# GSEB Class 12 Economics Important Questions Chapter 7 Population

Gujarat Board GSEB Class 12 Commerce Economics Important Questions Chapter 7 Population Important Questions and Answers.

## GSEB Class 12 Economics Important Questions Chapter 7 Population

Question 1.
What is the population of the world and of India?

• World: 7 billion
• India: 1.25 billion,

Question 2.
How does the increase in population affect the future generations?
As population increases, the natural resources deplete at a fast rate. The future generation may then not be able to use the resources.

Question 3.
How does rise in unskilled population become barrier for economic development of country?
When unskilled population rises, the natural resources will npt be utilized in the best possible manner. This proves to be a barrier for the economic development of a country.

Question 4.
Define population explosion.
When the death rate falls at a slower rate compared to the birth rate it leads rise in population or say population explosion.

Question 5.
Define population trends.
Population trends refer to acquiring data and interpreting important aspects of population like, size of population, population growth rate, birth-rate, death- rate, rural-urban population, proportion of female to male population, etc.

Question 6.
What do you mean by size of population?
Population size refers to total population in a country during different years.

Question 7.
In which year was the first population census conducted in India?
1871

Question 8.
When was the first census of independent India conducted?
1951

Question 9.
Define population growth rate.
The rate at which the number of individuals in a population increases in a given time period is called population growth rate.

Question 10.
When did the last census of population take place in India?
2011

Question 11.
How much did India’s population grew in the decade 1901-1911?
5.7%

Question 12.
Menton some of the dseases which lead to high death rate in the decade 1911-1921.
Cholera, plague, tuberculosis, malaria, influenza, etc.

Question 13.
Why is the year 1921 known as ‘year of great divide’?
In India, population h s grown continuously in all the decades except for the year 1921. Hence the year 1921 was considered as the ‘Year of great divide’.

Question 14.
When did the first five year plan start in India?
1951

Question 15.
How much does India’s population rise every year?
By 170 lakhs

Question 16.
Which is the most populated country in the world and how much is the population?
China is the most populated country in the world with population of 134.10 crores.

Question 17.
Define Gender ratio.
The number of females in the country per 1000 males is known as gender ratio.

Question 18.
Define female-male ratio.
The number of females and males in the total population of a country in a given year is called female-male ratio.

Question 19.
Which state had the highest female population as per the census of 2011?
Kerala had the highest female population as per census of population 2011.

Question 20.
Which state had the lowest female population as per the census of 2011?
Haryana had the lowest female population as per census of population 2011.

Question 21.
List down reasons for adverse female- male ratio.
Low status of women, no attention to nutrition, health, education of daughters, dowry system, early marriages, female foeticide and craze for male child.

Question 22.
Why did female population per 1000 males increase in the year 2001-2011?
‘Beti Bachao’ programme was introduced in the period 2001-2011. This led to encouragement to the birth of girl child and hence female population increased.

Question 23.
What has the government done to increase the female population?
To increase female population the government launched ‘Beti Bachao’ programme in 2001. Moreover, it also took steps such as banning unethical and illegal activities such as the process of detecting the sex of the child before its birth, etc.

Question 26.
Into which age groups is the population divided?
The total population is divided into three age groups. They are:

• 0-14 years – Unproductive group
• 15-64 years – Productive group and
• 65 and more – Unproductive group.

Question 27.
What affects age wise classification of population?
Changes in death-rate and fertility rate.

Question 28.
What does a growth of productive age group indicate?
Increase in the population belonging to the age group of 15-64 years indicates that this people are a part of working population who can lead the country towards economic development.

Question 29.
Which factors influence the rate of rural-urban population?
The rate of rural-urban population is influenced by factors like employment, education, health, social life, quality of life, economic returns, occupation, etc.

Question 30.
Mention some of the problems caused due to increase in urban population.
Rise in slums and squalor, improper waste management, pollution, social evils like thefts and loots, less infrastructural facilities like electricity, water, etc.

Question 31.
What are the reasons for fall in rural population?
Lack of employment opportunities and the existence of widespread disguised unemployment and under employment.

Question 32.
State the two main factors that leads to rise in population.
Birth rate and death rate (high birth rate and low death rate). The difference that arises between the birth-rate and death rate becomes the cause of population increase.

Question 33.
Mention reasons for rise in urban population.
Availability of various physical facilities like electricity, schools, colleges, theaters, housing, good roads, transportation, communication facilities, cultural and entertainment activities, facilities for good medical treatment, etc. increases urban population.

Question 34.
Define birth rate and state its equation.
The number of children born per every 1000 persons during any given year is known as birth-rate.
Birth-rate = $$\frac{\text { The number of live – births in a given year }}{\text { Total population }}$$ × 1000

Question 35.
What are the main reasons for high birth rate?
The main reasons for high birth rate are low level of education, preference for male child, low income levels, etc.

Question 36.
Define death rate state its equation.
In a given year for every 1000 population, how many people die is known as death rate.
Death-rate = $$\frac{\text { No. of people died in a given year }}{\text { Total population }}$$ × 1000

Question 37.
List down the social factors for high birth rate.

1. Universality of marriage,
2. Early marriage and widow remarriage,
3. Preference for a male child, and
4. Joint family system.

Question 38.
List down the economic factors for high birth rate.

1. low level education,
2. Low level income and
3. High infant mortality rate.

Question 39.
List down causes for low death rate.

