GSEB Solutions Class 10 Social Science Chapter 21 Social Change

   

Gujarat Board GSEB Textbook Solutions Class 10 Social Science Chapter 21 Social Change Textbook Questions and Answers, Additional Important Questions, Notes Pdf.

Social Change Class 10 GSEB Solutions Social Science Chapter 21

Gujarat Board Class 10 Social Science Social Change Textbook Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions in detail.

Question 1.
Which (Juvenile Rights) are included in the Indian Constitution?
Answer:
The United Nations adopted the Charter of Children’s Rights in 1992 for the welfare and development of children. These rights have been included in our Constitution.
These Juvenile Right/Rights of the children are as follows:

Go through these Social Science Chapter 21 Social Change Class 10 GSEB Notes to score well in your exam.

  1. Every child has right to live without discrimination on the basis of caste, color, language or nationality.
  2. It is the right of the child to get proper upbringing by the parents. A child cannot be separated from the parents without any substantial reason.
  3. It is legal right of the child, to get education so that he can develop his personality.
  4. Every child has a right to healthy life. The child has a right to live happily by participating in games and entertainment.
  5. Every child has a right to conserve his culture and live amongst his religious community.
  6. Every child has a right to protest against any physical or mental torture, the use of narcotic drugs, protection from inhuman form of punishment or fine.
  7. Every child has a right to obtain security and proper standard of living for its mental, physical and moral development.

GSEB Solutions Class 10 Social Science Chapter 21 Social Change

Question 2.
Describe the problems of elderly people and provisions made for their protection and welfare.
Answer:
The problems of elderly people are universal. In India the number of elderly people has increased due to the increase in the expectancy of life. This has led to the following social and physical problems:

  1. Children are forgetting their moral responsibilities, values and culture due to the influence of the western culture.
  2. The joint families have been replaced by the nuclear families.
  3. Many elderly people are compelled to live in ‘Old Age Homes’.
  4. As most elderly people have retired from their professions, they have very little or no income. They are helpless people who depend on their children for the fulfillment of their basic needs.
  5. Their physical and emotional needs are neglected. They feel neglected and insecure.

Provisions made for protection and welfare of elderly:
Attention was drawn to the problems of the elderly people. The Government of India has adopted the National Policy for the Senior Citizens. The following provisions have been made for the protection and welfare of the elderly people as well as senior citizens:

  1. The National Policy has provided pension to elderly people.
  2. Higher interest rate is prescribed on their savings with the Post Offices and Banks.
  3. They are given 30 to 50 percent concession on buses, rail and air tickets.
  4. The state governments have started ‘Old Age Homes’ in every district with adequate facilities.
  5. A number of seats in the public transport are reserved for them.
  6. Gardens have been developed in cities wherein they can leisurely sit/walk and participate in Music and Yoga activities with the other elderly people.
  7. Parental Care and Welfare Act, 2007 protects them from domestic violence, exploitation an abuse. Any harassment by children is a cognizable offence.
  8. The responsibility of maintaining parents is imposed on their children/ relatives.
  9. The government honours the senior citizens for their contribution in the making of the nation.

Question 3.
Explain the objectives of right to information and explain the process of obtaining information.
Answer:
The Right to Information Act was enacted by the Government of India on 15th June, 2005.
Its objectives are as follows:

  1. To ensure transparent, clean and simple administration operations.
  2. To seek co-operation of people to bring about transparency in administration.
  3. To enable people to seek information/ proper reply about their pending work.
  4. To seek information about various schemes and related aspects.

The process for obtaining information is as follows:

The applicant has to pay a fixed fee of ₹20/- in cash/postal order/ pay order/- affixing non-judicial stamp along with the application. The BPL families have been exempted from the payment of fee. The application may be handwritten or typed and signed by the applicant.

This can be also e-mailed to the concerned department. Applicant has to pay charges per page for the copy of document. Applications are received by the Assistant Public Information Officer (APIO) who issues receipt/acknowledgment after putting serial – ID number on the application.

