This GSEB Class 8 Social Science Notes Chapter 8 India – Challenges and Solutions covers all the important topics and concepts as mentioned in the chapter.
India – Challenges and Solutions Class 8 GSEB Notes
→ The root cause of almost all problems of India is over population (i.e., population explosion).
→ The continuous and rapid rise in population in the country for an extended period is known as ‘population explosion’.
→ Population explosion leads to certain man-made challenges such as pollution, congestion in residential areas, shortage of water and food as well as poor medical services, less educational opportunities, unemployment, poverty, terrorism, corruption, etc. Thus it is necessary to take steps to control population.
→ Literacy is required to understand new ideas, discoveries and knowledge. An educated person can effectively communicate and explain his ideas, opinions, views and beliefs. At the time of independence literacy rate was low but it has gone up since then.
→ Illiteracy is a taboo on the culture of any society. So to eradicate illiteracy, the government has declared free and compulsory education at primary level for the age group of 6-to-14-year- old children, scholarship, free mid-day meals, girl education related policies like Vidyadeep Scheme, residential schools for tribal people, adult education programmes, etc. Since 2009 the Right to Education (RTE) Act has been introduced and implemented.
→ The increase in prices of essential commodities and other necessities is known as ‘inflation’. Inflation has an adverse effect on people’s health and causes stress-related problems.
→ Corruption, hoarding and population explosion, bribery and black marketing, etc. are the factors responsible for inflation.
→ The only way to face inflation is to practice thrift and spend sensibly by having a budget plan.
→ Poverty is another major challenge faced by our country.
→ A situation wherein people are deprived of basic necessities like food, clothing, shelter, education, medical facilities, employment, etc. is termed as ‘poverty’.
→ The criterion of a person’s poverty is decided on the basis of purchase power and level of his/her income.
→ At present the percentage of people living below the poverty line in Gujarat is 14.7%.
→ Due to 5-years plans, education and medical facilities have more accessible. Moreover, growth of industries has created many jobs. Consequently poverty has reduced. Integration of technology in agriculture has increased the incomes of farmers also.
→ In simple terms, ‘Corruption’ means lack of integrity and honesty or misuse of a position for dishonest gains. In short, the immoral and illegal behaviour towards a person is ‘corruption’.
→ Giving and taking bribes or inappropriate gifts, double or under-the-table dealing, manipulating elections, diverting money and money laundering, etc. are some forms of corruption.
→ Corruption has become the major issue that hinders the development of our nation.
→ Effects of Corruption:
- Violation of human rights.
- Hindrance to the development of the nation.
- Deterioration of moral values.
- Increase in inflation.
- Lack of trust in law and order.
- Encouragement to Nepotism.
- Slow human development and breach of faith.
→ To reduce and prevent corruption, the government set up the ‘Anti-Corruption Bureau’ in 1964. The government has also framed certain laws against corruption since 1988.
→ The Anti-Corruption Bureau helps people by checking and controlling corruption.
→ The Message of the Anti-Corruption Bureau is that Accepting and offering bribes, both are crimes’.
→ People who are 18 years or above and cannot find work in spite of searching for a job come under the category of ‘unemployed’.
→ Introduction of technology in modern times has led to the burning problem of unemployment. For e.g., the use of computers has made work faster and more accurate and machines have replaced human beings thus increasing unemployment. Mechanization in agriculture has left many agricultural labourers unemployed. Such people migrate to the cities in search of work. So villages disintegrate and urban problems increase.
→ Education has increased and expanded its horizons but employment opportunities have not increased at the same rate. So the number of educated unemployed has increased.
→ The density of population keeps on increasing in cities. Therefore, challenges related to sufficient water, housing, electricity, communication, cleanliness, health and education arise in cities.
→ Other problems like anti-social activities, child labour, drug diction, consumption of alcohol, mental stress, etc. are the byproducts of growing urbanization and unemployment.
→ Terrorism is a global problem and a challenge for any government. It is an obstacle in the progress of every nation. Terrorism is an evil, lowly and violent process to disturb the peace, brotherhood and unity of a nation. Terrorism creates fear in the minds of people through violence and hatred.
→ Terrorism is an inhuman act carried out by a certain group of people in a planned manner by resorting to bullying, killing or torturing innocent people.
→ Terrorism is pure hatred and cruelty and has nothing to do with any religion. There have been terrorist attacks on the Parliament, the Taj Hotel and Akshardham, etc.
→ Measures to save ourselves from terrorism:
- Citizens must face terrorism with bravery and courage.
- The Intelligence Bureau should be strong and active.
- People should always be rey to cooperate with security forces.
- People should remain alert in public and crowded places.
- They should not pay attention to rumours.
- They shouldn’t panic.
- Security forces should be well-equipped with CCTV cameras and metal detectors.