1. Improvement in standard of living,
2. Control over epidemics,
3. Control on droughts, and
4. Protection against Natural calamities and transportation facilities.

Question 40.
List down the different measures to control population.

1. Mass education and awareness
2. impact of fami|y Panning program,
3. Increasing the age of marriage and raising the status of women,
4. incentives and disincentives and
5. Expansion in medical services and its growing effectiveness.

Question 41.
Explain universality of marriage as a social cause for high birth rate.
In India marriage is a religious ritual. The society doubts an unmarried person and raises various questions about his/her singlehood. Many a times to escape from this, a man and a woman marry each other. Marriages then lead to rise in birth of children.

Question 42.
Why is it said that early marriage leads to high birth rate?
Despite laws banning child marriage still it happens in many parts of our country. Since they get married very early, their fertility rate is very high and also very lengthy. This results in the birth of more – number of children.

Question 43.
Why are sons preferred over daughters in India?

1. It is believed that there is a hell named ‘poo’ and a son’s birth can stop them from
reaching this hell,
2. To take forward the family tree and
3. To support them financially during old days.

Question 44.
Explain the relation of joint family system with that of birth rate.
Joint family system leads to high birth rate. When a child is born the financial responsibility, as well as the responsibility of raising that child, is shared by all the members of the family. Hence, the child does not become a burden and so people do not hesitate to give births. This increases the overall birth-rate.

Question 45.
What are the reasons for high infant mortality rate in India?
The main reasons for high infant mortality rate are poverty, less care given to girl child, lack of nutritional food, frequent abortions among women, age-old practice in the upbringing of a child, inadequate medical facilities, less gap between two children, etc.

Question 46.
Define fertility rate.
The number of children born out of every 1000 females belonging to the age group of 15-49 years is known as fertility rate.

Question 47.
What are the reasons for high fertility rate in India?
(a) Early marriage leads to longer fertility period for women and
(b) A very less number of women belonging to this fertile group are unmarried.

Question 48.
What is the meaning of ‘family planning’?
The decisions taken regarding the size of family and maintaining gap between two children based on proper understanding i.e. a planned parenthood is called family planning.

Question 49.
Mention some of the obstacles of family planning in India.
In India, poverty, lack of knowledge, social customs and religious beliefs combined with low level of education worked as obstacles to family planning.

Question 50.
How has the standard of living of people in India improved and what has it resulted to?
Rise in economic development has led to rise in people’s income which in turn has increased their standard of living. People of our country have now started getting better quality food grains, better housing, health care and education which has led to decrease in death-rate.

Question 51.
Name the diseases that prevailed in the beginning of 20th century.
Plague, measles, tuberculosis, malaria, etc.

Question 52.
What led to low death rate at the end of 20th century?
As country’s economy improved at the end of 20th century, it made astonishing progress in medical science and researched various vaccines for immunization. This resulted in control over diseases and decreased death-rate.

Question 53.
Define Green Revolution.
The Green Revolution in India was a period when agriculture in India increased its yields due to improved agronomic technology. Green Revolution allowed developing countries, like India, to overcome poor agricultural productivity.

Question 54.
How can starvation now prevented in drought hit areas?
Due to green revolution we could increase our supply of food grains considerably after 1966. Food grains can be easily transported from abundant areas to scarce areas and thus we can now prevent deaths related to starvation in drought hit areas.

Question 55.
Define population policy.
A population policy is a policy framed by a country’s government in order to take its population to a level that it feels is optimal.

Question 56.
Which is the best method of population control?
Awareness and mass education related to population control.

Question 57.
What changes were made in the family planning programme in the population policy, 2000?
It was decided to give more focus on preventing unwanted pregnancy by adopting suitable preventive methods rather than giving undue importance to sterilization.

Question 58.
What is the current age of marriage of male and female in India?
Male – 21 years and female – 18 years

Question 59.
Explain an important measure implemented by China for population control.
To discourage the rising population China has adopted a policy in which if a couple has more than two children than the government withdraws several facilities from that couple.

Question 60.
Which country introduced population policy in the world?
India

Question 1.
Why is it very important to study the population and its structure during the study of economics?

• The world population has crossed 7 billion mark and India’s population has reached 1.25 billion. It becomes the duty of the government of each nation to see that its population gets all the basic necessities and that the country’s economy grows.
• How a country’s resources will be utilized depends largely on its population.
• Over and above other factors the size and structure of population plays a major role in deciding the direction and volume of a country’s economy. For this, the country’s natural resources are most important because only with the help of natural resources, economic development becomes possible.

There are two aspects between population and natural resources. They are:

1. As population increases, the limited natural resources deplete fast and in the long run it becomes dangerous for the future generations.
2. When unskilled population rises, the natural resources will not be utilized in the best possible manner which proves to be a barrier for the economic development of a country.

As a result, tho study of population in an economy is extremely important because most of the problems in an economy are due to the high level of population.

Question 2.
State the important aspects between population and natural resources.
There are two aspects between population and natural resources. They are:

1. As population increases, the limited natural resources deplete fast and in the long run it becomes dangerous for the future generations.
2. When unskilled population rises, the natural resources will not be utilized in the best possible, manner which proves to be a barrier for the economic development of a country.

Question 3.
Explain briefly population explosion in India.
Population explosion in India:

• Our population has continuously increased between the years 1931 and 2011.
• In 1951, population of India was 36.1 crores. This increased to 121.02 crores in 2011. This means that within the span of 60 years India’s population has increased by 85.7 crores with an average growth rate of around 2.5 percent. 4
• In Indian context, a very high population with a quite high growth rate of population especially after 1970 is known as population explosion.