ID number has to be mentioned in the subsequent correspondence. The APIO is required to give reply within 30 days from the date of receiving application. The APIO may refuse to give information on the specified matters such as those related with national security. In case the APIO does not furnish information within 30 days, the applicant can approach Public Information Officer (PIO) with 30 days of rejection.

For the appeal, the applicants are not required to pay any fees. In case the information does not come, the applicant can make an appeal to the Chief Information Officer of the state within 90 days.

Question 4.
State the main seven promotions for right to free and compulsory education.
Answer:
The 86th Constitutional Amendment Act was enacted by the Parliament in 2009. According to this Act, primary education has been made free and compulsory for all children in the age group of 6 to 14 years.children in the age group of 6 to 14 years.

The main provisions of the Act are as follows:

  1. Every child in the age group 6 to 14 years should get admission in a school close to his/her locality. Admission cannot be refused for the failure to provide the proof of age, i.e. birth certificate.
  2. The age of admission should be 6 years. In case the parents are not able to provide the proof of age, an age-related affidavit by the parents should suffice.
  3. There shall be no discrimination made in the admission.
  4. Any type of fees, such as donation, deposits or capitation fee shall not be taken for admission.
  5. The practice of taking interview of child and/or parents at the time of admission should be discontinued. Income of parents, their educational qualification and capabilities shall not be taken into consideration while giving admission.
  6. A child having attained 14 years of age but unable to complete primary education should be imparted free education to enable him/her to complete primary education.
  7. The pre-primary education to children in the age groups of 3 to 5 years, have been brought within the purview of law. Rules have been framed for special training for pre-primary teachers.
  8. 25% seats in the first standards in the government recognized primary schools have been reserved for the children from the BPL families.
  9. School teachers are not allowed to take private tuitions.
  10. The under-qualified teachers are required to improve their qualification within five years from the date of appointment.
  11. Any child who has not completed primary education cannot be terminated from school until being transferred.
  12. The fees of the SC/ST students in the private schools shall be paid by the government.
  13. To ensure the compliance of these provisions, a scheduled management, tribunal or state council shall be formed. The Director of the Education shall have power to levy line or terminate recognition of the school for non-compliance of the provision of the Act.

GSEB Solutions Class 10 Social Science Chapter 21 Social Change

Question 5.
Discuss in various provisions related to framework for foodgrain distribution and public distribution system the National Food Security Act.
Answer:
The Union Parliament enacted the National Food Security Act in 2013 to provide the right to Food Security to means that “every person gets nutritious food for remaining active and living healthy life”.

The objectives of the National Food Security Act are as follows:

  1. To satisfy the food requirement of the increasing population of the country by ensuring adequate quality and quantity of the food and to supply the same at a concessional rate.
  2. To curb malnutrition by giving encouragement to increase the production of the nutritious food.
  3. To provide food security to the Antyodaya and the BPL families.
  4. To provide food nutritious food the pregnant and feeding women.
  5. To make the Public Distribution System (PDS) efficient, transparent and simple.

The provisions of the Act are as follows:

  1. To provide foodgrains to the needy and poor families in the urban and the rural areas at a concessional rate.
  2. These families will be provided food grains and subsidized price as under:
    • Rice 3 ₹ per kg.
    • Wheat 2 rupees per kg
    • Coarse grains 1₹ rupee per kg.
  3. They will be also supplied sugar, iodized salt, kerosene and edible oil at a subsidized rate.
  4. These foodgrains will be supplied in fixed quantity of 5 kg per person per month.
  5. The government would pay an allowance of ₹ 6000 to pregnant women.
  6. Food security allowance will be paid to beneficiary in case they decide not to purchase foodgrains.
  7. 35 kg foodgrains per month will be supplied free to the Antoyodaya and the BPL families.
  8. The state government will prepare the list of those families which will receive the benefits on priority. The same will be updated and displayed in public places and website.
  9. Biometric identity cards will be issued to the beneficiaries along with ration card.
  10. A mechanism to deal with the complaints will be set up by the state government, Nodal Officers will deal with the complaints.
  11. The State Food Commission will be set up and Food Commissioner will be appointed to implement the scheme.

