GSEB Class 12 Economics Notes Chapter 11 Emerging Issues in Indian Economy

This GSEB Class 12 Economics Notes Chapter 11 Emerging Issues in Indian Economy covers all the important topics and concepts as mentioned in the chapter.

Emerging Issues in Indian Economy Class 12 GSEB Notes

1. Meaning of Migration:
Migration refers to movement of a person from one place to another place, away from native place either within or outside the country for job, occupation, business or in search of better standard of living on a permanent basis.

2. Types of Migration:
(i) Place-based Migration:
(a) Internal Migration: The movement of a person from one place to another place within a country.
(b) International Migration: The movement of a person from one country to another country.

(ii) Reason-based Migration:
(a) Pull factor Migration: Migration from village to a city due to attraction of the lifestyle and modern infrastructural facilities of urban areas.
(b) Push factor Migration: When people living in villages are forced to leave their villages due to lack of business or occupational opportunities and ’ limited educational facilities.

3. Causes of Migration:

  • Economic causes: Employment, Occu¬pation and business, transfer, extent of natural resources, to attain better quality education, to get modern health facilities, plan for performing economic activity.
  • Social causes: Marriage system, social rituals.
  • Political causes: War and unrest, friction.
  • Environmental causes: Natural cala¬mities (Famine, earthquake, volcanoes, etc.)

4. Effects of Migration:

  • Positive effects: Growth of income, contribution to a faster economic development.
  • Negative effects: Unregulated urbanisation, shortage of infrastructural facilities, problem of environmental pollution, social evils.

GSEB Class 12 Economics Notes Chapter 11 Emerging Issues in Indian Economy

1. Meaning of Urbanisation:

  • • Generally, the migration of people from rural area to urban area is called urbanisation.
  • • It is a socio-economic process due to which the population in one area increases and converted into a town or a city.
  • • Urbanisation is concentration of population in cities.

Definition of a town or a city:
According to Census 2001, the criteria adopted for a town or a city is as follows:

  • All those areas where there is Municipality, Corporation, Cantonment Board or Notified Town Area Committee.
  • All those area where
    (a) 5000 or more population live
    (b) 75 % or more population are employed in non-agriculture sector
    (c) density Qf population is 400 or more per square kilometre.

Methods of process of Urbanisation:

  • Natural population growth
  • Change in the definition of village and town areas.
  • Large-scale migration of people from rural to urban areas.
  • In 1961, urban population was 17.97% which increased to 27.86% in 2001 and 31.16% in 2011, that shows speedy process of urbanisation.

2. Effects of Urbanisation:

  • Positive effects: Increase in infrastructural facilities, Reduction in poverty, Cultural development, Ultra modern health services, Social effects – modern thinking and high standard of living.
  • Negative effects: Income inequality, Social inequalities, Problem of slum-dwelling, Law and order problem, Problem of infrastructural facilities, Problem of environmental pollution.

3. Measures to reduce the problem of Urbanisation:

  • Policy related steps,
  • Increasing employment opportunities,
  • Strengthen the infrastructural facilities,
  • Modernisation of education and health facilities,
  • Development of cottage and small-scale industries,
  • Development Of basic infrastructural facilities in rural areas,
  • Strengthen the administrative system.

Infrastructural Services:
1. Education:

  • Education refers to the process of teaching and learning.
  • Human capital investment: Investment made for education, training, grooming, research, etc. are called human capital investment.

Benefits of education:

  • Improves the standard of living of human beings
  • Improves a person’s ability to exchange ideas and uplifts his self-confidence.
  • A person can build a congenial atmosphere for leading a good life.
  • Makes a person efficient enough to utilize the opportunities generated in the society.
  • Productivity of labourers can be increased through training.
  • Agricultural productivity can be increased through technological knowledge.
  • A person’s active participation in social issues can be increased.
  • Enables a society to increase and expand environmental balance.
  • Awareness can be brought regarding cleanliness and health.

Present scenario of education:
Stages of education are:

  • Primary education: 1 to 5 standards.
  • Higher Primary education: 6 to 8 standards.
  • Secondary education: 9 and 10 standards.
  • Higher secondary education: 11 and 12 standards.
  • College or higher education r standard 12 +
  • Technical education: After standard 8, education by ITI.
    • The constitution of India has made primary education for children in the age group 6 to 14 years, free and compulsory and its responsibility is assigned to State Government.
    • In 2013 – 14: There were 1.4 million primary schools in India.
      : There were 7.7 million teachers in India.
      : Student teacher ratio was 46:1 in primary education. It was 34: 1 in higher primary education.
      : 69 % of students enrolled in secondary education. It was 25 % in higher secondary education.
    • In 2011: There was 74.04% literacy in India and it was 79.31 % in Gujarat.