Question 4.
How can we understand the trend of population? How was census started in India? (2 marks)

• We can understand the trend of population of a region by studying, analyzing and interpreting demographic profile of population, size of population, population growth rate, birth-rate, death-rate, rural-urban population, proportion of female to male population, etc.
• Jamshedji Tata initiated the first population census in 1871. After that, a census was conducted in 1891 and thereafter it is done every 10 years.
• The first census of independent India was conducted in 1951.

Question 5.
Write a short note on size and growth rate of India’s population.
Size and growth of population:

• The total population in different periods is known as the size of the population.
• The growth rate of population in the size of the population during a given period is called the growth of population.

Size of India’s population and population growth rate (1901 to 2011)

 Year Population (In crores) Average yearly growth rate of population (Percent) 1901 23.8 +0.08 1911 25.2 +0.57 1921 25.1 -0.03 1931 27.9 +1.04 1941 31.9 +1.33 1951 36.1 +1.25 1961 43.9 +1.96 1971 54.8 +2.20 1981 68.3 +2.22 1991 84.6 +2.16 2001 102.9 +1.97 2011 121.02 +1.64

Source: Census of India, 2011

Analysis and conclusion:
1. The population grew at a slower rate between the first two decades i.e. 1901 and 1921. In the first decade i.e. 1901-1911, it grew by 0.57% where as in the second decade i.e. 1911-21 it decreased by 0.03% .
The main reason for this fall was the high death-rate. India faced frequent famines during that decade which then led to several diseases like cholera, plague, tuberculosis, malaria and influenza. Several people died of these diseases and so our death-rate was high compared to birth-rate.

2. We can see that apart from the year 1921, population has grown continuously in all the decades. Hence the year 1921 was considered as the ‘Year of great divide’.

3. The first five year plan started in India in 1951. At that time the population of India was 36.1 crores. Within five decades it rose to 102.9 crores. This means 66.6 crore more people were added into Indian population by 2001.

4. Presently, every year the population of India increases by 170 lakhs (i.e. 1.7 crore) every year.

5. China is the most populated country in the world with population of 134.10 crores. India is the second most populated country of the world. In 1911, India’s population was 25.2 crores and within one century, in 2011 it rose to 121.02 crores.

• Demographers forecasted that by the year 2000, India’s population will cross 100 crore mark and it proved to be correct.
• The 1997 World Development Report showed that India’s population was 93 crores. According to the census of 2011, between 2011 and 2025, population will grow to 139.98 crores.

Question 6.
Explain the gender distribution in India along with suitable data and its analysis.
We can know the male-female ratio in India by studying the number of males and females in different years in India.

Male-Female Ratio in India’s total population

Source: Census of India 2011

Analysis and Conclusion:

• The male as well as female population increased consistently because of the high population growth rate in period between 1951 and 2011.
• The male population was 51.37% in 1951 which increased to 51.54% in 2011. Thus, male population increased by 0.17% whereas female population decreased by 0.17%.
• The fall in female population is a negative sign for the future of our society which India has to handle.

Question 7.
Give a brief idea about the sex-ratio of various Indian states. Discuss the reasons for low gender ratio in India. (3 marks)
Sex-ratio in India:

• Except Kerala, all other Indian states have low female-male ratio.
• According to 2011 data, for every 1000 males, there were 1084 females in Kerala.
• As per the census of 2011, there were 918 females per 1000 males in ‘ Gujarat which is quite alarming.
• In 2011, the lowest gender ratio was found in Haryana where in for per 1000 males there were only 879 females.

Reasons for poor female-male ratio:

• Social, cultural as well as economic factors are responsible for the poor female-male ratio.
• In Indian society, the status of women has been low since ancient time. So, Indians never gave proper attention to nutrition, health, education and overall upbringing of daughters.
• Other reasons include the craze for male child and the dowry system.
• Moreover, child-marriage and frequent child births adversely affect the female health. This also increases the death-rate among minor and adult females.
• Medical science has made a considerable improvement. Using latest techniques people kill the child before its birth if it is found to be a female. It is a sad truth that this disparity or imbalance between females and males is more in economically prosperous states.
• To stop such unethical and illegal activities government has imposed ban on the process of detecting the sex of the child before its birth. But its implementation is largely on papers.

Question 8.
Explain in short gender-ration.
Gender (Sex) Ratio:

• The number of females in the country per 1000 males is known as gender ratio, sex ratio or female-male ratio.
• Gender ratio occupies an important place in the study of population. If the number of females is decreasing compared to males then it creates various problems in the country.
• If the gap between number of females and males increases then it leads to a number of problems related to marriage, family, reproduction, etc.
• By studying the gender-ratio we can find out the numbers and then focus our attention to understand the causes of adversity in gender ratio and efforts needed to solve them.

Question 9.
What is the importance of studying age-wise population?
Age-wise population of India:

• The classification of Indian population into various age groups is called age- wise population of India.
• The total population is divided into three age groups. They are:
1. 0-14 years,
2. 15-64 years and
3. 65 and more
• The study of age-wise population helps in understanding aspects like productive and unproductive age groups and hence, working and non-working population.
• Changes in death-rate and fertility rate affects the age-wise classification of population. This in turn affects in future affect the family size and the labour market.