II. Answer the following questions point-wise:

Question 1.
Explain the main factors responsible for social change.
Answer:
The process of changes taking place in social structure, social institutions social values and the functions of the society is described as social change. Social changes are visible in social relations, family affairs, matrimonial arrangement, values and lifestyle of people as well as in the fine arts. Westernization globalization and urbanization are the main factors responsible for social change. The impact of materialistic culture, means of luxury, modem equipment is visible even in the rural areas.

The changes have taken place in such physical things as the houses of people and their standard of living. The western impact is more visible in the lifestyle of the people in the urban areas.

Question 2.
Why it is necessary to have general knowledge about the laws?
Answer:
It is necessary for the common people to have general knowledge about the laws for the following reasons:

  1. It will prevent them from committing crime and undergoing punishment for having committed crime. (Lack of knowledge of laws is not an excuse to break the laws.)
  2. They will become aware of the exploitative practices and seek guidance to stop their exploitation.
  3. They will be able to enjoy the rights conferred on them by the constitution.
  4. They will become aware of the legal protection available to them.
  5. Their loyalty towards the society, state and nation will enchans.
  6. They will be able to perform their fundamental duties and contribute to the society.
  7. People can live with self-respect when they have knowledge of laws.

GSEB Solutions Class 10 Social Science Chapter 21 Social Change

Question 3.
Explain “Child development is a pre-condition for economic development”.
Answer:
Child development and child welfare is a pre-condition of social development because,

  1. The progress of any nation depends on the overall development of the children.
  2. When children are protected, looked after and educated, they will become good citizens and will contribute to the well-being of the family progress of society and development of the nation.
  3. Children are the property of the nation. Their upbringing and development needs proper care by the family and society for the future, of the nation.

Question 4.
Write about the government efforts to curb corruption.
Answer:
1. Central Anti-Corruption Bureau was established in 1964. It undertakes investigation against the government officials who are found guilty of corruption charges. It has offices in all principal cities. Its Gujarat office is in Shahibaug, Ahmedabad.
2. Anti-Corruption Act was enacted by the Union Parliament in 1988, with the objective of providing transparent public life and to prevent misuse of power and authority by the government officials. If made it obligatory for the politicians (Ministers) and high officials to declare their assents as a punishable offense and empowered the government to confiscate these assets.
3. Right to Information and Citizen’s Charter were the steps taken in 2005 to curb corruption. Citizen’s Charter stipulates the time limit to complete the work. The Right to Information had the objective to bring transparency in the working of the government by giving right to the people to demand information.
4. Black Money Act, 2005 regarded corruption as a criminal offence.
5. Central Vigilance Commission and Gujarat Vigilance Commission undertake departmental inquiry of charges of corruption and misuse of power by the government officials.
6. The other legal provisions are:

    • Foreign Exchange Management Act
    • Money Laundering Act
    • Section 132 Customs Act, and
    • Appointment of Lok Pal and Lokayukta.

Question 5.
Describe the objectives of the Food Safety Bill.
Answer:
The Union Parliament enacted the National Food Security Act in 2013 to provide the right to Food Security to eh citizens. Food Security means that “every person gets nutritious food for remaining active and living healthy life.”

The objectives of the National Food Security Act are as follows:

  1. To satisfy the food requirement of the increasing population of the country by ensuring adequate quality and quantity of the food and to supply the same at a concessional rate.
  2. To curb malnutrition by giving encouragement to increase the production of the nutritious food.
  3. To provide food security to the Antyodaya and the BPL families.
  4. To provide nutritious food the pregnant and feeding women.
  5. To make the Public Distribution System (PDS) efficient, transparent and simple.

