) When they do not get expected job and money
(B) Urbanization
(C) When they want to become more rich
(D) When there exist income inequalities in the society
Answer:
(A) When they do not get expected job and money

Question 15.
India is the second country to have fast rate of urbanization to take place. Which is the first country?
(A) Sweden
(B) South Africa
(C) China
(D) UAE
Answer:
(C) China

Question 16.
Which of the following is known as infrastructural facilities of a country?
(A) Health
(B) Banking
(C) Electricity
(D) All of these
Answer:
(D) All of these

Question 17.
Why do people in urban areas have modern thinking as compared to people in villages?
(A) Because urban people have better income than rural people
(B) Due to high standard of living of urban people
(C) Because better education is prevalent in urban areas
(D) Because of availability of modern health facilities
Answer:
(C) Because better education is prevalent in urban areas

Question 18.
Which of the following groups get exploited in urban areas?
(A) Educated people
(B) Uneducated people
(C) Nobody gets exploited
(D) Senior citizens
Answer:
(B) Uneducated people

Question 19.
Due to environmental pollution, 50% of poor population suffer from
(A) Skin and respiratory, diseases
(B) Eye diseases
(C) Heart diseases
(D) Cancer
Answer:
(A) Skin and respiratory, diseases

Question 20.
What is the limit set by the government to control building industries so as to control urbanization?
(A) Cities where the population is more than 10 lakh
(B) Cities where the population is less than 5 lakh
(C) Cities where the population is more than 20 lakh
(D) No such limit has been set by government
Answer:
(A) Cities where the population is more than 10 lakh

Question 21.
Who has implemented the plan of ‘smart city’ so as to strengthen the infrastructural facilities in India?
(A) State Government
(B) Urban Development Authority
(C) Central Government
(D) Finance Ministry
Answer:
(C) Central Government

GSEB Solutions Class 12 Economics Chapter 11 Emerging Issues in Indian Economy

Question 22.
What is the need to develop cottage and small scale industries?
(A) To increase modern medical facilities
(B) To reduce income inequalities and economic inequalities
(C) To reduce urban development
(D) All of these
Answer:
(B) To reduce income inequalities and economic inequalities

Question 23.
Which of the following steps can be taken to reduce migration of people from rural to urban areas?
(A) Improvement of education facilities in rural areas
(B) Building infrastructure facilities and networks in rural areas
(C) Building agriculture lands in urban areas
(D) Restrictions by government on the people migrating to urban areas
Answer:
(A) Improvement of education facilities in rural areas

Question 24.
What is the investment made for education, training, grooming which has physical and mental development of humans known as?
(A) Human training investment
(B) Human capital investment
(C) Economic investment
(D) Unskilled labour capital investment
Answer:
(B) Human capital investment

Question 25.
________ helps to improve a persons’ ability to exchange ideas and uplift his self-confidence.
(A) High income
(B) Better standard of living
(C) Education
(D) Better job
Answer:
(C) Education

Question 26.
Higher primary education refers to which of the following standard group?
(A) 1 to 5 standards
(B) 6 to 8 standards
(C) 9 to 10 standards
(D) 11 to 12 standards
Answer:
(B) 6 to 8 standards

Question 27.
When does a person becom eligible to join ITI?
(A) After 12th Standard
(B) After 10th Standard
(C) After 8th Standard
(D) No specific criteria of age/standard is required for ITI study
Answer:
(C) After 8th Standard

Question 28.
Which governing body has the responsibility of free and compulsory primary education for 6-14 years age children?
(A) Central government
(B) State government
(C) Both (a) and (b)
(D) UGC – University Grants Commission
Answer:
(B) State government

GSEB Solutions Class 12 Economics Chapter 11 Emerging Issues in Indian Economy

Question 29.
Which of the following is the initiative taken by Gujarat state to enroll more students in schools?
(A) Gunotsav
(B) Vibrant
(C) Swagat
(D) Swayamsidh yojana
Answer:
(A) Gunotsav

Question 30.
What was the literacy rate in Gujarat in the year 2011?
(A) 44%
(B) 79%
(C) 74%
(D) 69%
Answer:
(B) 79%

Question 31.
Which of the following organizations looks after the health facilities of countries at the world level?
(A) UNICEF
(B) WHO
(C) UNISCO
(D) FAO
Answer:
(B) WHO

Question 32.
Out of the total number of hospitals, proportionately, how many hospitals are located in rural areas as compared to urban areas?
(A) 1/5th
(B) 2/5th
(C) 1/10th
(D) 6/10th
Answer:
(A) 1/5th

Question 33.
In India, 50% of females between the age of 15 to 49 years suffer from
(A) Calcium deficiency
(B) Vitamin D deficiency
(C) Iron deficiency
(D) Vitamin C deficiency
Answer:
(C) Iron deficiency

Question 34.
America spends 20.3% and China 12.5% of gross domestic product on health, whereas India spends
(A) 10.5%
(B) 4.4%
(C) 15.3%
(D) 6.7%
Answer:
(B) 4.4%

Question 35.
What does acquiring electricity through thermal power mean
(A) Through coal
(B) Through water
(C) Through nuclear energy
(D) Through solar energy
Answer:
(A) Through coal

Question 36.
When was the Indian Railways started?
(A) 16th April, 1853
(B) 16th May, 1873
(C) 5th June, 1853
(D) 6th April, 1873
Answer:
(A) 16th April, 1853

Question 37.
In today’s scenario, how many people are working with Indian Railways?
(A) 10 lakh
(B). 5 lakh
(C) 35 lakh
(D) 14 lakh
Answer:
(D) 14 lakh

Question 38.
________ is used in thermal power, cooking gas and fuel for running vehicles.
(A) Petroleum
(B) Natural gas
(C) Coal
(D) Water
Answer:
(B) Natural gas

Question 39.
Which of the following sectors have the highest consumption of electricity?
(A) Household
(B) Industries
(C) Agriculture
(D) Transportation
Answer:
(B) Industries

GSEB Solutions Class 12 Economics Chapter 11 Emerging Issues in Indian Economy

Question 40.
Which of the following bodies are involved in production of electricity?
(A) Central government
(B) State government
(C) Private companies
(D) All the these
Answer:
(D) All the these

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