Question 10.
Write a short-note bn India’s age-wise population.
Age-wise population of India:

• The classification of Indian population into various age groups is called age- wise population of India.
• The total population is divided into three age groups. They are:
1. 0-14 years,
2. 15-64 years and
3. 65 and more
• The study of age-wise population helps in understanding aspects like productive and unproductive age groups and hence, working and non-working population.
• Changes in death-rate and fertility rate affects age-wise classification of population. This in turn affects in future affect the family size and the labour market.

Age-wise population of India (in percentage)

Source: Census of India, 2011 ; ‘*’ = estimated

Analysis and conclusion:

• In 2005, people in the age group 0-14 were 32.78 percent which reduced to 29.21% in 2014. This shows a decrease in birth-rate.
• In 2005, 62.44% population was in the age group of 15-64 years which increased to 65.30% by 2014. This age group majorly consist of people who are working. Increase in the population in this age group leads to economic development of the country. Since this population has increased it is a good sign.

Question 11.
Discuss in detail the rural and urban population of India.
Rural and Urban Population of India:

• Studying the people residing in rural and urban areas helps to understand spread of people in the country. It then helps to learn about the rate of migration, urbanization, the infrastructural facilities that need to be created, etc.
• The rate of rural-urban population is influenced by various factors like employment, education, health, social life, quality of life, economic returns, occupation, etc.

Rural and urban population in India (In crores and percentage)

Analysis and conclusion:
1. Comparing the data of various periods we can see that there is a continuous rise in urban population and decrease in rural population. This means that there is a constant increase in urbanization.

• The constant rise poses several problems in the economy problems such as rise in slums and squalor and urban unemployment. The administering government may not be able to provide basic services like electricity, transportation, water, sanitation and waste management, etc. to unexpected rise in urban population.
• Due to improper waste management, pollution arises. Social evils occur in the form of crimes, theft, loots, etc.

2. There has been a fall in rural population. In 1901 rural population was 21.2 crores (89.1%) which increased to 83.02 crores (68%) In 2011. In terms of number the rural population has increased but while looking at the percentage we can see that there is a fall in rural population. This is because of lack of employment opportunities and the existence of widespread disguised unemployment and under employment. There are large scale employment opportunities in urban areas which force rural population to migrate to urban areas.

3. Urban population was 2.6 crores (10.9%) in 1901 which rose to 38 crores (32.0%) in 2011. The urban population has increased in every decade.

• The reason for rise in ùrban population is availability of various physical facilities like electricity, schools, colleges, theaters, housing, good roads, transportation, communication facilities, cultural and entertainment activities, facilities for good medical treatment, etc.
• Many people have also migrated from rural to urban areas because of abolition of zamindari system and control of sahukars on business.

Question 12.
There has been a constant rise in the urban population. Explain.

• Comparing the data of various periods we can see that there is a continuous rise in urban population and decrease in rural population.
• Urban population was 2.6 crores (10.9%) in 1901 which rose to 38 crores (32.0%) in 2011.
• Availability of various physical facilities like electricity, schools, colleges, theaters, housing, good roads, transportation, communication facilities, cultural and entertainment activities, facilities for good medical treatment, etc. has led to the constant increase in urban population.
• Many people have also migrated from rural to urban areas because of abolition of Zamindari system and control of sahukars on business.

Question 13.
There has been a constant decrease in the rural population. Explain.

• In 1901, rural population was 21.2 crores (89.1%) which increased to 83.02 crores (68%) in 2011. In terms of number, the rural population has increased but while looking at the percentage we can see that there is a fall in rural population. Majority of this decrease is due to migration of rural people into cities.
• Lack of employment opportunities and the existence of widespread disguised unemployment and under employment are among the chief reasons for decrease in rural population.
• There are large scale employment opportunities in urban areas which force rural population to migrate to urban areas.

Question 14.
How can one study the causes of population increase?
Causes of population increase:
Two factors affect population increase. They are:

1. Birth-rate and
2. Death- rate.
• The difference that arises between the birth-rate and death-rate becomes the cause of population increase. In other words, we can say that high birth-rate and low death-rate leads to population increase.
• Based on the difference we can study the causes of the difference and take measures to control population.

Question 15.
Explain birth-rate along with the help of data and analysis.
Birth-rate:

• The number of children born per every 1000 persons during any given year is known as birth-rate.
• Birth-rate = $$\frac{\text { The number of live-births in a given year }}{\text { Total population }}$$ × 1000
• Birth-rate is not measured on the basis of percentage but on the basis of rise in population per 1000 persons.
• The birth-rate data helps in deciding the population policy.

Birth-rate in India

 Year Birth rate(Per 1000 persons) 1951 39.9 2011 21.8

Source: Census of India, 2011

Analysis and conclusion:

• In 1951, the birth-rate in India was 39.9. This decreased to 21.8. The difference between these two years is 39.9 – 21.8 =18.1.
• Although the birth-rate has reduced, the reduction is less. The main reasons for this are low level of education, preference for male child, low income levels, etc.

Question 16.
Explain death-rate along with the help of data and analysis.
Death-rate:

• The number of persons per every 1000 persons during any given year is known as death-rate.
• Death-rate = $$\frac{\text { No. of people died in a given year }}{\text { Total population }}$$ × 1000
• Death-rate is not measured on the basis of percentage but on the basis of number of deaths per 1000 persons.
• The fall in population can be understood from the death-rate.
• By measuring the total deaths in a year the reduction in the population can be understood.