II. Answer the following questions briefly.

Question 1.
Why is child labour very much in demand?
Answer:
Child labour is very much in demand due to the following reasons:

  1. Child labour is much cheaper in comparison to adult labour. The employers are able to extract more work and give less wages to the child labourers.
  2. Child labour is unorganized and cannot protest against exploitation.
  3. Child labour is available in plenty owing to the poverty.
  4. Illiterate and poor parents in the rural areas send their children to work to fulfill the family needs.

GSEB Solutions Class 10 Social Science Chapter 21 Social Change

Question 2.
Mention the Fundamental Rights of the citizens.
Answer:
The Constitution of India has conferred the following Fundamental Rights on the citizens:

  1. Right to Equality
  2. Right to Freedom
  3. Right Against Exploitation
  4. Right to Freedom of Religion
  5. Cultural and Educational Rights and
  6. Right to Constitutional Remedies.

[The Right to Property, a fundamental right earlier, was withdrawn by the 44th Constitutional Amendment Act in 1978. It is only a civil right since 1978.]

Question 3.
Describe the various forms of child labour.
Answer:
Despite legal provisions, children are employed in hazardous environments such as manufacture of fire crakers kiln.

They are employed in factories and at construction sites. They are employed in shops, hotels, dhabas and tea-stalls. They are employed in agricultural sector, animal husbandry and fishery, and to pick-up plastic and debris, pulling carts and in garages. They are employed as domestic helpers and in distribution of newspapers, etc.

Question 4.
“Corruption is one of the causes of price rise”. Give reason.
Answer:
Corruption generates black money. It increases the purchasing power of corrupt people. They spend lavishly on luxury goods. Thereby the supply of money increases. The corrupt lend their funds to the traders who create artificial shortage of essential commodities. The corrupt indulge in speculative trading activities. All these activities create imbalance between demand and supply in the market and contribute to price rise.

Question 5.
Mention the important Provision of ‘Maa Annapurna Yojana’.
Answer:
The National Food Security Act is implemented in Gujarat under the name of ‘Maa Annapurna Yojana’. The main provisions of ‘Maa Annapurna Yojana’ are as follows:

  1. To supply food grains to the needy middle-class families in the urban and rural areas at a subsidized rate.
  2. To provide 35 kg foodgrains free to the Antyodaya and BPL families.
  3. Under the PDS, the needy middle-class families will be supplied 5 kg grains per person per month at the subsidized rate of rice 3 rupees per kg, wheat 2 rupees per kg and the coarse grains 1 rupee per kg. There are 3.62 crore beneficiaries of ‘Maa Annapurna Yojana’ in Gujarat.

IV. Choose the correct answer of the and write it:

Question 1.
Which is the main factor responsible for social change in India?
(a) Conservative traditions
(b) Public opinion
(c) Westernization
(d) Literacy
Answer:
(d) Literacy

GSEB Solutions Class 10 Social Science Chapter 21 Social Change

Question 2.
Who declared manifesto of human rights?
(a) Great Britain
(b) United Nation
(c) UNICEF
(d) World Bank
Answer:
(b) United Nation

Question 3.
When is ‘World Elderly People Day celebrated?
(a) 8th March
(b) 1st October
(c) 1st April
(d) 15th June
Answer:
(b) 1st October

Question 4.
Which of the following informations may be refused to the given?
(a) Election Commission
(b) Government Schemes
(c) Judgment
(d) Matter related to sovereignty
Answer:
(d) Matter related to sovereignty

Question 5.
Which things are forbidden in the law related to free education?
(a) Admission without birth certificate
(b) Facility of special training
(c) Admission without entrance test
(d) Capitation fee at time of admission
Answer:
(d) Capitation fee at time of admission

