Our Revision Notes for GSEB Class 10 Social Science Notes Chapter 6 Places of Indian Cultural Heritage summarises the key points of a chapter and useful resource to prepare effectively for the upcoming board exams.
Places of Indian Cultural Heritage Class 10 GSEB Notes Social Science Chapter 6
Places of Indian Cultural Heritage Class 10 GSEB Notes
→ The cultural heritage of India is very rich and prosperous.
→ Caves of Ajanta are situated in Aurangabad district near Ajanta village.
→ The caves are divided into two divisions:
- Caves based on wall paintings
- Caves based on sculpture.
→ In 1819 AD, an English captain John Smith rediscovered them.
→ It is a magnificent example of initial Buddhist Vastu art of paintings and sculpture.
→ Caves of Ellora are situated at Aurangabad district in Maharashtra. There are 34 caves in all. In them,
- 1-12 Buddhist caves
- 13-29 Hindu caves, and
- 30-34 Jain caves.
→ Hindu caves are built during the reign of Rashtrakutas.
→ Kailash temple of cave No. 16 is magnificent.
→ Elephanta caves are built 12 km away from Mumbai in Maharashtra.
→ Many beautiful figures have been carved out of them. The magnificent Trimurti Temple in cave N0.1 is the best specimen of sculpture. Local fishermen call it ‘Dhara Puri’.
→ Mahabalipuram is located 60 km away from Chennai. Seven chariot temples were built here. Two of them have submerged in the sea.
→ There is an idol of Goddess Durga slaying Mahisasura is worth seeing.
→ Pattadakal, the capital of Chalukya dynasty, is 16 km away from Badami Nagar and Dravidian style of architecture. Virupaksha temple is the biggest temple in Pattadakal.
→ Khajuraho temple is located in a small village named Khajuraho at Chhattarpur district of Madhya Pradesh.
→ Mostly Shaiva (Shiva) temples are situated here.
→ The toran of the temple is the best example of ornamental style of architecture.
→ Khajuraho temples were constructed in Naagar style of Art.
→ Sun temple of Konark is situated at Puri in Odisha. It was constructed by the Narsinh Varman-I of Garg dynasty. It has 12 massive wheels and each wheel has eight spokes.
→ This temple has been built of black stones. It is called as ‘black pagoda’ in Odisha.
→ Brihadeshwar temple is located at Tanjore in Tamil Nadu was built by Rajaraja-I of Chola dynasty.
→ It is Shiva temple so it is also called Brihadeshwar.
→ The height of this temple is 500 feet, its width is 250 feet. Its summit is 200 feet high above the ground.
→ Qutub Minar is located in Delhi. It was built by Qutub-ud-din Aibak and was completed by his son-in-law llltutmish.
→ It is 72.5 m tall skyscraper made out of red stone and marble.
→ Hampi is situated on the bank of river Tungabhadra of Hospet, in Bellary district of Karnataka. Hampi, it was the capital city of Vijayanagar kingdom.
→ The main feature of architecture style of Vijayanagar was to carved out huge and magnificent pillars from the stones.
→ Pillars and columns were made artistically adorned with the figures of gods goddesses, humans, animals, warriors and dancers.
→ During the reign of Krishnadevaraya, the Vitthala temple and Hajara temple, were built besides it.
→ After the death of Humayun, his wife queen ‘Hammeda Begum’ built his tomb in Iranian style of art.
→ Agra Fort is made up of red stones, so it is also known as Red Fort. It was built by Akbar in 1565 AD. The fort has 70 feet tail wall with 1.5 mile circumference. No cracks can be seen on the wall.
→ The architectural style of Bengal and Gujarat on Jahangir Palace can be seen clearly.
→ Shahjahan had spent the last days of his life in this fort.
→ Taj Mahal is located at Agra in UP. It is one of the seven wonders of the world.
→ Shahjahan constructed in the memory of his wife Mumtaz Mahal.
→ The grave of Mumtaz Mahal lies in the centre of Taj. It is surrounded by beautiful artistic octagonal fence, carved out of stone.
→ Red Fort is located in Delhi. It was built by Shahjahan in 1638.
→ Shahjahan founded the city namely Shahjahanabad in the same fort, which was named after him.
→ This fort includes Diwan-e-Aam, Diwan-e-Khas is more magnificent decorated than other buildings.
→ The buildings of Red Fort are Rang Mahal, Mirror Palace of Mumtaz, Lahori Gate, Meena Bazaar and Mughal Garden, etc.
→ Fatehpur Sikri is 26 miles away from Agra in UP. Akbar has founded this city in the memory of Sufi saint Shaikh Salim Chisti. He made it his own capital city.
→ Buland Darwaza of Fatehpur Sikri is 41 m wide and 50 m high.
→ The palace of Jodhabai, Panch Mahal, Tomb of Saikh Salim Chisti, Diwan-e-Aam, Diwan-e- Khas and Jyotish Mahal are well-known buildings of Sikri.
→ Many churches were built in Goa like churches of Besilica of Gom Jesus and Besalica of God Jesus are in old Goa.
→ The relics of St. Francis Xavier is kept in a coffin in a church of Goa. Beside there are many churches in Goa.
→ Goa is well renowned for its beautiful beaches and its artistic churches.
→ Champaner is situated in the foothills of Pavagadh at Halol taluka in Panchmahal district of Gujarat.
→ After the victory of Champaner, Mahmud Begada gave it the position of capital and named it Muhammadabad.
→ Moti Masjid, Jama Masjid and Historical fort are different buildings in Champaner.
→ Gujarat has the foremost place in the field of sculpture and architecture:
→ Dholaveera is situated in Khadirbet at Bhachau taluka in Kuchchh district.
→ About 5000 years ago, bead-making factories and ornamental making shells were found from Dholaveera.
→ Lothal is situated near Ahmedabad-Bhavnagar Highway is an architectural place.
→ In Junagadh, stone inscription of Ashoka, Buddhist caves of Khapra Kodiya, Vav, old Rajmahal, Navghan Well, tomb of Mahabat Khan and tomb of Bahauddin Vazir’s etc. places are worth seeing.
→ Fort of Bhadra, Jama Masjid, Mosque of Queen Sipri, Roza of Sarkhej, Kankariya lake, Shaking Minaret, Sidi Saiyed Jali (Grill), Hathi Sinh temple, etc. are worth seeing in Ahmedabad.
→ Sahastralinga lake in Patan, Stepwell of Queen and Rudra Mahalaya of Siddhapur are worth seeing architectures.
→ Temples of South India are famous for their unique style. They were made in Dravid style of art. They are in pyramidal-shaped with multistoreys.
→ Gimar, Shetrunjaya Pradakshina and Narmada Pradakshina have great importance.
→ Hence, 32 monuments of Indian cultural and natural heritage have been included in the world heritage site by the UNESCO.
Places of Indian Cultural Heritage Class 10 GSEB Notes Important Terms
• Chaitya: Chaityas means temple halls for Buddhist monks.
• Vihar: It means Buddhist monasteries where Buddhist monks reside and study.
• Black pagoda: Konark Sun temple has been built by black stones. Hence, it is known as “black pagoda”.
• Pilgrimage: A place having spiritual, environmental and religious importance in sculptural, architectural and natural elements point of view is known as pilgrimage.
• Stepwell: Vav
• Diwan-e-Khas: A decorated building
• Taj Mahal: One among the seven wonders of the world.
• Hampi: The capital city of Vijayanagar empire.
• The Age Fort: Made in Irani style.