Death-rate in India

 Year Death rate (per 1000 persons) 1951 27.4 2011 07.1

Source: Census of India, 2011

Analysis and conclusion:

• In 1951 the death-rate in India was 27.4. This reduced to 7.1 in 2011. The difference between these two years is 27.4 – 7.1 = 20.3. The fall in death-rate is much higher than the fall in birth-rate which is 18.1 for the same period.
• The main reasons for reduction in death-rate are control over famines, improvement in quality of life, availability of nutritional food, increase and improvement in medical services, increases in education and its spread, improvement in medical science, research in the field of surgery, control of infectious diseases, etc.

Question 17.
State the main reasons for reduction in death-rate.
The main reasons for reduction in death-rate are control over famines, improvement in quality of life, availability of nutritional food, increase and improvement in medical services, increases in education and its spread, improvement in medical science, research in the field of surgery, control of infectious diseases, etc.

Question 18.
State and explain the social causes for high birth-rate.
Social factors:
1. Universality of marriage:

• In India marriage is a religious ritual. The society doubts an unmarried person and raises various questions about his/her singlehood.
• Many a times to escape from this, a man and a woman enter into the institution of marriage. Even disabled people are no exceptions.
• The number of woman marrying in India is high compared to woman of developed countries. Marriages then lead to rise in birth of children.

2. Early marriage and widow remarriage:

• Despite laws banning child marriage still it happens in many parts of our country. Since they get married very early, their fertility rate is very high and lengthy. This results in the birth of more number of children.
• India also follows a Widow Remarriage Act where in the widows are made to marry if they wish to. This also has resulted in high birth-rate.

3. Preference for a male child: The Indian society is dominated by males.

Indians give more importance to sons than daughters for the following three reasons:

• People believe that male child can make the family tree grow further.
• People believe male child will support them financially during old age.
• Due to these reasons people keep on trying for a male child unless they get one. This mad rush increases the family size and hence the birth-rate.

4. Joint family system:

• People in rural areas mainly live in joint families.
• When a child is born the financial responsibility, as well as the responsibility of raising that child, is shared by all the members of the family. Hence, the child does not become a burden and so people do not hesitate to give births. This increases the overall birth-rate.

Question 19.
Fear of society’s taunts increases birth-rate. Explain.
Social factors:
Universality of marriage:

• In India marriage is a religious ritual. The society doubts an unmarried person and raises various questions about his/her singlehood.
• Many a times to escape from this, a man and a woman enter into the institution of marriage. Even disabled people are no exceptions.
• The number of woman marrying in India is high compared to woman of developed countries. Marriages then lead to rise in birth of children.

Question 20.
How early marriage and widow remarriage leads to high birth-rate?
Early marriage and widow remarriage:

• Despite laws banning child marriage still it happens in many parts of our country. Since they get married very early, their fertility rate is very high and lengthy. This results in the birth of more number of children.
• India also follows a Widow Remarriage Act where in the widows are made to marry if they wish to. This also has resulted in high birth-rate.

Question 21.
State and explain the reasons for preference of male children by Indians.
Preference for a male child: The Indian society is dominated by males.

Indians give more importance to sons than daughters for the following three reasons:

• People believe that male child can make the family tree grow further.
• People believe male child will support them financially during old age.
• Due to these reasons people keep on trying for a male child unless they get one. This mad rush increases the family size and hence the birth-rate.

Question 22.
How does rural joint family system increases birth-rate?
Joint family system:

• People in rural areas mainly live in joint families.
• When a child is born the financial responsibility, as well as the responsibility of raising that child, is shared by all the members of the family. Hence, the child does not become a burden and so people do not hesitate to give births. This increases the overall birth-rate.

Question 23.
State and explain the economic causes for high birth-rate.
Economic factors:
1. Low level of education:

• Education, especially female education and population growth has a close relationship.
• Inadequate education makes it difficult to understand the need for small families and as a result the family size tends to become large.
• Education in female and the number of children in a family have an inverse relationship all over the world.
• It has been found that compared to illiterate women, the woman who has had primary education gives birth to less number of children. This statement also holds true also while comparing women having primary education with women having middle school education.
• From these facts, it can be said that the birth-rate is high because of illiteracy and low education.

2. Low income level:

• When the income level of a family is low, the birth-rate of a child is considered to be an asset rather than a burden. Such families believe in the saying of “more the merrier”.
• Members of such families think that child born will also contribute to income of the family in future and hence they should give birth to more children. We see such mindset in people living on roadside and slums.

3. High infant mortality rate:

• Out of every 1000 children born in a given year, the number of children that die within one year of age is known as infant mortality rate.
• Infant mortality rate is quite high in India in comparison to developed countries.
• The main reasons for high infant mortality rate are poverty, less care given to girl child, lack of nutritional food, frequent abortions among women, age- old practice in the upbringing of a child, inadequate medical facilities, less gap between two children, etc.

(C) Other factors:
1. High fertility rate:
Fertility rate refers to the number of children born out of every 1000 females belonging to the age group of 15-49 years.

• High fertility is an important characteristic of Indian population.
• In 1961, on an average a women belonging to this age group used to give birth to 6 children. This fell to 3 children in 2011. Still the number is quite high.

Reason for this characteristic are:

• Early marriage leads to longer fertility period for women.
• A very less number of women belonging to this fertile group are unmarried.