Question 6.
Which new aspects have been implemented to strengthen public distribution system?
(a) Barcoded Ration Card
(b) ATM Card
(c) Bio-metric Identity
(d) Election Identity Card
Answer:
(c) Bio-metric Identity

Gujarat Board Class 10 Social Science Social Change Additional Important Questions and Answers

I. Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs)

Question 1.
How many Fundamental Rights are given by the Indian Constitution?
(a) Three
(b) Four
(c) Five
(d) Six
Answer:
(d) Six

GSEB Solutions Class 10 Social Science Chapter 21 Social Change

Question 2.
Which type of harassment is considered to be child abuse?
(a) Physical
(b) Mental
(c) Sexual
(d) All of these
Answer:
(d) All of these

Question 3.
Which of the following reasons is not for having great demand of child labour?
(a) The number of child laborers is less so they are not easily available
(b) Child laborers do not oppose their employers
(c) Child labour is the cheapest factor for production
(d) In hard and hazardous conditions work could be taken from them by paying less wages.
Answer:
(a) The number of child laborers is less so they are not easily available

Question 4.
Make the following pairs and select the correct option.
GSEB Solutions Class 10 Social Science Chapter 21 Social Change
(a) (1 – d), (2 – c), (3 – b), (4 – a)
(b) (1 – c), (2 – d), (3 – b), (4 – a)
(c) (1 – b), (2 – a), (3 – d), (4 – c)
(d) (1 – c), (2-6), (3 – a), (4 – d)
Answer:
(a) (1 – d), (2 – c), (3 – b), (4 – a)

Question 5.
Which year has been declared as “International Elderly Year* by UN?
(a) 1990
(b) 1995
(c) 1999
(d) 2000
Answer:
(c) 1999

II. Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Which charter has been declared by UN?
Answer:
Human Rights

Question 2.
Which state has the maximum number of elderly people?
Answer:
Arunachal Pradesh

GSEB Solutions Class 10 Social Science Chapter 21 Social Change

Question 3.
By which name 1st October is known?
Answer:
World Elderly People.

Question 4.
What is the full form of RTF?
Answer:
Right to Information.

Question 5.
Which scheme has been implemented by the Gujarat Government under food security?
Answer:
Maa Annapurna Yojana.

III. Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
It is important to make people aware about basic laws and rights. Give reasons.
Answer:
Due to reasons such as low literacy rate, lack of knowledge and understanding, people do not possess information about day-to-day laws in our country. Since people do not have knowledge about law, they violate law, ignorance of law is not an excuse in the court of law.

So, people are fined a punished as per the legal system. Moreover, people having knowledge about basic rights and laws can help in maintaining a just society, peaceful environment and respecting and treating all others equally. Hence, it is important to make people aware about basic laws and rights.

Question 2.
Right to constitutional remedies is the soul of Constitution. Give reason.
Answer:
Right to constitutional remedies is not just special right of the Fundamental Rights but also a very special feature of the Constitution. This right empowers a citizen to go to the court in case he is deprived of any of his Fundamental Rights. The court ensures complete protection to the citizens by listening to their complaints and taking proper action. Since a citizen can flight for any right that he is deprived of through the Right to Constitutional Remedies, this right is known as the ‘Soul of the Constitution’.

Question 3.
Children should be protected from exploitation. Give reason.
Answer:
Children are extremely sensitive. Any form of exploitation, whether physical or mental may keep their life damaged for a very long time. We see several instances in newspaper, T.V. or other mass media that children are becoming victims of exploitation by their blood relatives, close friends, neighbours, close acquaintance or even parents. It has been reported in several cases that children who undergo such exploitation are never able to come out the shame and fear and hence ends up their life. Every child has the right to live a healthy life free of fear and exploitation. But he might be getting exploited and hence deprived of these rights and life because of his small age. Hence, citizens should help children to save them from exploitation.