2. Health:

  • According to WHO, Health is just not absence of diseases or physical strength but it is an individuals physical, mental and social well-being.
  • Education nurtures the mind while health nurtures the body.

Benefits of good health:

  • Rise in productivity .leads to rise in output
  • Natural resources can be better utilized and wastage of resources can be stopped.
  • Rise in income of labour leads to higher standard of living.

For good health

  • balanced diet and
  • good medical treatment are necessary.

In 2011, the life expectancy of an average Indian was 63.5 years.

Health situation:

  • There is a shortage of specialised treatment in rural areas.
  • \(\frac{1}{5}\)-th of total hospitals in India are situated in rural areas. Due to lack of qualified and specialist doctors, good treatment and timely treatment is not available in rural areas.
  • In India, due to lack of nutritional food 50 % of females between the age 15 to 49 years suffer from iron deficiency of which 19% die.
    • According to the World Bank Report, India spends only 4.4 % on health out of the gross domestic product.
    • Government can build a healthy nation by expanding and extending health . services to rural areas.

GSEB Class 12 Economics Notes Chapter 11 Emerging Issues in Indian Economy

3. Electricity:
Electricity can be considered as , an important growth engine for economic development.

  • In rural areas for the growth of Agriculture, Irrigation, Cottage and Small- scale industries and in cities for the development of industries and service sectors electricity plays an important role.
  • In India productive capacity of electricity was 1,54,574 MW in July, 2009.
  • India leads the world in electricity generation and consumption. India is in the 7th position in electricity generation and 5th in electricity consumption in the world.

Sources of electricity in India:

  • Thermal power through coal
  • Hydro-electric power through water
  • Nuclear power through nuclear energy and
  • Electricity through Windmill, Biogas, Solar energy, etc.

In 2012-13, out of total energy generated, 70 % was hydro-electric power, 16 % from wind power, 2 % from nuclear power and 12 % from other sources.

Use of electricity:

  • Agriculture,
  • Industries,
  • Household,
  • Transportation and
  • Others.

In 2012-13, maximum use of electricity was 45 % in industries.
Generation of electricity: By

  • State government,
  • Central government and
  • Private sector.

Challenges faced by electricity sector:

  • It is not able to use the fullest production capacity.
  • The availability of electricity is not enough to meet the requirement of economic development of the nation which aims to grow at 7 to 8 %.
  • The production of electricity is less than the production capacity.
  • The method of electricity distribution is improper.
  • Problem of wastage of electricity and theft of electricity.
  • Electricity production is affected by the factors like high cost, frequent power cuts, scarcity of coal, etc.

4. Railways:
Indian Railways was started during British Rule on 16th April, 1853 between Bombay and Thane, a distance of 22 miles a 34 km.

  • After independence the administration of railway came into the hands of Indian Government and managed through a separate department.
  • Today railway network of India stands to be number one in Asia and number 4 in the world.
  • Railway is India’s biggest public enterprise and today more than 14 lakhs people have got employment in it.
  • In 2012, 8200 million passengers travelled in Indian Railways and 970 million tonnes of goods were transported by railways.

Importance of railway in India’s economic development:

  • Because of occupational dynamism industrialisation and business has become faster.
  • Due to increase in speed, safety and comfort level of travel regional dynamisjn of labour has improved.
  • The commercialisation of agriculture has been increased.
  • India’s foreign trade has developed.
  • A new sector – tourism has developed.
  • A link for national unity and integrity has developed.
    It has been found that petroleum resources are present in Kadi, Kalol, Ankleshwar, etc. in Gujarat and in Bombay High for offshore drilling platform has been erected.

Steps of encouragement for development 0f railway:

  • The work of gauge conversion is made speedy.
  • More facilities are being created to make rail travel safer.
  • Railway compartments are also being modernised to make passengers feel more comfort.
  • Modernisation of railway station is taken up.
  • More and more electrification of railway is taking place.
  • By increasing the speed of the train, time of travelling

India’s contribution to petroleum production is just 0.4 % of the total.

  • Natural gas also is considered to be of petroleum origin. Total gas production in India is only 0.5 % of the total gas of the world.
  • Natural gas is increasingly used in the production of electricity and for vehicle operation. Use of gas is considered Environment friendly.

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