2. Lack of family planning information:

• The decisions taken regarding the size of family and maintaining gap between two children based on proper understanding i.e. a planned parenthood is called family planning.
• In India, poverty, social customs and religious beliefs combined with low level of education worked as obstacles to family planning.
• Lack of knowledge regarding the tools of family planning and sometimes scarcity of such tools also leads to high birth-rate

Question 24.
An illiterate woman gives more births than a literate one. Explain.
OR
There is a close relationship between female education and population growth. Explain.
Low level of education:

• Education, especially female education and population growth has a close relationship.
• Inadequate education makes it difficult to understand the need for small families and as a result the family size tends to become large.
• Education in female and the number of children in a family have an inverse relationship all over the world.
• It has been found that compared to illiterate women, the woman who has had primary education gives birth to less number of children. This statement also holds true also while comparing women having primary education with women having middle school education.
• From these facts, it can be said that the birth-rate is high because of illiteracy and low education.

Question 25.
‘More the merrier’. Explain.
Low income level:

• When the income level of a family is low, the birth-rate of a child is considered to be an asset rather than a burden. Such families believe in the saying of “more the merrier”.
• Members of such families think that child born will also contribute to income of the family in future and hence they should give birth to more children. We see such mindset in people living on roadside and slums.

Question 26.
What is infant mortality rate? Why is it very high in India?
High infant mortality rate:

• Out of every 1000 children born in a given year, the number of children that die within one year of age is known as infant mortality rate.
• Infant mortality rate is quite high in India in comparison to developed countries.
• The main reasons for high infant mortality rate are poverty, less care given to girl child, lack of nutritional food, frequent abortions among women, age-old practice in the upbringing of a child, inadequate medical facilities, less gap between two children, etc.

Question 27.
What is fertility rate? In which age group is the fertility rate very high? What are its negative outcomes?
High fertility rate:
Fertility rate refers to the number of children born out of every 1000 females belonging to the age group of 15-49 years.

• High fertility is an important characteristic of Indian population.
• In 1961, on an average a women belonging to this age group used to give birth to 6 children. This fell to 3 children in 2011. Still the number is quite high.

Reason for this characteristic are:

• Early marriage leads to longer fertility period for women.
• A very less number of women belonging to this fertile group are unmarried.

Question 28.
How does a person’s ignorance towards family planning increases birth-rate?
Lack of family planning information:

• The decisions taken regarding the size of family and maintaining gap between two children based on proper understanding i.e. a planned parenthood is called family planning.
• In India, poverty, social customs and religious beliefs combined with low level of education worked as obstacles to family planning.
• Lack of knowledge regarding the tools of family planning and sometimes scarcity of such tools also leads to high birth-rate

Question 29.
What is infant mortality rate? Explain with the help of data and analysis.
Infant mortality rate:
Out of every 1000 children born in a given year, the number of children that die within one year of age is known as infant mortality rate.

Infant Mortality Rate in India

 Year Infant Mortality Rate (for every 1000 live births) 1951 146 2011 41.40

Source: www.data.worldbank.org

• In India, Infant mortality rate in 1951 was 146 which fell to 41.40 in 2011 but still, this rate is considered to be quite high.
• Infant mortality rate is quite high in India in comparison to developed countries.

Reasons for high infant-mortality:
The main reasons for high infant mortality rate are poverty, less care given to girl child, lack of nutritional food, frequent abortions among women, age- old practice in the upbringing of a child, inadequate medical facilities, less gap between two children, etc.

Question 30.
State the reasons for high infant-mortality rate in India.
Reasons for high infant-mortality:
The main reasons for high infant mortality rate are poverty, less care given to girl child, lack of nutritional food, frequent abortions among women, age- old practice in the upbringing of a child, inadequate medical facilities, less gap between two children, etc.

Question 31.
How control over epidemics has resulted in low-death rate in India?
Control over epidemics:

• In the beginning of 20th century, India was struggling with life threatening diseases like, plague, measles, tuberculosis, malaria, etc. So the death-rate was high.
• By the end of 20th century India achieved good economic development. As country’s economy improved it made astonishing progress in medical science and researched various vaccines for immunization. This resulted in control over diseases and decreased death-rate.

Question 32.
How control over draughts has resulted in low-death rate in India?
Control over drought:

• With advancement in science and technology we have gained control over droughts. As a result, the deaths caused by hunger do not take place now.
• Due to green revolution we could increase our supply of food grains considerably after 1966. Food grains can be easily transported from abundant areas to scarce areas and thus we could prevent deaths related to starvation in draught hit areas.

Question 33.
Transport facilities have reduced death-rate. Explain.
Protection against natural calamities and transportation facilities:

• Earlier natural calamities like earth quake, tsunami, landslides, floods, famines, floods, etc. led to high death-rate.
• Our transportation facilities have become very fast. So, if a natural calamity takes place in any part of the country, then we can provide immediate relief to the affected region from another region. We can now quickly transport basic requirement like food grains, medicines, etc. to the affected region. This has reduced the death-rate.

Question 34.
Write a short note on mass education and awareness as a measure to control population.
Mass education and awareness:

• In order to reduce birth-rate it is necessary to make people realise the importance of small families. Demographers believe that the best method of population control is to educate people in this regard.
• Awareness should be spread by telecasting various programmes through media. Lectures, .seminars, plays, mock and songs should be arranged in schools and colleges to educate people and create awareness on population control.
• In year 2000, government put a special emphasis on upliftment of women in its population policy. Such initiatives can help drastically to control population.