GSEB Solutions Class 10 Social Science Chapter 21 Social Change

Question 4.
State the important reasons for child labour.
Answer:
The condition of children under labour is extremely bad in the country. Such a bad condition is the result of poor governance and ineffective implementation of laws made in the country. This is one of the main reasons why people involve in child labour. Poverty, illiteracy among parents, big family, family requirements, unemployment of adults in family, desire to increase family income are among the chief reasons for children to enter into child labour.

Sometimes children are sent to bigger cities for work or they are kidnapped or they become victims of child-trafficking. Hunger and shelter forces such children to enter into child labour. Sometimes children who have fled their house and have taken shelter in the house of their relatives or acquaintances Eire forced to enter into labour as compensation of staying there.

Question 5.
State the efforts made by the government to abolish child labour.
Answer:
To abolish child labour, the government has made many provisions in the Constitution. These are as follows:

  1. No child below 14 years will be employed in a factory or occupation or job. If anybody breaks the law, legal action may be taken against the employer.
  2. A child cannot be exploited in any way during his childhood or teenage. He cannot be devoid of moral security and physical comforts.
  3. It was clarified that within 10 years of implementing the constitution, the government will have to arrange free education for children up to 14 years of age.
  4. In this regard, the central and state governments have implemented a law in 2009, so that children belonging to age group of 6 to 14 years should get free compulsory education.

Question 6.
What is corruption? Explain.
Answer:
According to World Bank, “Corruption means the misuse of the public position for personal benefits.” From this definition we can say that corruption takes place when people misuse their status and power. In the act of corruption, people dishonestly persuade someone to act in one’s favour by a gift of money or other offerings. This act of persuading for personal benefits by offering money, etc. is called bribe. There are several forms of bribe and corruption.

They can be in the form of giving and taking money, gifts and presents in the form of costly ornaments or things or offering foreign trips, partial behaviour, influencing decision, favoring relatives and friends, etc. In India, corruption widely exists in most of the public and also some private sectors. Both, the giver and the taker of bribe are a part of corruption and so both are guilty and should be punished.

Question 7.
State the effects of corruption on the economy and the society.
Answer:
Corruption degrades the moral values and rules and regulations meant for the society. Problem of black money originates in economy. Black money is a major hindrance in the development of the country. Trust of honest people on state laws, judicial process, government and administrative system decreases. Such people then experience frustration and disappointment.

Injustice and disparity in income originates which results into class struggle. This results in violation of human rights. Due to corruption, morality and national character comes at risk. This economic system of the nation becomes weak.

GSEB Solutions Class 10 Social Science Chapter 21 Social Change

Question 8.
Corruption is the evil of many economic and social problems. Give reason.
Answer:
Corruption takes place when people misuse their status and power. In the act of corruption, people dishonestly persuade someone to act in one’s favour by a gift of money or other offerings. Problem of black money originates in economy. Black money is a major hindrance in the development of the country.

Corruption degrades the moral values and rules and regulations meant for the society. Trust of honest people on state laws, judicial process, government and administrate system decreases. Since India’s corruption is destroying its economy, breaking people’s morale and losing national and international reputation, it is rightly said that corruption is the evil of many economic and social problems.

Question 9.
RTI is the biggest right given to people to pull the thread of corruption. Give reason.
Answer:
As per RTI any citizen may approach higher official of the department and ask questions to get proper information about his pending work or implementation Of schemes, or for success or status of public-oriented work. Due to the fear of RTI, the works of the government has become more transparent and efficient.

As per RTI, everything should be open and disclosed to all. So, the officials fear getting involved in corruption. Moreover, if a citizen is suspicious about any work going under the government then he can have their printed copies of the work. All such rights given to citizens under RTI forces the government to remain alert, honest, efficient and transparent. Hence, it is said that RTI is the biggest right given to people to pull the threat of corruption.
With this aim, the government provides facilities like:

  1. Proper school building and classrooms and giving grants to the schools.
  2. Laboratory and electricity.
  3. Pure drinking water providing midday meal.
  4. Maintaining the quality and qualification of teachers and developing and maintaining standard format for recruitment, etc.

