This GSEB Class 8 Social Science Notes Chapter 2 Environmental Pollution covers all the important topics and concepts as mentioned in the chapter.
Environmental Pollution Class 8 GSEB Notes
→ Due to important inventions in science and technology, industrial revolution took place in Europe and since then man has developed vastly in fields like electricity, railways, telephones, vehicles, industries, electronics, etc. that have led to massive changes in human life.
→ The presence of substances or elements in the atmosphere or environment that are harmful or poisonous to life is known as pollution.
→ Man has used natural resources in an unlimited manner to achieve progress and this has become the cause of widespread pollution of air, water, land and vegetation which are very essential elements of environment needed for sustenance of life.
→Water Pollution: Water becomes impure or polluted during the process of manufacturing. This chemical infested water of industries is released into rivers, streams or onto land. Such water pollutes the riverwater, the groundwater as well as the land on which it is thrown. Due to such polluted water, many aquatic animals are destroyed .
→ As the water from drains of cities is released into rivers, lakes, etc. serious problems of water pollution arise in cities too.
→ Agricultural products and grass grown using this dirty water of rivers contain many pollutants.
→ Diseases like cholera, jaundice, vomiting, diarrhoea, etc. spread by water pollution.
→ To prevent water pollution, dirty water from industries and gutters must be purified before it is released into rivers or streams. Government should implement strict pollution control policies to restrict industrial pollution.
→ Air Pollution: Air pollution is also a major concern of the world. Air is polluted by gases and smoke emitted by industries and vehicles that run on fossil fuels like diesel, petrol, etc. that release smoke and harmful gases like hydrocarbons, nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, benzopyrene, carbon dioxide, etc. These harmful gases have been mixing with air continuously. So their proportion in the air has increased.
→ Due to deforestation on a large scale and also due to depletion of forest cover, the proportion of dust particles and CO2 floating in air has increased. This has led to the intense problem of global warming.
→ Air pollution causes diseases of throat and lungs such as asthma, breathing problems, lung infections, etc. Dust particles floating in air lead to diseases like cough and cold and allergy.
→ Sometimes poisonous gases mix with rain drops and cause Acid rain’, which is harmful to plants and animals.
→ To prevent air pollution, rules are necessary for industries and vehicles and these must be strictly implemented. Equipment Which can filter smoke and poisonous gases should be developed and installed.
→ Petrol and diesel should be used very judiciously. Pollution-free fuels such as CNG or LPG used in vehicles will help to a great extent and P.U.C. (Pollution Under Control) checks should be strictly implemented.
→ Forests and vegetation cover should be increased.
→ Land Pollution: Though land pollution is not easily visible, it is becoming increasingly evident in today’s world.
→ Water from industries and drains in urban areas often flows on the ground thus polluting it. Solid industrial waste adds to this.
→ Non-degradable solid waste products like polythene (plastic) bags, other scrap and chemicals dumped on land in urban areas also causes land pollution.
→ Extensive use of chemical fertilizers and insecticides to increase farm produce also pollutes soil.
→ Plastic bags and dirty industrial water are fatal for organisms, which make land fertile. Due to the destruction of these organisms, land becomes non-productive.
→ It is not advisable to establish industries on agricultural land. With the depletion of fertile land, crop production also decreases.
→ To prevent land pollution, purity of the environment must be protected. No industries should be set up on arable land. Traditional bio-fertilizer should be used in place of chemical fertilizers. Pesticides should be used minimally. Other important remedies is use of non-conventional energy sources and introduction of green technology as well as recycle or reuse solid waste.
→ Noise Pollution: Noise created by heavy machines making intense sound in industries, noise made by vehicles and their horns, loudspeakers and musical instruments played at high volume causes noise pollution.
→ D.J. bands, loudspeakers for canvassing, exploding crackers on a large scale also cause noise pollution.
→ Noise pollution leads to deafness. It has an adverse effect on mental and emotional health as well.
→ Extremely loud noise is the cause of death in certain insects and organisms.
→ To prevent noise pollution, loudspeakers, radios, TV’s, and other musical instruments should be played at a low volume, crackers should be avoided, vehicles should be checked and serviced regularly, parking facilities should be increased, industries should be established away from settlements, forestation should be done around factories and vehicular sound should be minimized by growing trees on both sides of the main road.
→ As per Mahatma Gandhi’s views, water, land and forests belong to the community. Everybody has equal right to them. Making them a ‘commodity for sale’ is a moral sin.
→ Water pollution holds the highest priority among man-made problems.
→ It is our collective responsibility to prevent or reduce all types of pollution. Awareness and appropriate action is the need of the hour to save ourselves from the harmful effects of pollution.