Question 35.
How can family planning programme be made more effective?
Effectiveness of family planning programme:
Government increased its family planning services so that family planning programme and its public awareness can be made more effective.

• It is essential that contraceptives which play a major role in preventing birth¬rate are available to people easily and at cheap rates.
• In the population policy of 2000, changes were made in the programme related to family planning. It was decided to give more focus on preventing unwanted pregnancy by adopting suitable preventive methods rather than giving undue importance to sterilization.

Question 36.
Increasing the age of marriage and raising the status of women is a way to the rising population. Explain.
Increasing the age of marriage and raising the status of women:

• One of the ways to reduce birth-rate is by increasing the legal age of marriage particularly for women.
• In the population policy of 2000, it was emphasized to increase the age of marriage for women from 18 to 20 years.
• The size of family can be controlled if the status of women is increased in the society and if equal opportunities are given to both men and women in the matters of education and employment.

Question 37.
How encouragement and discouragement measures of government control population?
Encouragement and discouragement:

• The encouragement and discouragement offered by the Government play a very important role in family planning. For example, government gives financial compensation to those couples who undergo sterilization.
• To discourage the rising population China has adopted a policy in which if a couple has more than two children than the government withdraws several facilities from that couple. However, China has relaxed this policy to some extent. This discourages the couples to give birth to more than 1 child. Similar policy can be adopted in India as well.
• In India, people contesting for local self-government elections are disqualified if they have more than two children.

Question 38.
Expanding medical services and its effectiveness can help population control. Explain.
Expanding medical services and its effectiveness:

• In India death-rate has come down but it is still higher than some of the developed countries. Advancement in medical science has increased the services and facilities for child birth and health of the new born.
• Efforts should be made to see that vaccination facilities are available easily and everywhere. Awareness regarding communicable and sexual diseases like AIDS, various infections, etc. should be increased. This can help to reduce death-rate and infant mortality rate.
• India was the first county in the world to introduce population policy to control population. A committee was set up to frame New Population Policy of 2000 under the Chairmanship of Dr. M.S. Swaminathan.

Question 39.
State the highlights of National Population Policy 2000.

• India framed its National Population Policy in 2000 under the chairmanship of Dr. M.S Swaminathan.-
• Under this policy India made various changes in its programme related to family planning.
• India decided to give more focus on preventing unwanted pregnancy by adopting suitable preventive methods rather than giving undue importance to sterilization.
• Special emphasis was given on upliftment of women.
• Proposal was made to increase the age of marriage for women from 18 to 20 years.

Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
What is India’s present population?
(A) 1.1 billion
(B) 1.25 billion
(C) 1.5 billion
(D) 1.75 billion
(B) 1.25 billion

Question 2.
The increase in population and depletion of natural resources leads to ________
(A) Death of humans
(B) Difficulty in survival of future generations
(C) Economic development
(D) Low level of education
(B) Difficulty in survival of future generations

Question 3.
‘Death rate falls rapidly as compared to birth rate’. This is known as ________
(A) Population explosion
(B) Population trends
(C) Population gap
(D) Both (A) and (C)
(A) Population explosion

Question 4.
The average rate of growth of population India has been
(A) 1.5%
(B) 2%
(C) 2.5%
(D) 3%
(C) 2.5%

Question 5.
After which year is the growth of population known as population explosion in India?
(A) 1947
(B) 1975
(C) 1970
(D) 1950
(C) 1970

Question 6.
Which of the following is included in the trends of population?
(A) Birth rate
(B) Rural-urban population
(C) Proportion of female to male population
(D) All of these
(D) All of these

Question 7.
When was the first population census conducted in India?
(A) 1871
(B) 1891
(C) 1900
(D) 1901
(A) 1871

Question 8.
What is the total population in different periods and the rate of growth of population in that given period of time known as?
(A) Population explosion
(B) Population growth rate
(C) Population gap
(D) Population trend
(B) Population growth rate

Question 9.
In which year was the census of India last conducted?
(A) 2001
(B) 2011
(C) 2016
(D) 2015
(B) 2011

Question 10.
What was the population of India in the year 1981?
(A) 68.3 crores
(B) 84.6 crores
(C) 54.8 crores
(D) 102.9 crores
(A) 68.3 crores

Question 11.
What was the main reason of decrease in the population rate in the year 1911-1921?
(A) Awareness of population explosion
(B) High death rate
(C) Low birth rate
(D) Increase in women education
(B) High death rate

Question 12.
Which year is considered to be the ‘year of great divide’?
(A) 1901
(B) 1911
(C) 1921
(D) 1931
(C) 1921

Question 13.
In present times, population of India increase by every year.
(A) 150 lakh
(B) 160 lakh
(C) 165 lakh
(D) 170 lakh
(D) 170 lakh

Question 14.
What is the rank order of India in terms of population?
(A) First
(B) Second
(C) Third
(D) Fifth
(B) Second

Question 15.
What was the percentage of male population in India in the year 2011?
(A) 51.54%
(B) 48.46%
(C) 59.16%
(D) 60.11%
(A) 51.54%

Question 16.
The gender ratio is calculated as ‘females per males’
(A) 100
(B) 1000
(C) 10000
(D) 100000
(B) 1000

Question 17.
In 2011, the lowest female population per 1000 males was 879 in state of India.
(A) Kerala
(B) Haryana
(C) Punjab
(B) Haryana