IV. Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is social change? Explain. Also give a few examples of social changes taking place in Indian Society.
Answer:
The change that occurs over time in the social order of a society is called social change. Social change may include changes in social institutions, social behaviour, or social relations. Owing to these factors India has witnessed social changes in social changes in social changes in social relations, family arrangement, culture, in lifestyle of people, literature, art, music and dance, etc.

Social change in India has also occurred due to westernization, globalization and urbanization. Examples of social changes that have taken place in India:

Indians now prefer nuclear family rather than joint family. Untouchability has been abolished using legal measures. Inter-caste marriages are on the rise. Preference for a male child has reduced. Child labour is reducing. With advancement of technology today physical objects, means of luxury, modem equipment and modes of entertainment, etc. have reached up to rural areas.

Change has taken also place in the design, material used and technology of constructing houses. All these changes have improved people’s living standards, thought process and have made their life better. Now we can very well see effect of western culture on Indian lifestyle.

GSEB Solutions Class 10 Social Science Chapter 21 Social Change

Question 2.
Discuss the present situation of elderly and helpless people in India.
Answer:
In many families when people become old, their children and citizens, in general, consider them burden. So, they neglect them do no take good care of them and at times even leave them at old age homes. Such elderly people become helpless. It is the duty to take care of such people, assure them security and see to it they do not suffer. Today, the life expectancy of a person has increased by 4.3 years due to improvement in health related services, modern medical facilities and quick treatment.

The average life expectancy in India was about 63.5 years between the years 2001 and 2005. This increased to 67.5 years in 2015. In India, there was an addition of about 2.75 crore elderly people in the decade of 2001-2011. As per an estimate, there were 5.11 crore elderly males and 5.28 elderly females in 2011 in India. Arunachal Pradesh has the highest number of elderly people in India.

In Gujarat, there are about 35 lakh elderly people. Rise in population of elderly people and increase in their average lifespan have led to several social and physical problems. The western culture influences us to move away from joint families and live in nuclear family. As a result, the youths are not ready to accept the responsibility of their parents. The youth and children are ignoring their ethical responsibilities towards elderly people, values and culture.

All these reasons have forced the elderly people to live in ‘Old Age Homes’. In order to attract attention of people towards problems of elderly people, UN had announced year 1999 as the International Elderly Year’. The UN also declared to celebrate 1st October as World Elderly People Day’ at the international level.

Question 3.
State the steps taken by India for providing security and safely to elderly and helpless people.
Answer:
Steps taken for safety and security of elderly people: In 1999, the government framed the “National Policy for the senior citizens’. According to this policy, elderly people are given pension. Under various schemes, the senior citizens are given more interest on the amount deposited by them in post office or bank. They are also given 30% to 50% discount/concession in bus, railway and airfares.

The State Government has opened ‘Old Age Home’ with all the basic facilities in every district. These homes conduct several gardens developed for them in cities. The government has implemented parents and senior citizen care and welfare-related law in 2007 to protect them from domestic violence, exploitation or abuse. Under this law, provision has been made to punish those children who harass their elderly parents.

The responsibility of taking care of elderly people is of their family and their relatives. Elderly people have the right to get maintenance from their children. So, the Central Government has implemented a programme to honour senior citizen in return for their contributions to the nation and society.

Question 4.
What is RTI? Explain.
Answer:
On 15th June 2005, the Central Government of India enacted a right called “Right to Information (RTI) Act.’ RTI is applicable to all the states of India except Jammu and Kashmir. This Act is also not applicable to secret services of the country, institutions dealing with security and safety, institutions promoting unity and integrity and foreign ambassador’s office.

The Gujarat government implemented the rules for ‘Gujarat Right to Information Act, 2005’ on 5th October 2005 on the basis of legislative provisions made under RTI. The base of RTI legislative is to acquire transparent, clean simple and quick administrative operations and to seek public co-operation on it.