Question 18.
What was the female population (per 1000 males) in India in the year 2001?
(A) 918
(B) 940
(C) 943
(D) 933
(D) 933

Question 19.
What was the female population (per 1000 males) in Gujarat in the year 2011?
(A) 918
(B) 940
(C) 943
(D) 933
(A) 918

Question 20.
How irvjch population belonged to the age group 0-14 years in the year 2014?
(A) 29.21%
(B) 32.78%
(C) 5.49%
(D) 25%
(A) 29.21%

Question 21.
Which of the following factors influence rural-urban population?
(A) Education
(B) Quality of life
(C) Economic returns
(D) All of these
(D) All of these

Question 22.
Out of the total population of India, in the year 2011, how much was the percentage of rural population approximately?
(A) 38%
(B) 83%
(C) 60%
(D) 40%
(B) 83%

Question 23.
________ has led to increase in social evils like theft, crimes, loot, etc.
(A) Increase in population
(B) Increase in birth rate
(C) Increase in urban population
(D) Lack of education in rural areas
(C) Increase in urban population

Question 24.
What was the death rate of India in the year 1951?
(A) 07.1
(B) 27.4
(C) 25
(D) 30
(B) 27.4

Question 25.
Which of the following is a reason for fall in death rate?
(A) Decrease in education level
(B) Low income levels
(C) Nutritional food
(D) All of these
(C) Nutritional food

Question 26.
Which of the following is the social factor causing high birth-rate?
(A) Universality of marriage
(B) Low level of education
(C) High fertility rate
(D) High infant mortality rate
(A) Universality of marriage

Question 27.
Which of the following is an economic factor that causes high birth-rate?
(A) Lack of family planning
(B) Low level of education
(C) Low level income
(D) Both (B) and (C)
(D) Both (B) and (C)

Question 28.
Out of every 1000 children born in a given year, the number of children that die within one year of age is known as
(A) Child death rate
(B) Death rate
(C) Infant mortality rate
(D) Birth rate
(C) Infant mortality rate

Question 29.
What was the infant mortality rate in India in the year 2011?
(A) 41.4
(B) 40
(C) 46.7
(D) 45.5
(A) 41.4

Question 30.
Females of which age group are considered while calculating the fertility rate??
(A) 15 – 64 years
(B) 15 – 49 years
(C) 18 -49 years
(D) 21 – 49 years
(B) 15 – 49 years

Question 31.
Which of the following factors acts as an obstacle to proper family planning?
(A) Social customs
(B) Rural population
(C) Lack of good standard of living
(D) Early marriage
(A) Social customs

Question 32.
Which of the following is not a life threatening disease?
(A) Tuberculosis
(B) Malaria
(C) Plague
(D) Thyroid
(D) Thyroid

Question 33.
In which year did green revolution take place in India?
(A) 1949
(B) 1953
(C) 1966
(D) 1971
(C) 1966

Question 34.
In which year’s population policy was the upliftment of women emphasized?
(A) 1991
(B) 2001
(C) 2000
(D) 2005
(C) 2000

Question 35.
According to the demographers, is the best method of population control.
(A) Education
(B) Family planning programme
(C) Increasing the age of marriage
(D) Incentives and disincentives
(A) Education

Question 36.
What is the age of women for marriage?
(A) 21
(B) 18
(C) 20
(D) 15
(B) 18

Question 37.
________ has adopted disincentives or discouragement to control rising population.
(A) India
(B) Nepal
(C) China
(D) Japan
(C) China

Question 38.
Which is the first country in the world to introduce population policy to control population?
(A) India
(B) Nepal
(C) China
(D) Japan
(A) India

Question 39.
Who was’the chairman of the committee which was formed to make population policy?
(A) Jamshedji Tata
(B) Swaminathan
(B) Swaminathan

Question 40.
Which years had the highest average yearly growth rate (+2.22%) of population according to the reports of census of India, 2011?
(A) 1971-1981
(B) 1981-1991
(C) 1991-2001
(D) 2001-2011
(A) 1971-1981

Question 41.
What was the population of India in the year 1951?
(A) 36.1 crores
(B) 43.9 crores
(C) 54.8 crores
(D) 68.3 crores
(A) 36.1 crores

Question 42.
In which years did the ‘Beti Bachao’ programme come into existence?
(A) 1901-1931
(B) 1991-2001
(C) 2001-2011
(D) 1961-1991
(C) 2001-2011

Question 43.
According to census of India, 2011, what was the estimated percentage of ‘65 and more’ year’s age group population of India?
(A) 5.49%
(B) 4.78%
(C)5.11%
(D) 5.3%
(A) 5.49%

Question 44.
In the year 1951, what was the urban population (in percentage) out of the total population?
(A) 10.9%
(B) 23.28%
(C) 32%
(D) 17.2%
(D) 17.2%

Question 45.
Birth Rate = ( ________ /Total population) × 1000
(A) The number of live births in a given year
(B) The number of infant mortality
(C) The number of births in a given month
(D) In a given month the number of births – number of deaths
(A) The number of live births in a given year

Question 46.
What was the birth rate in India in the year 1951?
(A) 2\$ .8
(B) 35.6
(C) 39.9
(D) 40.4
(C) 39.9

Question 47.
What was the death rate in India in the year 2011?
(A) 27.4
(B) 10.6
(C) 08.3
(D) 07.1