As per RTI any citizen may approach higher officials of the department and ask questions to get proper information about his pending work or implementation of schemes, or for success or status of public-oriented work. For the first time in India, the government has started a helpline number for resolving a query, providing special information or guidance related to use of Right to Information Act. This number is 9924085000.

One can contact this number all the days in working hours except public holidays. In addition to this, the government has declared ‘Civil Rights’ Letter to fix a deadline for bringing solution in the concerned offices. Under the right, the applicant can inquire about the status of his application. This Act is a revolutionary step to put off corruption.

Question 5.
Why was RTE 2009 formed? Which facilities does the government raise for the school under RTE?
Answer:
The ‘Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act’ or ‘Right to Education (RTE) Act’ is an Act of the Parliament of India enacted in the year 2009! According to 86th Amendment in Indian Constitution, primary has been made free and compulsory for all the children of age group 6-14 years.

This is a major step in the direction of developing children as the future citizens of India. With the objective of physical, mental and all-round development of children, necessary educational opportunities have been created and which also meet the demand of qualitative primary education.

Not only is the education made free, the government has also made specific norm which are to be followed while providing the free education. The norms have been set with a view of providing proper education facilities and maintaining physical and mental health of the students.

With the aim, the government provides facilities like:

  1. Proper school building and classrooms and giving grants to the schools.
  2. Laboratory and electricity.
  3. Pure drinking water providing midday meal.
  4. Maintaining the quality and qualification of teachers and developing and maintaining standard format for recruitment, etc.

GSEB Solutions Class 10 Social Science Chapter 21 Social Change

Question 6.
Highlight the provisions made under RTE Act, 2009.
Answer:
(1) According to RTE Act, every child between the age group of 6 to 14 years should get admission in the school close to his locality. Children who do not birth certificates as age proof cannot be refused admission in the school.
(2) If the child is older than 14 years but has hot completed primary education, then he should be provided education free of cost.
(3) At the time of admission, the age of the child should be 6 years and if he does not have birth certificate, then hospital records, age-related affidavit of parents should considered as age proof for admission.
(4) All the students should be given admission without discrimination.
(5) No fees including capitation fees, admission fees, deposit, etc. can be taken.
(6) At the time of admission, neither children nor parents should be interviewed. Moreover, no test should be conducted for the parents for admitting their child. Admission should not be given on the basis of income or educational qualification or capabilities of parents.
(7) To see that the children of age 3 to 5 years also get educated, a revolutionary step has been taken for the first time by taking nursery schooling under the law.
As a result, rules have been framed providing special training to pre-school teachers, designing their courses, curriculum and evaluation.
(8) According to this Act, provision has been made for the children of weaker section and backward classes (SCs and STs). According to it, if students of these castes and tribes are interested in studies and if their families fall in the category of BPL then they should be admitted in the government recognized private primary schools. As per the order, it is compulsory that 25% students of 1st standard should be from these sections of the society.
(9) Schoolteacher are not allowed to take private tuitions.
(10) All the under-qualified teachers of the school should obtain necessary academic qualification within 5 years.
(11) Any child who has not completed his primary education cannot be terminated from school until being transferred.
(12) in the private primary schools, the fees of children belong to SC and ST is paid by the government as per some fixed conditions.
(13) For the compliance of provisions of this law a scheduled management, tribunal or say state council has been provisioned. The Director of the School may be fined or recognition of the school can be terminated if this Act is not followed.

V. Fill in the blanks

1. Child labour is a …………… problem.
2. UN has announced year 1999 as the …………….. .
3. It is a ……………… of the child to get education so that he can develop his personality.
4. The Central Government implemented law regarding right to free and compulsory education for children in year …………….. .
5. …………….. means every person gets nutritious food for remaining active and for healthy life and procurement offood.
Answer:
1. Global
2. International Elderly
3. Legal right
4. 2009
5. Food Security

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *